Anarchists who became Marxists

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Cleishbotham
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Aug 17 2011 18:06

Thanks. I missed it but as it was posted by Ajjohnstone (SPGB) and then me (ICT) perhaps Android has a point? Or is it that Serge's subsequent Trotskyism (and his ambiguity over Kronstadt) both make him a bit suspect. No doubt this was discussed long ago on libcom but I missed it.

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Noa Rodman
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Aug 23 2011 21:49

Some further articles by Grossman-Roshchin:

Sly slave in the mantle of the apostle of freedom: M.O. Gershenzon (The Destinies of the Jewish People). [Article] / / Red Virgin Soil. 1923. N 5. S.400-404

Mr. Lossky on communism, materialism, and the kingdom of God. [Article] / / Red Virgin Soil. 1923. N 6. S.369-371

Jean-Marie Guyau. Morality without obligation and without sanction. Moscow. Without the year. [Review] / / Red Virgin Soil. 1923. N 7. S.301-304

A critique of the fundamental teachings of P.A. Kropotkin. [Article] / / Red Virgin Soil. 1924. N 2. P.139-154

Dialectical movement or sophistic "acrobratics"? (On Meyerhold). [Article] / / Red Virgin Soil. 1924. N 5. S.301-308

Social conception of Futurism. [Article] / / LEF. 1923. N 4. P.109-124

Preobrazhensky. On morality and class norms. 1923. [Review] / / LEF. 1923. N 4. S.196-198

On the nature of effective speech. [Article] / / LEF. 1924. N 2. P.89-100

Ye.A. Preobrazhensky. V.I. Lenin: Sociological study. Moscow. [Review] / / Star. 1924. N 5. S.280-282

On proletarian literature and class ideology: Speech, delivered at the reception of proletarian writers, hosted by the Literary Arts Institute named after V.Y. Bryusov. [Article] / / October. 1925. N 1. P.133-140

Alexander Bogdanov as a moral lawgiver. [Article] / / October. 1925. N 3 / 4. S.214-225

Stabilization of the intellectuals' spirit and the problems of literature. [Article] / / October. 1925. N 7. P.119-130

N.S. Leskov. Selected stories. Moscow, Leningrad. 1926. (Russian and world classics); L. Andreev, Selected Stories. (Russian and world classics.) [Review] / / October. 1926. N 7 / 8. S.220-222

D. Stonov. Stories. Moscow. [Review] / / October. 1926. N 11/12. S.240-242

Letters on Art: First letter. [Article] / / October. 1929. N 1. S.201-211. Start. The end: N 4

Letters on Art: Third Letter: (How Gogol's "Overcoat" Is Made, Eichenbaum). [Article] / / October. 1929. N 4. P.184-196. The end. Start: N 1

A. Pushkin. [Article] / / Banner of Labor. 1918. N 2. P.18-21

Reply: Open Letter to Comrade. N. Aseev. [Article] / / October. 1927. N 1. P.155-162

Fantasy of dead souls: (Analysis of Meyerhold's staging of "Inspector"). [Article] / / October. 1927. N 2. P.152-162

Juri Libedinski. Education, creativity and self-criticism. [Review] / / October. 1927. N 6. P.168-172

Monologue about passéism. [Article] / / October. 1926. N 1. P.125-131

On the border of two worlds: The characterization of creativity of Saltykov-Shchedrin. [Article] / / October. 1926. N 9. P.113-128

I. Molchanov. Fire: Poems. [Review] / / October. 1927. N 5. S.204-205

A.S. Griboyedov. Woe from Wit. Moscow, Leningrad. 1927. (Russian world classics). [Review] / / October. 1927. N 7. P.174-175

Letters on Art: Second Letter: Biology or sociology? [Article] / / October. 1929. N 3. P.158-170. Continued. Start: N 1. Deadline: N 4

Open letter-message to Cornelius Zelinsky. [Article] / / October. 1929. N 6. P.188-194

A few comments! .. [Article] / / October. 1929. N 9. P.138-142

(source)

There's a plan to translate his critique of Kropotkin, stay tuned!

