Spanish dock workers union

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Mark.
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Mar 21 2017 21:19

Negotiations resumed today - twitter thread in Spanish that isn't optimistic about the outcome:

https://mobile.twitter.com/mundoestiba/status/844203115905736705

https://mobile.twitter.com/mundoestiba/status/844284527061159937

One suggestion here is that the government side is looking to get parliamentary support back rather than negotiate seriously with the dockworkers.

Mark.
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Mar 22 2017 16:24

Report (in Spanish) on yesterday's negotiations:

http://www.europasur.es/maritimas/subrogacion-estibadores-principal-escollo-acuerdo_0_1119788120.html

Coordinadora meeting in Madrid today to discuss the negotiations:

https://mobile.twitter.com/SoyCoordinadora/status/844491154628390913

Mark.
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Mar 23 2017 00:06

Coordinadora press statement:

¿Garantía de empleo para los estibadores o no?

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fingers malone
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Mar 23 2017 07:50

Hey really useful thread Mark

ajjohnstone
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Mar 23 2017 08:07

Was it a Mick Parkins (?) who wrote a pamphlet on the dockers and the Coordinadora. He was host of CNT postal section visiting Edinburgh and Glasgow mail centres (EH had just had a walk-out so she witnessed our strike meeting) a couple of decades ago and i also hold a vague memory of him explaining that all that recallable bits in constitutions have proven meaningless since he knew of no occasion that it was ever evoked

Mark.
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Mar 24 2017 09:56
ajjohnstone wrote:
Was it a Mick Parkins (?) who wrote a pamphlet on the dockers and the Coordinadora.

That sounds quite possible but I can't remember seeing the pamphlet and it doesn't seem to be online anywhere. Edit: Mick Parkin gets a mention in this report on the 1997 CGT congress in the context of organising a visit by Liverpool dockers to speak to CGT and Coordinadora dockworkers:

https://libcom.org/library/1997-cgt-conference-spain

Mark.
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Mar 23 2017 18:18
fingers malone wrote:
Hey really useful thread Mark

Thanks. I'm still surprised that the dispute hasn't attracted more attention outside Spain. I'm not sure what the PP government are trying to do but it looks as if they may be aiming to force a confrontation and a strike. I don't really see what they expect to gain from it though. Maybe I'm missing something.

Mark.
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Mar 23 2017 21:10

Articles about the Coordinadora written by Stan Weir in the 80s
(pages 151-163):

https://libcom.org/library/singlejack-solidarity-stan-weir

Mark.
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Mar 25 2017 00:05

Raquel Varela - Why dock workers can change the world

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=1paOv1xdwQY

Ragnar
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Mar 25 2017 18:23

As far as I'm concerned and because of the essence of the Spanish right, the PP never gives its arm to twist if it is not for a social conflict, strike or pressure on the street.
If I am not mistaken, the PP tries to follow a neoliberal policy in the naval sector. Liberalize and outsource functions, subcontract and precarious working conditions. It tries to damage 2000 of a total of 7000 workers in the naval sector and promises that it will maintain the 5000 jobs. This question has never been fulfilled since the Spanish naval reconversion of the 1980s and 1990s, adding that working conditions will worsen.

syndicalist
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Mar 25 2017 19:47

Mick Parkins....another winner

Mark.
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Mar 26 2017 22:55

This is an interesting interview with Ana Corrales, a dock worker in Barcelona. It's more about her personal experience, both in terms of working conditions and what it's like being a woman in what is still a male dominated workplace. I'll try and post something about what she says when I have time.

“No es ningún secreto. Estas son las condiciones en las que trabajamos”

Mark.
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Mar 29 2017 09:20

Another article along the same lines on the experiences of four dockworkers in different Spanish ports. The pay of dockworkers seems to be a contentious issue, with some apparently exaggerated claims being made of average annual earnings of over €60,000. No one is disputing that they are well paid but the figures given for the individuals interviewed for this article are all significantly lower; Daniel Miguel (Bilbao) €30,000-40,000, Rosa Dilla (Barcelona) under €40,000, Santiago Medina (Gran Canaria) under €40,000, Esther Lázaro (Valencia) under €50,000. Dockworkers' earnings are variable and depend very much on how busy the ports are. Earnings at smaller, quieter ports are likely to be significantly lower than these figures. This is all for shift work which is potentially quite dangerous. Beyond this I haven't seen anything that I'd really consider to be a reliable source on average earnings, despite the figures repeatedly quoted in different articles.

