A short overview of the history of shacks and shack dwellers struggles in Durban with a focus on enclosure, insurgent commoning, and the politics of space.
Artilce printed in the journal Arsenal: Surrealist Subversion no.3, 1976. Includes The Manifesto of the Arab Surrealist Movement, 1975.
This is an excellent historical introduction to the period of Japanese student radicalism that began after the war in the wake of the increasingly ineffective strategies of the Japanese Communist Party and which culminated in massive social unrest and change around the Japanese school system and society in general.
Social and political situation in Lodz at the beginning of XX century:
At the beginning of XX century Lodz was a dynamically developing centre of the cotton and woollen industry. The favourable location of the city and its developing industrial infrastructure caused a rapid migration of the workers in search of the employment in its factories. At the same time, very low salaries and the lack of social security institutions caused the numerous unrests, until the year of 1906 and the general strike with so called “Lodz’s lockout” that follow.