Chronology of Despotism in South Korea

Submitted by Spartacus on February 18, 2011

[row][col]1960.4.19 [/col][col]Student demonstrations force government of Syngman ??? to resign. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1961.5 [/col][col]Coup d'etat led by Major General Park Chung Hee; declares martial law, bans political parties, dissolves National Assembly, introduces press censorship, opens court martials to try dissidents, creates KCIA. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1963.10 [/col][col]Park elected President. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1969.10 [/col][col]Constitution revised to allow Park a third term. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1972.10.17 [/col][col]Park declares Martial Law, announces 'October Revitalization' plan: dissolves National Assembly, closes colleges and universities, enforces total media censorship. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1972.11 [/col][col]Yushin (Revitalizing) Constitution makes Park president for life. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1973.10 [/col][col]Student demos denounce Park, attack Japanese economic invasion; demand dissolution of KCIA; hundreds arrested. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1974.1.8 [/col][col]State of Emergency declared: Emergency Measure 1 makes it illegal to "deny, oppose, misrepresent, or defame the Constitution" or to "assert, introduce, propose or petition for revision or repeal of the Constitution"; EM 2 sets up military tribunals to process violators of EM 1; arrest and detention without warrant or time limit. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1974.1.14 [/col][col]EM 3: centralized economic planning, controlled by President. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1974.4.3 [/col][col]The harshest EM, No. 4: death penalty for students cutting classes or taking part in demos, discussions, rallies and "all other individual or collective activities in or outside campus except for normal classes." Arrest and detention without warrant-800 arrested. Repealed 1974.8.22. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1974.4.26 [/col][col]Kim Chi Ha arrested, sentenced to death, later commuted to life. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1974.8 [/col][col]Under pressure, Park repeals Emergency Measures 1 and 4. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1974.12 [/col][col]Government gets businesses to cancel ads in Dong-a Ilbo [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975.1.22 [/col][col]Referendum announced for 2.12; discussion of issues (Park's policies), except by Park, prohibited. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975.3.18 [/col][col]EM 6: up to 7 years in prison for airing anti-govt gripes to foreigners. Aim: to get foreign press pieces on ROK to read like domestic media. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975A.8 [/col][col]EM 7: Bans campus rallies against government-10 years' jail. Eight alleged "People's Revolutionary Party" members hanged. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975.5.13 [/col][col]EM 9: bans all criticism of Yushin Constitution or even medial reporting of same. Penalty unlimited. "Rumor spreading" banned; arrest and detention with: out warrant. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975.6.21 [/col][col]US Defense Secretary Schlesinger: "We've deployed nuclear weapons in ROK... we can't foreclose any option on their use." [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975.6.29 [/col][col]Entire population mobilized on war footing. [/col][/row]
[row][col]1975.7.8 [/col][col]Four new laws: New Civil Defense Corps to cover all males 17-50; $400 million defense tax; severe restrictions and constant surveillance of former "anti-state criminals" (totalling 10,000 people); all university profs to resign by end of school year (1976.2) reappointments to be made by Defense Ministry. [/col][/row]