Retrato de la estiba: el conflicto de los estibadores en cuatro esquinas de España

Edit: report from Cartagena, one of the smaller ports.

No somos unos privilegiados ni tenemos 'supersueldos'

Mark.
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Mar 29 2017 00:35

Barcelona dockworkers banner:

https://mobile.twitter.com/Dockers_ES/status/846874610259939328/photo/1

Mark.
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Apr 3 2017 14:03

Interview with a dockworker from Almería:

Entrevista a Gabriel Sánchez, estibador del puerto de Almería

Ragnar
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Apr 4 2017 14:30

It´s in catalá but with google translate I think that is easy understand.

https://directa.cat/chicharra-assemblea-motor-de-lluita

Mark.
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Apr 4 2017 19:01

I struggle with Catalan, but that's a useful article. It does suggest that the Coordinadora have managed to counteract some of the negative effects of the works committee system by maintaining weekly mass meetings and ensuring committee members continue with their usual work rather than turning into union full timers. The article is mainly about the port of Barcelona where all the committee members are Coordinadora. I suspect this may help to keep the works committee system in check, and that one of the problems for other radical unions that take part in works committee elections (the CGT and other smaller unions, but not the CNT) is that they are rarely in the majority, with the wider workforce being left without much direct control over the activity of the committees.

Mark.
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Apr 7 2017 19:07

Academic article from 2011:

Mònica Clua-Losada - Trading solidarity: dockworkers and the EU liberalisation of port services

Quote:
Abstract:
This paper discusses the implications that the free trading of labour can have on workers solidarity. The idea of the free trading of labour is introduced as a way to explore the implications of new modes of neoliberal governance within the EU which are increasingly focusing on the free trading of services, therefore, having direct implications on how labour is understood and, more importantly, regulated. To do so, it focuses on European dockworkers and their struggle during the 2000s against the two EU directives designed to liberalise port services (EU directives on Market Access to Port Services). Considering that European dockworkers have, so far, successfully challenged the liberalising attempts of the Commission, the paper contributes to our understanding of successful transnational trade union action.

rtve radio broadcasts:

Spanish Dock Workers (I) - 30/03/17

Quote:
It was an historic moment: Spain's Parliament voted down a government decree that aims to dismantle the dock working sector. The European Commission has demanded Spain "liberalize" the sector, opening it to competition, but the government's response to the EC directive entailed far more draconian measures, eliminating jobs and labor rights within three years. The Dock Workers have said they will comply with the EC directive, but rejected the decree. The government has shied from negotiations but now must join the port businesses and the workers at the table. Today's program includes part of a conversation about this important labor dispute, in its historical context, with Professor Mónica Clua-Losada (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley). You can hear the rest of this conversation tomorrow.

Spanish Dock Workers II - Contexts - 31/03/17

Quote:
In today's program we talk with Mònica Clua Losada, professor of Political Science at the University of Texas and Barcelona's Pompeu Fabra University, whose work has specialized in labor conflict and austerity. She provides an historic context for the current docking sector dispute in Spain and analyzes the specifics as they relate to European policy, globalization, "the race to the bottom", international solidarity and resistance.

Mònica Clua-Losada's dissertation on the Liverpool dockers dispute:

http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/1137/1/thesis_MCL_2010.pdf

Mark.
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Apr 10 2017 12:39

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=rR3DrE1DJtc

Quote:

Published on 9 Apr 2017 . Bilbo dockers can rock
Musika: Bilbo Dockers

Alfonso: Bateria
Natxo: Bajo
Mikel: Guitarra solista
Hibai: Guitarra y voz
Iñaki: Voz y Armonica
Juanan: Voz
Feat: Xabi Valle (Gaita)

Grabado en Gorila estudios (Bolueta), por Borja F. Mono
en Marzo de 2017.

Camaras y Video: Gorka, Juanma & Dockers

Edicion y Montaje: Estibadores de juguette

(Cast)
De forma altruista algunos musicos que trabajamos en puerto de Bilbao como estibadores nos hemos unido para rendir homenaje a la lucha que se esta llevando a cabo entorno al futuro de nuestra profesion. Esta cancion para tod@s l@s estibador@s del mundo y para toda la gente que quiera disfrutar de ella: Musicos desde el Hard rock, Metal, folk, pop, acustica y punk, hemos unido nuestras fuerzas en esta causa "Arte-sana".

