strategy of tension

NATO's secret armies - Daniele Ganser

This fascinating book shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II.

A brief history of the Italian section of the Situationist International - Miguel Amorós

A short account of the second Italian Section of the Situationist International (members: Gianfranco Sanguinetti, Paolo Salvadori, Claudio Pavan and Eduardo Rothe) from its origins in the youth culture protests of the mid-1960s to its collapse during the state terror campaign of the 1970s, including discussions of the precursor journal, S, the influence of the French situationists and May ‘68, the role played by the “organizational question”, the various publications of the Italian Section, its isolation from the other radical currents in Italy and the sordid personality conflicts that plagued the Section and finally led to its dissolution in 1971.

The veritable report on the last chance to save capitalism in Italy - Censor

Piazza Fontana bombing, 1969

A brilliant hoax report by former Situationist International member Gianfranco Sanguinetti purporting to be by a cultured Italian aristocrat calling himself "Censor". It was sent to 520 of the most powerful people in Italy in 1975 and sounding like a conservative from another era Censor counselled his peers in response to the mass strikes sweeping the country, causing a scandal and laying bare the state manipulation of terrorist groups in the Strategy of Tension.

Franca Rame’s rape: Fascists, carabinieri and ‘a higher wish’ - Girolamo De Michele

Article on Italian state and police involvement in the rape and torture of a radical activist by fascists, translated by Struggles in Italy. Trigger warning for discussion of sexual violence.

Bologna remembers the victims of 1980 fascist massacre

Citizens, political organizations, and various institutional representatives marched through the streets of Bologna to remember the massacre that struck the city on August 2nd, 1980.

Accidental death of an anarchist - Dario Fo

Dario Fo's best known play, based on the events surrounding Giuseppe Pinelli's death.

Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a 'black' terrorist - Stuart Christie

Investigative journalism by Stuart Christie into the neo-fascist terrorist career of Stefano Delle Chiaie, which spans two continents and two decades. The history of Delle Chiaie is the history of nazism in our world today. Through it we see fascist terrorist organisations in their true role: agents of an inner, oligarchic power sphere which sets itself above all law and morality

Giuseppe 'Pino' Pinelli (1928-1969): the 17th victim of the Piazza Fontana bombing

Giuseppe Pinelli

Short biography of Italian anarchist framed by the state and killed while in its custody.

1970: The Golpe Borghese coup plot in Italy

The Black Prince: Borghese

A short history of the aborted neofascist Golpe Borghese coup plot in Italy, 1970, and the subsequent repercussions.

Reviewing the experience of Italy in the 1970s - Negri

Strikers in 1969

Antonio Negri recalls the political experience of various aspects of the mass struggles of the 1970s in Italy, including the Strategy of Tension.