Appendix III

Appendix III

January 1, 1957 -

In a New Year message, Miklos Samogyi, President of the recently 're-organised' National Council of Free Trade Unions, appeals to the miners: "Miners, we beg of you to give us more coal!" The miners gave 'them' more coal - more coal left in the pits!

January 3, 1957 -

The miners of Tatabanya (production since the second Russian attack cut to 3% of normal) again out on strike, this time in protest against the arrest of 12 brother miners. Népszabadság reports 'large quantities' of arms and ammunition found hidden in a pitshaft entrance, in the mining town of Várpolata.

January 4, 1957 -

A military court sentences a 25-year-old transport worker to death for being in illegal possession of arms on October 30, 1956 - i.e., before the Kadar Government even existed!

January 5, 1957 -

After a visit to Budapest, N.S. Krushchev states: "In Hungary, everything is now in order."

January 6, 1957 -

Kadar issues statement on the 'major tasks' of the Government: "Russian troops will remain in Hungary for the time being, in order to repel the whole imperialist attack ... The question of their withdrawal will be a matter of negotiations between the U.S.S.R. and Hungary." The statement hailed the establishment of the Workers' Councils as "one of the great achievements of the regime", but in future, their function was to be changed slightly. They were to ensure that "the workers adhere strictly to Government decisions". Due to severe intimidation, with many of their comrades arrested and some believed to have been already executed, members of Workers' Councils now begin to resign.

January 8, 1957 -

The Central Workers' Council of Czepel resigns and issues the following statement:

"It was the hallowed events of the October 23 Revolution of the Hungarian people that brought us into being so that we could build an independent, free, and democratic Hungary, and establish the basis for a way of life free from fear.

"The events that have taken place in the meantime, however, have prevented us from fulfilling our mandate. We are to have no other role than to carry out the orders of the Government. We cannot carry out orders that oppose our mandate. We cannot sit passively when members of Workers' Councils are being arrested and harassed, and when the entire work of the Workers' Councils is branded as 'counter-revolutionary'. For these reasons, and regardless of our personal fate, we have unanimously decided to resign our mandate.

"Our decision does not mean that we are trying to evade responsibility. It is our opinion that our continued existence would help to deceive our comrades. We therefore return our mandate to the workers."

January 9, 1957 -

Industrial troubles, strikes and demonstrations, flare up more violently in all parts of the country.

January 10, 1957 -

Workers demonstrate in Czepel against the installation of a Government Commissioner and a director in the engineering works. The militia, reinforced by Russian troops, is called in. Workers dispersed after three hours of fighting. Situation in Czepel so grave that Government issues order forbidding newspaper reporters to visit island.

January 11, 1957 -

Official statement issued that one killed and six injured in 'disturbances' at the Czepel engineering works.

January 13, 1957 -

Official announcement over radio that, due to continuing 'counter-revolutionary' activity in industry, Summary Courts to be given additional power to impose the death sentence for almost any act against the Kadar Government. In addition to the death sentence for anyone calling a strike, the new decree declares it illegal for workers even to discuss possible strike action.

January 15, 1957 -

"The Central Council of the Hungarian Workers has issued a manifesto addressed to the workers. It says that against the terror of the Russian rulers, assisted by their Hungarian henchmen, there is only one thing to be done - to fight to the bitter end. It is a question of 'to be or not to be' the statement adds. Because of the terror, however, and the death penalty even for distributing leaflets, the Council exhorts the workers to spread all news concerning the underground by word of mouth. Sabotage and passive resistance are the order of the day. Strikes and go-slow tactics are recommended." (The Times).

January 17, 1957 -

The Writers' Union dissolved by decree.

January 19, 1957 -

The Union of Journalists dissolved by decree.

Janos Szabo, the elderly worker who played a prominent part in the Szena Square battles, executed.

January 21, 1957 -

"The waves of arbitrary arrests continue. Hundreds of members of Revolutionary Councils are in prison. During the last week there have been a number of judges who have resigned in protest against what they called the farce of this jurisdiction." (The Times).

January 25, 1957 -

Statement by the Ministry of Interior (over Budapest Radio) that the writers Gyula Hay, Domokos Varga, Tibor Tardos, Zoltan Roth, and Balazs Lengyel, and the journalists Sandor Novobaczky and Pal Letay, have been arrested and charged with participating in 'counter-revolutionary' activities.

