state socialism

The German crisis - Mikhail Bakunin

1870 text by Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin on the crisis in Germany.

The Bolsheviks and workers' control: the state and counter-revolution - Maurice Brinton

Leading Bolsheviks Lenin and Trotsky.

A remarkable pamphlet by Maurice Brinton exposing the struggle that took place over the running of workplaces between workers and the new state in the Russian Revolution.

Leninism or Marxism - Rosa Luxemburg

Leninism or Marxism was published as an article in 1904 under the title "Organisational Questions of the Russian Social Democracy" in Iskra and Neue Zeit, and later reprinted in pamphlet form titled Marxism vs. Leninism in 1935 by the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation.

The mass strike - Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg

The Mass Strike, the Political Party and the Trade Unions by Rosa Luxemburg, written and first published: 1906

What was the USSR? Part IV: Towards a theory of the deformation of value

Soviet tractor factory

Aufheben's final article on the nature of the USSR, arguing that the Soviet Union was in fact a state capitalist system but where the law of value was deformed.

What was the USSR? Part III: Left communism and the Russian revolution


In the third part of their analysis of the USSR, Aufheben examine left communist characterisations of the soviet union as "state capitalist".

What was the USSR? Part II: Russia as a non-mode of production

Hillel Ticktin

Aufheben critique Hillel Ticktin's analysis of the Soviet Union. Having disposed of the theory of the USSR as a 'degenerated workers' state', Ticktin's theory presents itself as the most persuasive alternative to the understanding of the USSR as capitalist.

What was the USSR? Part I: Trotsky and state capitalism

Trotsky, 1938

Aufheben begin their four-part analysis of the economic system of the Soviet Union by examining the most common theories about its nature - Trotsky's degenerated workers state, and Tony Cliff's state capitalism.