The two anarchisms - legalism and illegalism in the libertarian movement in late nineteenth century Spain - Miguel Amorós
Excellent text examining the creation of the first police forces, which took place in England and the US in just a few decades in the mid-19th century. And explaining that they were not brought into being to prevent crime or protect the public, but primarily to control crowds: the working class, white and black.
Meetings attended by thousands of people have been held in several cities of Spain in the wake of arrests of anarchists by police on the morning of December 16. In the course of a special operation code-named “Pandora”, the police tracked down activists whom they intended to accuse of organizing terrorist acts. As a result, 14 people were arrested; three were later released.