January 27, 1957 -

Police announce that another 35 people have been arrested today in Budapest. Minister of State, Marosán, declares that "the insurrection was organised by international imperialism".

January 29, 1957 -

In a speech to the 'trade unions', Kadar says he has "never relied on his Government being popular with the Hungarian people".

Radio Budapest announces that the Government has 'suspended' the activity of the Workers' Council of Railwaymen.

February 3, 1957 -

Marosán, repeats the threats he made at the end of December: the Government "will create a climate of terror for the enemies of the people".

February 5, 1957 -

Discussions between the public prosecutors, the Minister of State Marosán, and the Minister of the Interior (Münnich). Decision to introduce new measures aimed at "the restoration of discipline and public order". The amnesty promised by Kadar on November 4 for all 'counter-revolutionaries' who laid down their arms is withdrawn. (Only very few people had been taken in. They had paid for their gullibility with their lives.)

February 13, 1957 -

Newspapers celebrate the 12th anniversary of Russian troops' entry into Budapest.

February 18, 1957 -

One of Kadar's promises, given at the meeting with workers' delegates on November 17, is to be fulfilled. A "workers' militia" is to be established ... for the purpose of "maintaining discipline among the workers".

February 21, 1957 -

Bela Barta, accused of "organising demonstrations on December 10, as a result of which people were killed and injured" (by Kadar's police!) is sentenced to 14 years' imprisonment by a tribunal at Miskolc.

February 21-23, 1957 -

Violent clashes between workers and police, sparked off by re-erection of red stars over industrial plants in Budapest.

February 26, 1957 -

Beginning of two-day conference of the 'Provisional Central Committee' of the Socialist Workers' Party. In a long resolution, part of the section dealing with how the unions are to 'serve' the workers, states: "We reject as reactionary the demand that trade unions should be independent of both the Party and the Workers' and Peasants' Government, and the demand for the right to strike in defiance of the Workers' State".

March 5, 1957 -

Gyula Kallai, Minister of Culture, declares that a "systematic ideological propaganda is necessary to liberate the intellectuals from counter-revolutionary influences".

March 6, 1957 -

A new literary weekly Magyarosag is published in Budapest to replace Irodalmi Ujsag (literary gazette of the dissolved Writers' Union). It announces the formation of new literary club, Tancsis, to replace the Petöfi Circle.

March 17, 1957 -

Announcement that a Communist Youth organisation is to be formed.

March 20, 1957 -

Ministry of Interior issues order that persons " dangerous to the State or to public security " are liable to " forced residence " at places specified by the authorities.

March 23, 1957 -

Minister of State, Marosán, states at a meeting in Czepel that Russian troops will remain in Hungary "as long as the interests of the workers require their presence".

March 27, 1957 -

At a press conference, Marosán, declares that "although the counter-revolutionaries have suffered defeat ... some disturbing elements still remain to be eliminated".

April 8, 1957 -

At a trial in Budapest, three of the accused are sentenced. Playwright, Joseph Gali, and journalist, Gyula Obersovsky, charged with publishing an illegal journal and 'agitation', are sentenced to 1 and 3 three years respectively. (But see below: June 20, 25 and July 4).

April 17, 1957 -

Radio Budapest announces that "counter-revolutionary" Miklos Olach, aged 21, has been executed at Borsod for "killing an officer of the Hungarian Army".

April 20, 1957 -

Ministry of Interior issues a communiqué that the writer, Tibor Dery, has been arrested and charged with "behaviour prejudicial to the security of the State".

April 29, 1957 -

Announcement that Minister of State, Marosán, has been appointed First Secretary of the Budapest section of the 'Socialist Workers' Party'.

May 1, 1957 -

In a May Day speech, Marosán pays tribute to Kadar for "creating the conditions that have made possible the existence of the Party and of socialist Hungary".

May 3, 1957 -

The trade union paper Nepakarat reports the arrest of a "counter-revolutionary band" of nine workers in the Nograd area. They are accused of obstructing Russian tanks from entering the industrial town of Solgotorjan.

May 10-11, 1957 -

Meeting of National Assembly. Kadar says: "The task of the leaders is not to put into effect the wishes of the masses ... the leaders' task is to realise the interests of the masses ... In the recent past, we have encountered the phenomenon of certain categories of workers acting against their own interests ... If the wishes of the masses do not coincide with progress, then they must be led in another direction."

