Biennio Rosso

The occupation of the factories: Italy 1920 - Paolo Spriano

Fiat plant occupied by the workers, 1920

The story of the mass wave of strikes and factory occupations which swept Italy 1920-21 told from the documents and accounts of the time. Written in 1964 and translated into English in 1975 by Gwyn A Williams, who also wrote the introduction. We don't agree with all of the political perspective of the author but reproduce this text for its historical factual information.

From mass strike to new society - Jeremy Brecher

Excellent text by Jeremy Brecher examining where mass strikes have progressed into the working class attempting to run society in its own interests and the lessons we can learn from them.

Gramsci and syndicalism - Tom Wetzel

Antonio Gramsci

Tom Wetzel on the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, the Italian factory council movement of 1919-1920, and the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of revolutionary unionism.

Italy 1920: When 600,000 workers seized control of their workplaces

Tom Wetzel details the Italian Factory Occupations of 1920, which matured beyond conventional trade unionism and at its height involved about 600,000 workers. This article was originally presented as a talk at the Conference on Workers' Self-Organization in St. Louis in 1988.

Preventative Counter-Revolution - Luigi Fabbri

Luigi Fabbri's moving account and analysis of the rise of fascism in Italy.

Ferrero, Pietro, 1892- 1922

Pietro Ferrero

A short biography of Pietro Ferrero who, with Maurizio Garino, was one of the anarchists at the head of the factory councils movement in Turin.

Garino, Maurizio, 1892-1977

A short biography of Maurizio Garino, one of the leading anarchist animators of the Italian factory council movement.

1918-1922: The Arditi del Popolo

Arditi del Popolo

A history of the people's militias who fought Italy's fascists covering the birth, growth and decline of the world's first anti-fascist group, the Arditi del Popolo.

1918-1921: The Italian factory occupations and Biennio Rosso

Workers' assembly in an occupied Fiat plant, Turin 1920

A brief history of the Italian Biennio Rosso (two red years) and the mass factory occupations of 1920 where half a million workers ran their workplaces for themselves.

Seize power or seize the factory? - Amadeo Bordiga

Amadeo Bordiga's commentary on the Italian factory occupation movement in 1920 as well as his view for how the movement should move forward. We do not agree with it but reproduce it for reference.