Russian revolution

A history of socialist thought: volume IV, part I - communism and social democracy 1914-1931

Volume of GDH Cole's work examining social democracy and communism, looking at Italy and the German and Russian revolutions.

Bolshevik matters - Karl Kautsky

5 fragments of Kautsky on Bolshevik related matters published here for the first time.

Lessons of the counterrevolutions - Amadeo Bordiga

A 1953 text in which Amadeo Bordiga examines the lessons of counterrevolutions from the defeat of Spartacus to the Battle of Legnano in 1176 and from the Peasant War in Germany of 1525 to Stalinism (“State capitalism is not a semi-socialism, but just plain capitalism”) and recapitulates some “fundamental positions of Marxism”, which he describes as a “doctrine for the understanding of ... counterrevolutions”, since “everyone knows how to orient themselves at the moment of victory, but few are those who know what to do when defeat arrives” and “it is necessary to understand the counterrevolution in order to prepare the revolution of tomorrow”.

Trotsky’s defence. Response to Trotsky - Victor Serge

Kronstadt Izvestia

A short letter disputing Trotsky's attempts to shift the blame for the repression of the Kronstadt revolt.

The guillotine at work, part 1: the Leninist counter-revolution

Originally published in 1940 in two parts, this is the (partly eyewitness) account of the Leninist terror inflicted upon Russia during the revolution after 1917.

Great October in the Ukraine

A short piece on the events in the Ukraine during the October Revolution in 1917.

Ten days that shook the world - John Reed

The basis for the Academy Award winning 1981 film Reds, Reed's classic eyewitness account captures the opening days of the Russian Revolution.

An irony of the Russian civil war


A short account of Vasko-Bogdan who started out as an anarchist and met his end fighting the Makhnovists

Red Petrograd: revolution in the factories 1917-1918 - S.A. Smith

Well researched and detailed study of the factory-level impact of the Russian Revolution in Petrograd, dealing in particular with implementation of workers' control by the factory councils.

Problems of friendship with Trotsky - Max Eastman

Based on his experience as Trotsky's biographer and literary collaborator, Eastman offers some insights into the man's personality and social behaviour.