strategy of tension

The veritable report on the last chance to save capitalism in Italy - Censor

Piazza Fontana bombing, 1969

A brilliant hoax report by former Situationist International member Gianfranco Sanguinetti purporting to be by a cultured Italian aristocrat calling himself "Censor". It was sent to 520 of the most powerful people in Italy in 1975 and sounding like a conservative from another era Censor counselled his peers in response to the mass strikes sweeping the country, causing a scandal and laying bare the state manipulation of terrorist groups in the Strategy of Tension.

Below is the text version of the report with appendices, translated and compiled by Not Bored!. Attached in PDF format is the version of the report translated by Len Bracken.

Franca Rame’s rape: Fascists, carabinieri and ‘a higher wish’ - Girolamo De Michele

Article on Italian state and police involvement in the rape and torture of a radical activist by fascists, translated by Struggles in Italy. Trigger warning for discussion of sexual violence.

On the 9th of March 1973 Franca Rame was abducted by five men and forced to get in a van where she was tortured and raped. Famously, Franca managed to talk about this aggression in a monologue called ‘Lo Stupro’ (‘The Rape’), which she included in the show ‘Tutta casa, letto e chiesa’.

Bologna remembers the victims of 1980 fascist massacre

Citizens, political organizations, and various institutional representatives marched through the streets of Bologna to remember the massacre that struck the city on August 2nd, 1980.

On August 2nd, as every year since 1980, citizens, political organizations, and various institutional representatives marched through the streets of Bologna to remember the massacre that struck the city during the terrible years of terrorism. 32 years ago a bomb was placed in the waiting room of Bologna’s central train station, killing 85 people and injuring more than 200.

Stefano Delle Chiaie: Portrait of a 'black' terrorist - Stuart Christie

Investigative journalism by Stuart Christie into the neo-fascist terrorist career of Stefano Delle Chiaie, which spans two continents and two decades. The history of Delle Chiaie is the history of nazism in our world today. Through it we see fascist terrorist organisations in their true role: agents of an inner, oligarchic power sphere which sets itself above all law and morality

You can also purchase this book from the excellent Christie Books , or if you enjoyed it, why not send them a donation?

Giuseppe 'Pino' Pinelli (1928-1969): the 17th victim of the Piazza Fontana bombing

Giuseppe Pinelli

Short biography of Italian anarchist framed by the state and killed while in its custody.

by Paolo Finzi

1970: The Golpe Borghese coup plot in Italy

The Black Prince: Borghese

A short history of the aborted neofascist Golpe Borghese coup plot in Italy, 1970, and the subsequent repercussions.

The Golpe Borghese was a failed Italian coup d'état allegedly planned for the night of 7 or 8 December, 1970. It was named after Junio Valerio Borghese, an Italian World War II commander of the notorious X MAS unit, the "Black Prince", convicted of war crimes, but still a hero in the eyes of many post-War Italian fascists.

Reviewing the experience of Italy in the 1970s - Negri

Strikers in 1969

Antonio Negri recalls the political experience of various aspects of the mass struggles of the 1970s in Italy, including the Strategy of Tension.

Between "historic compromise" and terrorism
Reviewing the experience of Italy in the 1970s

Pinelli, Giuseppe “Pino”, 1928-1969

Giuseppe Pinelli

A short biography of Giuseppe Pinelli, anarchist railway worker who was murdered by police in the Strategy of Tension. He was immortalised in Dario Fo's play Accidental Death of an Anarchist.

Giuseppe Pinelli, nicknamed Pino
Born 21 October 1928 – Milan, Italy, died 15 December 1969 – Milan, Italy

Valpreda, Pietro, 1933-2002

Pietro Valpreda, front row third from left, on a hunger strike demonstration

A short biography of the anarchist militant and dancer Pietro Valpreda who was caught up in the Strategy of Tension.

Pietro Valpreda was born in Milan in 1933. At the beginning of the 1960s he began to frequent anarchist circles in Milan and Rome. He worked as a dancer in theatrical reviews.

1958-1990: Operation Gladio, Italy

Operation Gladio

The history of the secret neo-fascist army in Italy set up ostensibly to resist Soviet invasion, but in reality to be used in the event of the working class growing too strong once again.

Following the end of World War II, the Italian workers’ movement was rapidly gaining strength.