(Eus)
Bilboko kaian zamaketari lanetan gabiltzan musikari batzuk, gure indarrak batu ditugu gure ogibidearen inguruko borroka babesteko. Munduko zamaketari guztientzako kanta hau grabatu dugu, baita ere abestiaz gozatu nahi duen beste edonorentzat. Musika alor desberdinetan hazitako kideak gara: Hard rocka, Metala, Folk, pop, akustiko ta punka besteak beste.

(Ing)
Musician Dockers from the port of Bilbao have joined to create a song about the defense of our work on the docks. We´ve recorded a song for dockers all around the world and to the rest of people if they want enjoy it. We unite our different musical styles: Hard rock, Metal, Folk, pop, acoustic and punk for this cause.

Mark.
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Apr 11 2017 18:30

Some old videos from the Coordinadora youtube channel:

30 años de Coordinadora Estatal de Estibadores Portuarios
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=50RdEL93UO8

.
Canción de los Estibadores Portuarios
https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=rLfpD-UAfNw

Mark.
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Apr 13 2017 23:17
Mark. wrote:

Article from a Spanish leftist site that makes some good points before losing me towards the end with the writer's political project.

Estibadores: el Sí Se Puede de la clase obrera

Here's an English translation from the Left Voice site. The original article from Izquierda Diario was published on the day the decree was voted down.

Dockworkers: the “can do” of the working class

Editor’s note - March 16 saw the Spanish parliament vote against the Royal Decree Law that sought to scrap the country’s port labor system. The decree put forward by the conservative Partido Popular (PP - People’s Party) government was voted down - 175 votes against, 142 in favor and 33 abstentions. Crucially, 32 of these abstentions came from the center-right Ciudadanos (Citizens) party that helps to prop up the minority Partido Popular government. This vote is the first time in nearly four decades that a royal decree has been rejected by the Spanish parliament.

The simple threat of a strike was enough to ensure the overturning of the anti-worker Royal Decree Law drawn up by conservative leader Mariano Rajoy. The “no” vote was not just a blow for the current Partido Popular government but also for the EU Court of Justice and its threat of sanctions.

One of the most concentrated, unionized and coordinated sectors of the labor movement has flexed its “muscle”, which this time round was enough to stop the parties of the post-Franco regime from voting for the “national interest” as they have done in the past. The threat of a strike was not only to have economical consequences - an estimated potential loss of 50 million Euros a day - but also political consequences. The flexing of this political “muscle” raised the specter of a big labor dispute taking center stage in Spain, one that could potentially recreate the solidarity and militancy of the Spanish coal miners’ dispute of 2012 and direct this at all those who voted “yes”. This is a scenario that the social-democratic Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE - Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party) fears as it enters its worst crisis in recent history.

If anything, what this demonstrates is that - despite all the skepticism about social mobilization and all the illusions in “storming heaven” through institutional means – determined class struggle is the way to defeat a government and the European institutions which shield its anti-labor policies. But not only that, it is also the way to open up the opportunity to bring the “democracy of the IBEX35” (the Spanish stock exchange) to an end and impose a program that makes the capitalists pay for the crisis.

As the media have pointed out, parliament’s rejection of the Royal Decree Law is historic. It has only happened twice since 1979, and one of these was by accident. Not only that, but among the “no” voters were key social-democratic PSOE deputies. These deputies belong to the same “socialist” party that, under pressure from the European Union (EU) and the financial markets, amended Article 135 of the Spanish Constitution in 2011 to ensure budget stability; that introduced a series of austerity measures in 2010 at the behest of the ‘Troika’ of the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund; that implemented the industrial reconversion process in the 1980s that closed down and sold off much of the country’s state-owned enterprises at the EU’s request ... if anyone knows anything about offloading economic crisis onto the strategic sectors of the labor movement, it is the “socialists” of the PSOE. Nevertheless, the dockworkers have taken advantage of the current crisis affecting this political pillar of the regime and shown that they could twist its arm and force it to vote “no”.

There is no doubt that the attacks on the dockworkers are far from over. Now the “cavalry” will come from the EU capital of Brussels; the media campaign against these so-called “privileged workers” will start again ... and the last word has not been spoken. Nevertheless, there are some interesting lessons that can be drawn from this first victory that go well beyond just the dockworkers.

