Este artigo descreve como as teorias de Lênin e, portanto, o leninismo e o trotskismo, são prolongamentos da teoria de Kautsky sobre a questão da relação entre a classe operária e a teoria revolucionária. É mostrado que a resposta que Kautsky dá à questão constitui o fundamento teórico da prática e da organização de todas as variedades de leninismo.
Originally written in 1936-37 and published in Paris, 1938 under the title "Au Pays du Grand Mensonge". The first part of his account of his time in the Soviet Union, The Russian Enigma, was distributed by the Labour Book Service in 1940, and the complete text was published under the same title by Ink Links in 1979.
In Soviet historiography, the social basis of Russian anarchism was routinely ascribed to the petite-bourgeoisie. This legend has persisted into the post-Soviet period, despite a lack of empirical evidence. Using the database he has painstakingly constructed over many years, the Ukrainian researcher Anatoly Dubovik seeks to deal with this question scientifically by means of a statistical analysis.