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RossWolfe
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Sep 11 2011 21:48

Yeah, Serge has been mentioned several times, but he can't be mentioned enough. Very interesting figure.

nastyned
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Sep 11 2011 22:10

As far as I know before he went Bolshevik Serge's 'anarchist' phase was as a crappy individualist, so not someone I ever had much in common with politically.

Battlescarred
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Sep 12 2011 12:34

I'm amazed Domela Niewenhuis is on the list - as far as I am aware he moved from social democracy TOWARDS anarchism and remained an anarchist for the rest of his life!!
Agree with Ned on Serge, quite an easy turn from individualism with its contempt for the working class to Bolshevism with its....

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Noa Rodman
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Sep 12 2011 20:23

Hey battlescarred I put underneath 'or vice versa'. Btw, would you feel like putting together a biography of Grossman-Roshchin (I hope he does fit your definition of a real anarchist)?

Also, is it accepted here as a common knowledge that Arshinov renounced anarchism?

krdel
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Oct 21 2011 22:00

Interesting thread...

I have read about this Grossman-Roščin in a text from preety unknown yugoslav marxist Putnik Dajić. In the part about "Černoe znamja" (don't know the correct translation, something like black banner) he writes:

Quote:
Their leader was a known anarchist I. S. Grossman-Roščin. Group was formed around newspaper Černoe znamja (therefore the name of the group) and around newspaper "Buntar". Movement emerged as a reaction on anarchism of Bakunin and its kropotkins variation. It was theoreticaly unformed, but its basic motifs can be viewed. They went to upgrade Kropotkin's learning, which was, for them, infected by bug of prekapitalistic democratism. Grossman-Roščin explained, that this direction fights on two fronts: against social-democracy, which has, with class frazeology, covered the real point of neccesary tactics and ideology, against kropotkinism, which has, together with "rebellionism" and maximalism, represented actually masked petty bourgeois federalism and minimalism. "Strggle agains democratism - this is the center, the soul of blackbannery." Democracy is inevitable fact, but just therefore anarchists must work, showing all weakness of democratic ilusions. It is necessary that anrchism not only guards, but widens and sharpens the class tactics und inconciliation, that ejects from theory last abstract-humanistic tendencies. Among instructions for action, those stand out: among peasantry parole: land and worktools. In the army: rejection of war service. More often acceptance of economic terror, the main and unreplaceble means of accumulation of revolutionary tradition, as means to dig a deep dam beetween proletariat and bourgeoisie. Each member of bourgeoisie is decent to die. Only violent revolutionary tactic can insure the win of anarchism. Communism must be realised straightaway, by violent and direct action.

Nothing special, also sorry for my bad english translation, but i would like to read more about Grossman-Roščin or Black banner group, possibly in german, or if nothing else, english, because my russian is terrible.

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Noa Rodman
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Oct 22 2011 10:32

Yes, they were anti-Kropotkin anarchists already before the war (and explicitly making the connection between Kropotkin's ideology and his support for the war). Does that translation say they were also anti-Bakuninist?

Quote:
i would like to read more about Grossman-Roščin or Black banner group,

Seconded. I look in Karetelnik or Battlescarred's direction .

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Oct 22 2011 19:04

How many books have been written about the Red Brigades? There must be dozens, in various languages. Black Banner and kindred groups in pre-revolutionary Russia were arguably of greater historical significance but I can think of only one book written about them: Anarchist-terrorists in Odessa 1903 – 1913 by Victor Savchenko (2005). This little book had a press run of about 300 and was soon out of print. Soviet historians never studied this movement for obvious reasons, and the dominant historiographies of current Ukraine have no place for revolutionaries with an internationalist perspective.

