The history of the federalist IWMA - Vadim Damier

Article by Russian anarcho-syndicalist Vadim Damier on the occasion of the 140th anniversary of the Federalist International Workingmen's Association (IWMA).

Imperialism, the world war and social democracy - Herman Gorter

German left communist Herman Gorter on war, imperialism and the nationalist degeneration of the First International.

The workers themselves - Wayne Thorpe

The Workers Themselves - Wayne Thorpe

Wayne Thorpe analyzes the international policies and endeavors of the syndicalist movement before and after the First World War, relations among national syndicalist organizations, the origins of the International Working Men's Association (founded in 1922), and the collective syndicalist response to rival forms of labour organization.

The Bakunin-Marx split in the 1st International - Franz Mehring

Bakunin & Marx

Excerpts from Mehring's Karl Marx - The Story of His Life (1918) on the conflict between Bakunin and Marx in the 1st International (International Working Men's Association). Mehring gives a very evenhanded account of the famous split that was to initially define the historical relationship between the statist and anti-statist wings of the working class movement. Unlike most other Marxists up to the present - and whilst maintaining his political disagreements with Bakunin's anarchism and criticising his faults and weaknesses - Mehring without bias also points out the slanders, intrigues and trickeries of Marx and his supporters in this episode.

Marx, Bakunin, and the question of authoritarianism - David Adam

Marx and Bakunin

David Adam casts doubt on the traditional narrative regarding the question of authoritarianism in the Marx-Bakunin conflict.

IWMA - further reading guide

Founding conference of the IWMA, September 28, 1864, London

Libcom's guide to further reading on the International Working Men's Association (IWMA), or First International.

Covelli, Emilio aka Mephistopheles, 1846 -1915


A short biography of pioneering Italian anarchist-communist Emilio Covelli.

Claramunt, Teresa, 1862- 1931

Teresa Claramunt

One of the founders of the Spanish anarchist movement, an ‘organic intellectual’ and one of its most distinguished women activists.

Montels, Jules, 1843-1916

Jules Montels in his Commune military uniform

A short biography of anarchist, Paris Communard and tutor to Leo Tolstoy's children, Jules Montels.

Alérini, Charles, 1842-1877+


A short biography of French anarchist revolutionary and First International activist, Charles Alérini.