Beating the fascists?: The German Communists and political violence 1929-1933 - Eve Rosenhaft

Eve Rosenhaft examines the involvement of Communist Party militants in political violence against Nazis during the years of Hitler's rise to power in Germany (1929-33).

The last words of Eugen Leviné


Eugen Leviné (1883 – 1919) was one of the leaders of the short-lived Bavarian Council Republic and a member of the Communist Party of Germany. Along with hundreds of other workers, communists, socialists and anarchists, he was arrested following the attack on Munich by the German Army and the Freikorps, and later executed. In June 1919, while on trial for high treason, Leviné made his last speech.

National Bolshevism in Weimar Germany: alliance of political extremes against democracy - Abraham Ascher & Guenter Lewy

An article by Abraham Ascher and Guenter Lewy about the development of 'national bolshevism' in Germany between the World Wars.

Left-wing splinter parties in the Weimar Republic

A 1974 dissertation on various left-wing radical groups in Weimar Republic era Germany.

Spartakism to National Bolshevism - the KPD 1918-24 - Solidarity

Leibnecht speaks to workers - 1918

An account of the emergence of the KPD (The German Communist Party) in the early days of the German Revolution - as a break from the Social Democratic Party - through its decline and transformation into a tool of the Russian Bolshevik regime.

Factory organisations or trade unions? - Fritz Wolffheim

Speech presented on August 16, 1919 before the assembly of the Communist Party’s Hamburg local, on the nature of trade unions.

The communist left in Germany 1918-1921 - Gilles Dauvé and Denis Authier

A analysis of the revolutionary movements in Europe at the end of World War I, their contradictions and limitations.

The lessons of the “March action” - Herman Gorter

Herman Gorter

The Lessons of the “March Action” - Gorter’s last letter to Lenin