Before he re-invented himself as a Soviet literary-ideologue, Iuda Roshchin had a very turbulent life indeed. He and his brother Alexander preached the methods of terrorism and expropriation and put them into practice. Iuda was one of the few survivors of this movement; his brother shot himself in 1908 to avoid arrest.

krdel
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Oct 26 2011 14:45
Noa Rodman wrote:
Yes, they were anti-Kropotkin anarchists already before the war (and explicitly making the connection between Kropotkin's ideology and his support for the war). Does that translation say they were also anti-Bakuninist?

Well, it says what it says. grin I understand that they were some kind of response on the bakuninist anarchism, that was present in Russia at the time.

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Nov 10 2011 23:15

He himself is probably the best source on the black banner movement:

Grossman-Roščin. Thoughts on the Past: Georgij Gogelia (Orgeiani): [Obituary] / / Past. - 1925. N2 (30). - p. 230 - 233.

Grossman-Roščin. Thoughts on the Past: From the history of Bialystok's anarchist "black banner" movement / / Past. 1924. -N27-28.-p. 172-182
.
Grossman-Roščin. October revolution and the tactics of the anarchosyndicalists / / Voice of Labor. - Moscow; Petrgrad, 1919. - N1, December.-p. 2 - A

----------
Гроссман И.С. (Гроссман-Рощин). Думы о былом: Георгий Гогелиа (Оргеиани): [Некролог] // Былое. - 1925. N2 (30). - С. 230 - 233.

112. Гроссман И.С. (Гроссман-Рощин). Думы о былом: Из истории белостоцкого анархического "чернознаменного" движения // Былое. 1924. -N27-28.-С. 172-182.

113. Гроссман И.С. (Гроссман-Рощин). Октябрьская революция и тактика анархосиндикалистов // Голос труда. - М.; Пг., 1919. - N1, де­кабрь.-С. 2- П.

source

Copy-past the link to the biography on Gogelia in google-translate, if you want to read a sad story. Along with the article on black banner, Grossman's obituary to this forgotten Georgian anarchist should be recovered.

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Entdinglichung
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Nov 16 2011 11:49

Hans Pfeiffer (1895-1968) MP and minor leading figure of the KPD during the 1920ies left 1914 the SPD in protest against their support for the war and became an anarchist, than joined the USPD in 1917 and the KPD when it was founded, inside the 1920ies KPD, he was regarded as a pedantic expert in organisational matters and acquired the nickname "Kartothekowitsch" (card-filing system + russian ending)

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Nov 18 2011 14:22

Grossman-Roshchin, often arrested under the tsarist regime, was first arrested by the Bolsheviks in 1919, even though he was already calling himself an “anarcho-Bolshevik”. His occupation was listed as lecturer at the Socialist Academy (founded 1918; renamed the Communist Academy in 1924), a revolutionary counterpart to the long-established Academy of Sciences. Because of this arrest Grossman-Roshchin has been officially classified as a “victim of Soviet terror”. He was rehabilitated in 2003 on the grounds his arrest was “politically motivated”.

Lemert
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Nov 28 2011 05:34

I'm thinking about it (becoming a sort of Marxist). Marxists should also think about becoming anarchists.

krdel
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Dec 14 2011 23:04

About gogelia, I allready came across him, again in Dajić's text:

Quote:
Judged by his contemporaries, "shining polemicist, dangerous dialecticist" has been defeating his enemies on the tournaments of politic retorics, leaving behind series of works, especially on the field of anarcho-sindicalism, which are considered as gems, classic of polemic genre.

So, this "series of works" exist? In the (google translated) text above I understand nothing was published from Gogelia's work?

and, btw, is there any coherent biography of Grossman-Roščin allready made?

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Dec 15 2011 20:34
Quote:
and, btw, is there any coherent biography of Grossman-Roščin allready made?