Since 2014 we have seen the imposition of a new “common sense”, one that has been fueled by the rise of the neo-reformism of political parties such as Podemos (We Can), one that suggests that social mobilization is incapable of finishing off a rotten regime and the policies it uses to unload the crisis onto the majority of the population. This new “common sense” suggests that the key is to take the movement off the streets and into the electoral arena. Through these electoral projects, these forces would fight for social, political and economic reform with the idea of taking hold of government institutions and using them to make social change.

After nearly three years, the growth of various parliamentary groups for “change”, beginning with the 71 Congress deputies of Unidos Podemos (United We Can) and its allies*, has seen these forces take hold of a number of important municipalities and legislative bodies. However, their political practice is very different from what has been promised. In the municipalities of “change”, government debt is paid religiously, demands such as remunicipalización (taking previously privatized entities back into public hands) are abandoned and either their minority status or the existing legal framework is used to justify their refusal to take effective measures to end unemployment, evictions or energy poverty. In the Congress and the regional parliaments, they allow themselves to make very left-wing speeches and come out in support of existing mobilizations such as those of the dockworkers, but they do not propose one single measure of struggle or organization that would help to implement concrete measures against major social problems.

The dockworkers have shown us that just flexing their “muscle”, without even having to put their fighting ability into action has, to date, managed to overcome both the problem of the parliamentary majority - 268 of the 350 deputies are from neoliberal formations that have turned obedience to the EU into a dogma - and the threats from Brussels. It has not been the threat of strike action alone that has achieved this, for the division among the employers and especially the conditions of open crisis in the regime and its political agents have undoubtedly played a role. But this critical situation is not an exceptional one, for it has in fact been the norm since 2011. What dockworkers have demonstrated is that there is another way to occupy the electoral space.

You have to wonder about what we could achieve if the reformist left, which speaks of “change” and even of “returning to the streets”, started demanding that trade union leaders end their criminal policies of compromise and social peace? What could we impose on the parties of the regime if the reformist left took advantage of their positions and called for the organization and mobilization of workers, young people and women?

Examples arise by the dozen. The municipalities of “change” say that they cannot take privatized firms back into public hands because they are in a minority, or that if they generate quality public employment, then Partido Popular Finance Minister Cristóbal Montoro will audit them. Both things are as true as the fact that the EU Court of Justice will sanction the Spanish government if Rajoy cannot get his ‘reforms’ to the port labor system approved. Then what should be done? Resign yourself as local mayors for change such as Manuela Carmena (Madrid), Ada Colau (Barcelona), Pedro Santiesteve (Zaragoza) and José María “Kichi” González (Cádiz) have done? Or, on the contrary, prepare a great movement that fights to impose its demands on the politicians that serve big business and their courts, just like the dockworkers have done?

The same can be said of the parliamentary work of Podemos. As Pablo Iglesias himself says, in the Courts you can draw up little more than proposals that do not become law. But why is it that in over one year as a deputy, he has not called for a mobilization, or an assembly, or demanded that the union bureaucracy moves a finger ... for an increase in the official minimum wage, for the repeal of various labor ‘reforms’ or the nationalization of the criminal energy sector?

The dockworkers have shown us what they think of the new “common sense”, fueled as it is by the reformism of “change” that tells us that we cannot aspire – “because it is one thing to form government and another to have power”, “because I am only going to promise what I can get, in agreement with the PSOE and existing legality”. This “common sense” can be quickly surpassed once the road of social mobilization is returned to, with workers on the front foot and consistently defending the only realistic program to solve the great social problems: one that directly affects the profits and interests of the capitalists.

The most important conclusion that those moved by the victory of the dockworkers can draw is that the whole working class “has to do it like them. Our class has to learn how to flex its “muscle” and set it in motion a massive movement of workers together with young people, women and immigrants... in order to end unemployment by imposing the distribution of working hours with no reduction in wages, at the expense of the record profits being made by large corporations; by demanding the nationalization of banking and large strategic companies such as electricity providers under workers’ control; by refusing to pay all government debt; and by taxing large fortunes in order to guarantee good education, universal health and public services, among other urgent and fundamental measures.