June 20, 1957 -

Announcement that Joseph Gali and Gyula Obersovsky have now been sentenced to death. Other prison sentences of accused in the same trial are raised.

June 25, 1957 -

Official communique announces the re-trial of the writers Gali and Obersovsky. In the meantime, death sentences suspended.

June 27, 1957 -

National Conference of the 'Socialist Workers' Party' opens in Budapest. Kadar gives a report on the general situation - couples Nagy with Rakosi as "guilty of treason".

June 29, 1957 -

National Conference ends. A resolution condemning the "counter-revolution attempt of October-November 1956" admits that it is not yet defeated: "Those who have committed crimes and continue to undermine the people's regime, will be severely punished". Tribute is paid to "the brotherly help of the Soviet Union".

July 4, 1957 -

Death sentences on Gali and Obersovsky quashed by the Budapest Supreme Court. They are sentenced instead to life and fifteen years' imprisonment respectively.

July 9, 1957 -

Népszabadság reports that police had to be called in to put an end to strike of building workers which started on June 5, at Sajoszent-Peter, for a wages increase.

July 25, 1957 -

In a speech, Minister of State, Marosán, says hundreds of arrests made during recent weeks ... also that the Soviet Union has agreed to the Hungarian Government's request that Rakosi should remain in exile in the U.S.S.R..

August 7, 1957 -

Announcement that there is to be a trial of seven workers who have been charged with "counter-revolutionary" activities in the Tatabanya coalfields, where strikes and "industrial unrest" continue.

August 20, 1957 -

Purge of schoolteachers in Miskolc.

Nepakarat reports speech by Sandor Gaspar, Secretary of the 'Council of Free Trade Unions', during which he said: "Absenteeism, unpunctuality, and unjustified early departure from work, have increased in factories during the last months".

September 1, 1957 -

Third volume of the official White Book published in Budapest. This gives the total number of 'comrades' killed during the revolution as 201 (166 members of the A.V.O., 26 Party officials - including people working for the A.V.O. - and 9 civilians).

Celebrating 'Miners' Day' at Tatabanya, Kadar admits that the "October mood" still prevails among the miners.

September 17, 1957 -

Népszabadság scolds factory managers who throw on to the Government the responsibility for "tightening norms and reducing wages", instead of "explaining that such unpopular decisions are made in the interests of the workers".

September 21-23, 1957 -

Marosán makes speeches in several parts of Budapest, including the Technical University. "If there are any demonstrations on October 23, those taking part will be severely punished." As if to add emphasis to this, he adds that 1,200 people were arrested in July.

September 29, 1957 -

At Kecskemet, Deputy Premier Antal Apro announces that the remaining Workers Councils are to be replaced by "works councils, under the leadership of the trade unions".

October 15, 1957 -

Népszabadság repeats threats of heavy penalties for any person who "disturbs the peace" on October 23, and emphasises the need for "increased vigilance".

October 16, 1957 -

Marosán again warns students against any demonstrations on October 23.

October 23, 1957 -

Budapest and other cities had a calm day. A.V.O. out on the streets in great numbers. Russian troops standing by.

November 2, 1957 -

Budapest City Council decides to erect a statue of Lenin - on the pedestal at the plinth in City Park where had stood the 26 ft. bronze statue of Stalin, pulled down by demonstrators on October 23, 1956.

The Hungarian Writers' Association Abroad receives reports of a secret trial of Gyula Hay, Tibor Dery, Zoltan Zelk and Tibor Tardos.

November 3, 1957 -

Writing in Népszabadság, the Minister of the Interior, Ferenc Münnich, reports on the first year's achievements of the Kadar Government. He attacks the Workers' Councils which "were led by class-alien elements ... It is necessary to replace this whole set-up by new organisations as soon as possible".

November 13, 1957 -

Radio Budapest announces that the trial of the writers (held in camera since the beginning of the month) has ended. The verdict of the Supreme Court is: Tibor Dery (aged 63) sentenced to nine years' imprisonment; Gyula Hay (57) six years; Zoltan Zelk (51) three years; and Tibor Tardos 18 months. Report that during the proceedings, Dery and Hay declared that if a similar situation were to arise today, they would act exactly as they did in October 1956.

November 17, 1957 -

Official announcement that all remaining Workers' Councils are to be abolished forthwith.