A renegade from Anarchism, spurned by the Bolsheviks, G-R has yet to find a biographer although he would certainly make an interesting subject. His cause of death is obscure but he may have committed suicide. Here is the entry for G-R in a biographical dictionary of the Russian left published in 1996:

GROSSMAN, Iuda Solomonovich (Iuda Solomonov Shloymov) (pseud.: Grossman-Roshchin, I.) (7.2.1883, village of Novoukrainka, Elisavetgrad county, Kherson province – 6.6.1934, Moscow). From a merchant family. Brother of A. S. Grossman. In the revolutionary movement from 1897, favoured the social-democrats. In 1897 belonged to the Elisavetgrad study group of the “South Russian Workers’ Union”. In 1898 he was arrested by the Kherson provincial police for working as an organizer. On 9.6.1899 he was banished to Novoukrainka on probation for three years. In the summer of 1902 he went abroad (Germany, Switzerland), made contact with representatives of the Russian emigration, at first expressing a preference for the social-democrats, but then (in 1903) switching to the Anarchists. He worked with the leaders of the Geneva group of Anarcho-communists “Khleb i volya” [Bread and freedom], including G. I. Gogelia, L. V. Ikonnikova, and M. G. Tsereteli, to put out their publication “Anarkhiya” [Anarchy] (1904, Paris & Geneva). Starting in 1903 he began lecturing and writing essays on the theory and history of Anarchism. He showed himself to be a principled exponent of terror and expropriation. Early in 1905 he returned to Russia and joined the Białystok group “Khleb i volya”, precursor of the “Chernoye Znamya” [Black Banner] tendency in Russian Anarchism. He organized the first “Chernoye Znamya” groups in Odessa and Yekaterinoslav. In the autumm of 1905 he moved to Vilna where he promoted the ideas of the Anarcho-chernoznamentsi; then he chaired the first conference of chernoznametsi of Northwest and South Russia in Białystok. In January 1906 he helped organize a congress of “bezmotivny” (motiveless) Anarchists in Kishinev. In April – May, 1906, he undertook a journey through some cities of South Russia (Kiev, Odessa, Yekaterinoslav), rendering theoretical and practical support to his supporters and writing position papers. In Odessa he helped the members of the Chernoye Znamya group plan terrorist actions and the blowing up of the stock exchange. From the beginning of 1907 he directed the Chernoye Znamya group in Kiev and was elected a delegate to the International Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam. On 14.6.1907 he was arrested at the border at Aleksandrov Station and held for trial before the Kiev provincial police board. He was remanded to the Lukyanovsky Prison and on 11.10.1907 was banished on probation for three years to Tyumen, Tobolsk province. In early August, 1908, he fled from exile and emigrated. An Anarcho-syndicalist, and fanatical exponent of violent action, Grossman in emigration advocated for the unification of Russian Anarchist groups into a single association committed to Anarcho-syndicalism. In 1912 – 1913 he became attracted to the ideas of the French idealist philosopher A. Bergson. Starting in 1914 he wrote for the newspaper “Rabochiy mir” [Workers’ world] (organ of the Zurich group of Anarcho-communists), and in 1915 – 1917 he was on the editorial board of “Rabocheye znamya” [Workers’ banner] an Anarcho-communist organ published in Lausanne and Geneva. Back in Russia in 1917, he participated in legal Anarchist publishing (Moscow, Petrograd), mainly the journal “Golos truda” [Voice of labour], and lectured on the history of Anarchism. He welcomed the victory of the Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. In June 1918 he joined the Moscow Confederation of Anarchists. In 1919 he spent some time at the headquarters of N. I. Makhno, occupying himself with the propaganda of Anarchist ideas and calling himself an “Anarcho-Bolshevik”. In the 1920’s he published a number of works of a literary or journalistic character, and worked as a literary critic for the journals “Biloye” [Bygone times], “Oktyabr” [October], and “Na literaturnom postu” [On literary guard]; he also lectured at the MGU [Moscow State University] and VKhUTEMAS [Higher Art and Technical Studios]. The 14.2.1926 edition of “Pravda” published a letter in which he declared himself an adherent of Bolshevism.

krdel
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Dec 16 2011 01:35

Great, thanks. It will be enough.

