An extensive chronology of the life and activities of notorious Lithuanian-American anarchist, Emma Goldman.
The chronology was created to assist researchers using the comprehensive
collection of The Emma Goldman Papers and to
supplement the introductory
essays and indexes to the microfilm edition. It serves also to fill some of
the obvious gaps in the collection, to compensate for the various government
seizures of Goldman's letters and papers during her most active period of
political activity in the United States up to her deportation--papers that
Goldman herself unsuccessfully tried to retrieve while she was writing her
autobiography. The chronological details of Goldman's public life in
America--the magnitude of her lecture schedule, the extent of her travels, and
the evolution of her varied and far-reaching political friendships--are a
critical complement to her correspondence, lecture manuscripts, and government
surveillance documents, and together, they constitute a more accurate
historical representation of Goldman's life work.
The research involved in locating relatively rare source material for tracking
and recording a full list of Goldman's speaking engagements (sometimes
numbering over three hundred in a year), and determining which of her scheduled
lectures were barred by the police, was daunting. For these, and other events
in her life, the Project editors relied primarily on the sometimes flawed
recollections in Goldman's autobiography, reports from Mother
her chronicle of her experiences in Russia, letters and government documents in
the collection, and various secondary historical sources. Despite the
generally inconsistent reporting in the mainstream press about controversial
anarchists, newspaper accounts of Goldman's lectures were a crucial resource
for the identification of dates and places of, as well as the character of the
public response to, Goldman's lectures. Though inevitably incomplete, the
chronology will facilitate effective use of this immense collection.
Emma Goldman born to Taube Bienowitch and Abraham Goldman in Kovno (present-day Kaunas), Lithuania,
then a province of the Russian Empire. Siblings include step-sisters Helena (b.
1860) and Lena (b. 1862) Zodikow, and brothers Louis (b. 1870), Herman (b.
1872), and Morris (b. 1879, identified as "Yegor" in Goldman's autobiography,
Living My Life). Goldman's girlhood and
adolescence spent in Kovno, Popelan, Königsberg, and St. Petersburg.
Alexander (Sasha) Berkman born in Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania).
Czar Alexander II assassinated by Nihilists in St. Petersburg.
Goldman immigrates to the United States with her sister Helena; they settle in
Rochester, N.Y., with their sister Lena.
Goldman finds employment as a garment worker.
On May 1, three hundred thousand workers throughout the country strike for the
eight-hour workday. On May 4 in Chicago's Haymarket Square during a workers'
protest of police violence the day before, a bomb is thrown that results in the
deaths of seven police officers. Although the identity of the bomb-thrower is
never determined, prominent anarchists and organizers of the event are held
responsible and sentenced to death. Goldman attributes her political awakening
to German socialist Johanna Greie's eloquent defense of the innocence of the
Haymarket anarchists at a Rochester lecture during the Haymarket trial. During
this period, Goldman begins to read anarchist literature on a regular basis,
including German anarchist Johann Most's paper Die
The other members of Goldman's family emigrate from St. Petersburg to
Marries fellow factory worker Jacob A. Kersner, gaining U.S. citizenship.
Execution of four Chicago anarchists found guilty in the Haymarket Square
bombing elicits international outcry.
Goldman divorces Kersner and leaves Rochester. Moves to New Haven, Conn.,
where she works at a corset factory. Meets many Russian socialists and
anarchists, including Dr. Hillel Solotaroff who, during visits from New York,
lectures in New Haven.
Goldman returns to Rochester where she lives with her sister Helena's family
and works in a sewing factory. Under pressure, she agrees to remarry Kersner;
after a brief reconciliation, Goldman is shunned by her parents and the Jewish
community of Rochester for her insistence on finalizing the divorce.
Goldman arrives in New York City on Aug. 15; meets Johann Most, editor of
Die Freiheit, and Alexander Berkman; gains
employment doing piece work for a silk waist factory. Goldman's
political activities include support work at the office of
Die Freiheit, and help with the organization
of the second anniversary commemoration of the hanging of the Haymarket
Goldman and Berkman become lovers. She shares an apartment with Berkman, his
cousin Modest Stein, and their mutual friend Helen Minkin.
Berkman and Goldman contemplate returning to Russia when they hear about
political repression there, but lack the necessary financial resources.
Johann Most arranges Goldman's first public lecture tour to Rochester, Buffalo,
and Cleveland to speak on the limitations of the eight-hour movement. In the
course of her tour, Goldman demonstrates her talents as an orator and realizes
the need to articulate her political beliefs independently; her growing
autonomy causes tensions with Most.
