Umberto Eco

Ur-Fascism - Audio book

An audio book of Umberto Eco's essay on the development of Fascism. Produced by the group Audible Anarchist.

Eternal Fascism: Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackshirt - Umberto Eco

In spite of some fuzziness regarding the difference between various historical forms of fascism, I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate around it.