This book is the product of many relations over a number of years, and my gratitude to those who have been part of it is great indeed. Most of the research was carried out as part of a doctoral thesis undertaken in the Department of Sociology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. I owe a debt of gratitude to Nikolas Rose who was always supportive, encouraging and challenging in his supervision of the thesis. Throughout that process and since, Martha Michailidou has been the very best of friends. I could not have done without her warmth, intellectual creativity and critical bent. Conversation with friends and colleagues always helped me develop these ideas, and led them elsewhere (not that anyone acknowledged here is responsible for the book's errors). For this I would like to thank Andrew Barry, Chetan Bhatt, Margot Butler, Kirsten Campbell, Stephen Cross, Ben Gidley, Liz Moor, Yasmeen Narayan and Tiziana Terranova. I would also like to thank Paul Gilroy and Keith Ansell Pearson for their encouragement at the stage of the examination of the thesis. Thank you also to Diana Lockyer and Jean York for their support in the early stages, and to those at Goldsmiths who helped me through the not always easy combination of research and work, Karen Catling and Doreen Norman. I would also like to thank Joe Whiting for commissioning this book and the editorial team at Routledge for their support in the final stages.

In their singular ways Leah Hargreaves, Marcella Trowell, Bob Gannon, Jerry Dammers, Nichola East, Roger Arnold, Cicero Souza and the crowd from Fungus Mungus and the Cafe on the Common drew me into a life in London that I will always be grateful for. I also owe a great thank you to Runa Khalique, who has inspired, supported and enlivened me in ways that I hope she knows.

Many thanks to Ed Emory and Red Notes ( for the Italian Archive and permission to cite from some of the unpublished material, Kate Sharpley Library ( for archival material in the early stages of the research, Steve at Antagonism Press ( for left communist material, and Joe Kenyon for his claimants' action papers. I am grateful also to Hilary Partridge and Charles J. Stivale for permission to cite from some of their unpublished works and translations.

xii Acknowledgements

Parts of the following chapters have been published elsewhere, and I gratefully acknowledge permission to publish this material here. Chapter 3 is an extended version of an article that appeared in Economy and Society 31(3), 2002. Part of Chapter 4 was published by Sage in Theory, Culture and Society 18(5), 2001.