He should really get a wiki article.

krdel
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Dec 25 2011 23:00
Noa Rodman wrote:
Also, is it accepted here as a common knowledge that Arshinov renounced anarchism?

About that, i searched for his pamplets Anarchism and the dictatorship
of the proletariat (1931) and Anarchism in our age (1933) and found nothing actually, not even russian texts. Were thay transleted, can they be obtained anywhere on the net?

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Dec 26 2011 16:29

No, but there's also another text of his after his break called 'Eléments neufs et anciens de l’anarchisme' (1933) (don't know how it's in Russian).

According to this, there was a theory that he was a GPU agent already after the civil war (so his Platformism becomes then sabotage or what).

It seems Max Nettlau does give some quotes from 'Anarchism and DoP', here (because Arshinov picked out Nettlau as proof of a convergence between reformism and anarchism).

_______________________________________________________
Now, some other works which Karetelnik has found by G-R:

“Bakunin and Bergson” // Zabety [Behests] – St. Petersburg, 1914. – No. 5, May. – Section II. – pp. 47-62.

“Bakunin on the state, patriotism and war // Golos Truda [Voice of Labour]: organ of the Association of anarcho-sydicalists “Golos Truda”. – Moscow, 1919. – No. 1, Dec. – pp. 34-39.

“Notes about the views of Bakunin” // Rabochiy mir [Workers’ world]: organ of the Federation of Russian anarcho-communists groups abroad. – London ; Paris, 1914. – No. 4A – 21 May. – (Ser. II. Year II)/100 Year Anniversary from the Birth of Mikhail Aleksandrovich Bakunin : 1814—1876—1914 – pp. 6-8.

Art to change the world : (collection of articles on the theory and history of literature). – Moscow.: 1930 – 352 pp.

“Personality, necessity, reality: (About “The German Ideology” – Marx and Engels about Feuerbach. Archive of K. Marx and F. Engels) // Pod znamenem marksizma [Under the banner of marxism] : Monthly philosophical and socio-economic journal. – Moscow, 1924. – No. 12, Dec. – pp. 134-142.

“Thoughts about the creative work of P. A. Kropotkin” // Petr Kropotkin : collection of articles devoted to the memory of P. A. Kropotkin / edited by A. Borovoi, N. Lebedev. – Petrograd. ; Moscow. : Golos truda, 1922, 1922. – pp. 12-29.

“On old themes : Notes” // Rabochiy mir : Organ of the federation of groups of Russian anarcho-communists abroad. – Paris, 1914. – No. 1, Feb. – (Ser. II. Year II). – pp. 7-9.

“Concerning the transition stage” // Golos truda : Organ of the Association of anarcho-syndicalists “Golos truda”. – Moscow., 1919. – No. 1, Dec. – pp. 31-33.

“A Speech, delivered by I. Grossman-Roshchin at Kropotkin’s grave” // Piotr Kropotkin : collection of articles devoted to the memory of P. A. Kropotkin / edited by A. Borovoi, N. Lebedev. – Petrograd. ; Moscow. : Golos truda, 1922. – pp. 158-160.

Review of B. I. Gorev, M. A. Bakunin. His life, activity and teachings. Moscow. : 1919. in Golos truda. – Moscow., 1919. – No. 1, Dec. – pp. 49-50.

Review of P. L. Lavrov, The Paris Commune. Moscow :1919. in Golos truda. – Moscow., 1919. – No. 1, Dec. – p. 46.

“Twilight of a great spirit” : (M. A. Bakunin. “Confession”) // Pechat’ i revoliutsiia [The Press and revolution]. – Moscow, 1921. – Bk. 3. – pp. 44-58.

