Italy

1958-1990: Operation Gladio, Italy

Operation Gladio

The history of the secret neo-fascist army in Italy set up ostensibly to resist Soviet invasion, but in reality to be used in the event of the working class growing too strong once again.

1969-?: The strategy of tension in Italy

August 2 1980 Bologna Central Station attack

Information about the Italian state's "Strategy of Tension" policy in which it carried out terrorist attacks against its own people in order to blame the left and anarchists.

1918-1922: The Arditi del Popolo

Arditi del Popolo

A history of the people's militias who fought Italy's fascists covering the birth, growth and decline of the world's first anti-fascist group, the Arditi del Popolo.

1862-1999: Revolutionary song in Italy

Portrait of Pietro Gori

The history of song, music, class struggle and anarchism in Italy's turbulent past.

Michael Schirru and the attempted assassination of Mussolini - Raffaele Schiavina

Michael Schirru

An account of the trial and death of American anarchist Michael Schirru, who travelled to Italy to attempt to assassinate the fascist dictator. Despite the fact that his "crimes" were not legally punishable by death, Schirru was executed by firing squad.

1971: Via Tibaldi occupation

Aerial view of Via Tibaldi today

A short history of an occupation of empty housing in Italy by workers who had inadequate accomodation. Their direct action and solidarity forced the council to house hundreds of people.

1971: The Quarto Oggiaro occupation

Via Mac Mahon, top left to bottom right

A short history of a militant mass occupation of empty housing in Milan, Italy, 1971 which pressured the government to give in and provide the participating families with housing.

1971: The people's clinic, Rome

The history of the residents in one of Rome's outlying ghettos who had inadequate health care provision. Seizing a government building, they and sympathetic health workers set up their own medical centre and ran it collectively.

1926: The attempted assassination of Mussolini in Rome

Gino Lucetti

An account of the unsuccessful assassination attempt of Benito Mussolini by anarchist Gino Lucetti who threw a bomb at his car in Rome on 11 September, 1926.

1918-1921: The Italian factory occupations and Biennio Rosso

Workers' assembly in an occupied Fiat plant, Turin 1920

A brief history of the Italian Biennio Rosso (two red years) and the mass factory occupations of 1920 where half a million workers ran their workplaces for themselves.