The dockers’ victory is a victory for the whole working class against the precariousness of work. It is necessary to use this victory as a launching pad. They are going to keep attacking the dockworkers in order to try to break them, so for that reason we need to close ranks and surround them with our solidarity. At the same time, we must demand that if the trade union bureaucracy and the ‘neo-reformists’ want their declarations in favor of the unemployed, the precariously employed and other workers to have some credibility, they must call assemblies in every workplace for the organizing of a real plan of struggle that imposes a working-class solution to the crisis.

Translation: Sean Robertson

This is a translation of an article which first appeared at the Spanish Izquierda Diario website

* Unidos Podemos (United We Can) is the left-wing coalition that contested the 2016 Spanish general election. It consists of Podemos (We Can); Izquierda Unida (United Left) which has the Communist Party of Spain at its core; the Green Party “Equo” and other smaller, mainly regional parties. In various regions, it ran under different names, such as En Comú Podem (In Common We Can) in Catalonia and En Marea (En Masse) in Galicia.

Mark.
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Apr 22 2017 18:08

Blog post about a visit to the port of Algeciras from a teacher active in supporting the dockworkers:

72 horas con los estibadores de Algeciras: Conociendo la estiba desde dentro

Mark.
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Apr 30 2017 11:50

Mark.
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May 1 2017 15:31

Report in Spanish on the first national meeting of female dockworkers:

Las estibadoras denuncian el "odio" del Gobierno y niegan que sean un colectivo machista

Also

Las mujeres estibadoras rompen amarras: «Tratan de hacernos invisibles pero no lo lograrán»

Mark.
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May 15 2017 18:09

The government has now put forward a revised version of the decree. I haven't looked into it closely but I don"t think there are substantial changes. Coordinadora has announced a new series of strike days on 24, 26, 29 and 31 May and 2, 5, 7 and 9 June. Brief report in Spanish:

Los sindicatos de estibadores ante el engaño del gobierno anuncian 8 días de lucha y huelga

Blog post in Spanish by Juanjo Peris:

Dignidad

Mark.
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May 15 2017 18:22
Quote:

Dear IDC Members,

With the support of the International Dockworkers Community, the Spanish Government recently failed to pass a Royal Decree to reform the Spanish port system.

The IDC is aware, however, that the Spanish government intends to present a new Royal Decree to reform the Spanish port system.

Although the details of this decree have not been made known, the fact remains the government has failed to include the participation of social partners (employers / workers) in the drafting of this proposal.

For this reason, the Spanish Union COORDINADORA has cause to believe this decree poses a threat to Spanish dockworkers, and has published a three-week strike advisory for the transport of all goods (not including the transport of people) during the odd hours on the following dates:

WEEK 1
Wednesday, May 24, 2017
Friday, May 26, 2017

WEEK 2
Monday, May 29, 2017
Wednesday, May 31, 2017
Friday, June 2, 2017

WEEK 3
Monday, June 5, 2017
Wednesday, June 7, 2017
Friday, June 9, 2017

As in the case of the previous Royal Decree, IDC will continue to watch over new developments closely, and remains ready to escalate a collective response as needed . We ask all IDC affiliates to pledge their international support for COORDINADORA, with respect to participation in the above advisory.

Please remain alert in the coming days to any news with regards to the advisory strikes dates. In the case of any diverted ship we will request you to make action.

IDC will continue to support dockworkers everywhere in their struggle to defends their professions.

WE WILL NEVER WALK ALONE AGAIN!

In solidarity,

Jordi Aragunde
IDC General Coordinator

http://mailchi.mp/12d6808ba76e/idc-coordinadora-strike-advisory

Mark.
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May 18 2017 19:57

The revised version of the decree has now been passed by Congress with 175 votes in favour, 164 votes against and 8 abstentions. This time Ciudadanos supported it. It looks like the strikes will now go ahead, beginning on 24 May.

El Gobierno convalida el decreto de la estiba con apoyos políticos pero no de los trabajadores, que irán a la huelga

Mark.
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May 18 2017 20:41

Report in Spanish on calls by the IDC for dockworkers in other countries not to unload ships diverted from ports in Spain.

115.000 estibadores de todo el mundo apoyarán las acciones que emprendan los estibadores españoles con todas sus consecuencias

Portuguese dockworkers refuse to handle ships and cargoes diverted from Spain. Report in Portuguese.

Estivadores portugueses em greve aos navios desviados de Espanha

Statement by Portuguese dockworkers.