“Towards a characterization of the creative work of P. A. Kropotkin” in the philosophy & culture section of Zhizn’ dlya vsekh [Life for everyone]. – Petrograd, 1918. – No. 4/6, Apr.-June. – pp. 365-386. – Contents: 1). Psychological premises. – pp. 365-376 ; 2). Dualism in the value system of P. A. Kropotkin : (Lessons of war). – pp. 376-386 ; also, under the title : “Characterization of the creative work of P. A. Kropotkin” : (speech delivered at a meeting held by the Chita group of anarcho-syndicalists). – Petrograd. ; Moscow. : Golos truda, 1921. – 31 pp.

The Artist and the Epoch. – Moscow. ; Leningrad., 1928. – 257 pp.

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Dec 27 2011 01:31
Quote:
krdel wrote:
About that, i searched for his pamplets Anarchism and the dictatorship of the proletariat (1931) and Anarchism in our age (1933) and found nothing actually, not even russian texts. Were thay transleted, can they be obtained anywhere on the net?

"Anarchism and the dictatorship of the proletariat", a 16-page pamphlet, is a rarity indeed and not available on the net.

"Anarchism in our age" sounds like a reprint of Arshinov's pamphlet on The Platform published (I think) originally in pamphlet form in 1929.

Arshinov's repudiation of anarchism entitled "The Downfall of Anarchism", published in Izvestiya in 1935, has been published, although not currently available on the net.

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Dec 27 2011 02:30

This already mentioned article by Iu. Grossman-Roshchin:

“Twilight of a great spirit” : (M. A. Bakunin. “Confession”) // Pechat’ i revoliutsiia [The Press and revolution]. – Moscow, 1921. – Bk. 3. – pp. 44-58

is available online at http://ia600408.us.archive.org/1/items/g1pechatirevoliu03mosk/g1pechatirevoliu03mosk.pdf

Bakunin was the subject of many studies in the early Soviet state. The 50th anniversary of his death in 1926 was the occasion for special events and exhibits put on by both the Soviet government and the anarchists. The discovery in the tsarist archives of his "Confession" caused consternation to both the Bolsheviks and anarchists!

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Jan 17 2012 12:11

Now that Grossman-Roščin's Critique of Kropotkin’s Fundamental Teachings was translated and put into the library, as well the obituary on the important Georgian anarchist Georgi Gogelia
pictured standing in the middle:

and even a text From the history of the anarchist “Black Banner” movement in Białystok, I for one, would like to read even more from him.

For example, his assessment of the tactics of the anarchosyndicalists with regard to the October revolution, and his review of P. L. Lavrov's The Paris Commune or about M.O. Gershenzon's Fate of the Jewish People.

In other news, I found a reference to a piece by Kautsky in Der Kampf, called:
Ein Verfechter der Einheitsfront. [Über Bakunin]. S. 446-52. 1928

Perhaps Kautsky became more appreciative of Bakunin.

It was also published in The New Leader (New York). I would like to know a way to access its archive.

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Mar 17 2016 19:05

The Russian-American historian Yury Felshtinsky has cited an Okhrana document from the Hoover Institute which indicates that during WWI the Germans tried without success to recruit Russian anarchists, Iuda Grossman-Roshchin in particular, to destabilize the Russian government. (Lenin, Trotsky, Germany and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 2012, p. 307, fn.25). The Bolsheviks, of course, were not so scrupulous. . .

freemind
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Mar 18 2016 17:57

Gregarious Jover,leader of Anarchist militia column in the Spanish Revolution joined the "Communists" while exiled in Mexico after the defeat.

freemind
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Mar 18 2016 17:58

Gregorio Jover lol

Anarcho
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Mar 21 2016 16:59

While Lucy Parsons may not have joined the Communist Party, she certainly sided with the Bolsheviks over Kronstadt -- see my review Lucy Parsons: American Anarchist of the terrible book by Carolyn Ashbaugh.

As for Victor Serge, he went from an elitist individual to an elitist Bolshevik before becoming to the conclusion (20 years too late!) that Bolshevism had flaws -- see my Victor Serge: The Worst of the Anarchists.

Peter Arshinov went from being a Bolshevik to being an anarchist to returning to Stalinist Russia -- and then was shot, if I remember correctly, for trying to reintroduce anarchism into the USSR. Shame as his book on the Makhnovist movement was excellent and explained the flaws in Bolshevism extremely well.

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Jul 8 2016 15:28
Quote:
“Thoughts about the creative work of P. A. Kropotkin” // Petr Kropotkin : collection of articles devoted to the memory of P. A. Kropotkin / edited by A. Borovoi, N. Lebedev. – Petrograd. ; Moscow. : Golos truda, 1922. – pp. 12-29.

“A Speech, delivered by I. Grossman-Roshchin at Kropotkin’s grave”, ibid. – pp. 158-160.

These articles, mentioned above, can be found here, or here. They were published by the anarcho-syndicalist publishing house Golos Truda in the USSR, legally, but still having to pass the censor.

Battlescarred
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Sep 1 2016 11:37

Hmmm, Excuse me for being a cynic but I feel that Grossman-Roshchin's conversion to Leninism from anarchism had more to do with an astute career move than anything else with a nice cushy job as the regime's pet cultural critic and praisesinger for Lenin.

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Sep 1 2016 13:55

Our previous discussion and my translation of his critique of the soviet modernist architecture current: https://libcom.org/library/notes-layman-iuda-grossman-roshchin

Golos Truda 1919 (courtesy of Karetelnik), which includes his article on 'October revolution and the tactics of the anarchosyndicalists': http://www.mediafire.com/download/j1djrzdl20fddvv/%D0%93%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%...

(basic point that the state apparatus came to dominate due to civil war conditions, not (or less) the particular character of Bolshevik ideology)

Grossman's thoughts on Lenin in this 1927 article (Russian, but OCR'd): http://www.mediafire.com/download/9aw41ljlzkazbbd/Mysli_o_Lenine._J._Gro...

Reminder that his article in PZM is online: “Personality, necessity, reality: (About “The German Ideology” – Marx and Engels about Feuerbach. Archive of K. Marx and F. Engels), 1924. – No. 12, Dec. – pp. 134-142.

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Sep 1 2016 15:38

Another interesting case is that of Hinke Bergen.


Hinke in 1906

Henrik 'Hinke' Bergegren, early member of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, who for a while vied Hjalmar Branting for the leadership of the party, espousing a peculiarly Swedish type of libertarian socialism known as "Youth Socialism". He was a well-known agitator, both as editor of various important movement newspapers, and for traveling all across the land. He was jailed numerous times for his opposition against militarism, and also for his advocacy of free love, as can be understood by the fact that 1910 law stipulating a ban against information about contraceptive methods was named "Lex Hinke".


Hinke, often portrayed by his enemies as either scatter-brained and violent or an immoral devil, using Brand to chase away reformists, militarists and the bourgeoise

In 1908 the Branting faction was eventually successful in attempting to expel Bergegren, consequently causing the party to also lose its own youth organization. Even though Hinke opened up the pages of the youth socialist magazine Brand (still being published today, now as Tidningen Brand) to various shades of libertarian thought, most noteworthy the initial reflections on revolutionary syndicalism, he never joined the SAC when the anarcho-syndicalist union was founded in 1910 by disgruntled LO workers and radical youth socialists, often expressing views of skepticism towards it.


Members of the Lund Youth Socialist Party local - "death to militarism"

In 1921 he broke with the Youth Socialist Party (despite the "Party" in its name, this is the form in which the social democrat youth league continued to agitate for anarchism and social revolution), joining the Communist Party of Sweden (SKP), and when the SKP suffered a split in 1929, he threw his lot with the splinter group the Socialist Party, of which he was a member until his death in 1936. (The party itself followed an interesting line of going from authoritarian to totalitarian when, following the Moscow trials in 1938 it begun a process which led it to restyl itself a 'national socialist party' under the leadership of Nils Flyg.)


Hinke agitating for anarchism in 1908