Portuguese Dockworkers decree strike on ships diverted from Spain

Quote:

Determining ground for the calling of the strike

These constitute serious reasons, determinant of this strike declaration:

We must note the brutal attack that the collective of Spanish dockworkers is under, with a contingent of more than 6.500 professionals, men and women trained in the best port sector training schools that we can find on this planet, threatened by a shameful and unacceptable collective dismissal, a consequence of a recidivist royal decree unilaterally approved by the Spanish government in office to allegedly comply with a sentence of the European Court of Justice (EJC) which considers the current working model agreed between the social partners in the sector to be illegal.

We consider it unacceptable that an EU government decrees the collective dismissal of all professional dockworkers in Spanish ports, one of the most professional and efficient groups in the EU, replacing them with the same or other workers with precarious links, which determines the deep degradation of their working and social conditions; To accept and agree with such a scenario would be to accept that the various European Treaties which uphold this Europe, many of which have not even been endorsed by the people of the various countries, legitimize, lead and compel to the dismissal, precariousness and continuous and progressive degradation of the life of the hundreds of millions of their working citizens and, consequently, of their populations.

We can verify the parallel and the evident effects of contagion of the labour deregulation of the port sector in Spain, with what has recently happened in Portugal and hasn’t still been object of correction by the present government, to be mentioned, as an example:

In Portugal, the previous PSD / CDS government, subservient to the financial interests of the powerful economic groups that dominated the national port sector, approved port work legislation without respecting the workers’ organizations that represented the overwhelming majority of Portuguese dockworkers, through which they have sought to liberalize the sector, to de-characterize the profession, to perpetuate the widespread precariousness and degrading conditions that permeate most Portuguese ports, by permitting the precariousness of port workers in a much more deregulated and permissive way than what the Labour Code permits, which, by the way, remains regrettable and incomprehensibly without being revoked or at least profoundly altered, even more so that it cannot be ignored that the previous government claimed that such legislation made Portuguese dockworkers “guinea pigs” of a degraded and misery labour model to be exported to the whole of Europe,

In Spain, the current government intends to condemn to the disappearance of one of its professionally most well-prepared groups, to lead to a collective dismissal of workers, in one of the harshest and most dangerous areas of activity, responsible for the sustained growth of Spanish ports and the positive impact that such behaviour of such a strategic sector of the economy has on its overall performance; Without conceding the results achieved through the dialogue process which the social partners in the sector have been maintaining for a long time, although it is well known that the unspeakable behaviour of the Spanish government is largely due to its subservience to the millions and to the ambitions of JPMorgan, one of the main owners of the Spanish ports, which will certainly be supported by other more veiled public expression employer forces, all of them eager to transfer a large part of the labour income to the capital side, hence increasing the inequalities to disproportionate gaps.

The Portuguese dockworkers represented by this National Union could whistle aside and pretend they forgot how decisive was the intervention of the IDC – International Stevedoring Council, the 100,000 dockworkers it represents, militants struggling in the active and constant defence of their profession, the action of their leaders, starting with their World Coordinator, always ready to fight on the most diverse fronts, be they through communiqués or letters of solidarity, interventions at embassies or the declaration and organization of strikes and their pickets, local or international demonstrations, but still and above all, cannot forget how solidarity actions in the field will always be decisive, as proved by the actions of our colleagues in Algeciras to maintain the quality of employment in Lisbon, with all the positive consequences that such a result will certainly have, in the future of workers from other national ports.

We do not accept to dispatch ships and cargoes diverted from Spain and thus to collaborate objectively in the attempt of collective dismissal in course, planned by the Spanish government, in promiscuous relation with the capital without borders, to which it renders interested vassalage.

The international solidarity now enacted is a direct consequence of a decision taken by IDC’s world leaders at the grassroots level, an organization to which this Union, with pride, belongs, being bound by that decision, or by having directly contributed to the formation of the collective will underlying it, or because it fully agrees with the purposes it intends to achieve with it.

Mark.
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May 18 2017 20:24

Meanwhile in Sweden...

APM Terminals escalates the Gothenburg dispute - massive lockout announced from the 19th of May

Mark.
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May 18 2017 21:49

A message of support from taxi drivers in Valencia (in Spanish).

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=wfPf3ZvGDo8

.

And from Las Kellys (hotel cleaners) on Fuerteventura.

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=FhnH_LpjLPk