Goldman presents a series of lectures in New York City and Newark, N.J., on
subjects ranging from the "Paris Commune, 1871," to "The Right To Be Lazy," and
on Most's Pittsburgh Manifesto of 1883, sponsored primarily by the
International Working People's Association, and delivered in German and in
Goldman works tirelessly to recruit women workers to join the cloakmakers
strike, organized by Jewish labor leader Joseph Barondess that begins in
Goldman becomes ill and is forced to spend several weeks convalescing. During
this period she has a brief affair with Modest Stein.
Accompanies Johann Most on his two-week lecture tour of New England.
To earn enough money to return to Russia and respond to the political
repression there, Goldman moves briefly with comrades, including Berkman, to
New Haven, with plans to start a dressmaking cooperative. Until they build a
clientele, Goldman works temporarily at the corset factory where she had worked
in 1888. Berkman gains employment in the printing trade.
Goldman helps to organize an anarchist educational and social group in New
Haven that becomes a gathering place for German, Russian, and Jewish
immigrants; among their invited speakers are Johann Most and Hillel Solotaroff,
a leader of the anarchist group Pioneers of Liberty.
When the members of Goldman's dressmaking cooperative fall ill or move away,
Goldman and Berkman move back to New York where they begin to attend meetings
of the Autonomie group, led by Most's chief contender, Josef Peukert.
Goldman lectures in Elizabeth, N.J., and Baltimore. Her two talks in Baltimore
are before the International Workingmen's Association and the Workingmen's
Educational Society. She reaches both German and Eastern European Jewish
immigrant communities, many of whom participate in a conference of Yiddish
anarchist organizations in December.
Goldman scheduled to speak at the "Great Commune Celebration" sponsored by the
International Worker's Association in New Haven.
Goldman marches with the Working Women's Society of the United Hebrew Trades in
New York's May Day parade.
Goldman addresses a mass meeting to protest the second imprisonment of Johann
Most at Blackwell's Island after the Supreme Court rejects the appeal of his
1887 conviction for illegal assembly and incitement to riot following the
Winter and Spring
In search of a financial base, Goldman moves to Massachusetts--first to
Springfield to work in a photography studio with Modest Stein ("Fedya"), and
then to Worcester, where, with Alexander Berkman, Stein and Goldman open their
own studio. When the photography business fails, they open an ice-cream parlor
with the renewed aim of returning to Russia to respond to the political
repression under Czar Alexander III.
Anarchists disrupt the Central Labor Union's May Day celebration in Union
Square, New York. In retaliation, the organizers of the celebration stop
Goldman's speaking by hitching a horse to the open wagon she is using as a
platform and pulling it away.
Goldman, Berkman, and Stein return to New York to respond to the lockout of
employees of the Carnegie Steel Company in Homestead, Pa. On July 6, Pinkerton
guards hired by plant manager Henry Clay Frick kill nine striking steel
workers; Goldman and Berkman decide to avenge their deaths.
On July 23, Berkman attempts to assassinate Frick, but fails. Goldman is
suspected of, but not charged with, complicity; police raid her apartment and
seize her papers. Debate within the labor movement about the effectiveness of
Berkman's action follows; Johann Most denounces Berkman and questions his
motives. As public antagonism to Berkman's act mounts, Goldman temporarily
goes into hiding.
Goldman chairs a meeting of over three hundred anarchists to discuss Berkman's
act. Other speakers include Autonomie group leader Josef Peukert, Dyer D. Lum,
editor of the Alarm, and Italian anarchist Saverio
Merlino, an editor of Solidarity.
Berkman found guilty on all counts and sentenced to twenty-two years in prison;
Goldman learns about his sentence while she is lecturing in Baltimore.
Announcement prompts audience pandemonium, police action, and Goldman's
Goldman visits Berkman at the Western State Penitentiary in Pittsburgh.
Goldman appears only occasionally in public to lecture. Speaks in Manhattan on
Dec. 4, denouncing government anti-immigration legislation; other
speakers at the event include anarchist journalist John Edelmann, Spanish
anarchist Pedro Esteve, and Saverio Merlino.
During this period, Goldman meets German anarchist Robert Reitzel, editor of
the Der arme Teufel.
Attends anarchist meetings, where, in late December, Goldman meets and falls
in love with Austrian anarchist Edward Brady.
General financial panic deepens into one of the worst economic depressions in
Goldman returns temporarily to Rochester to recuperate from illness.
Governor John Peter Altgeld pardons three men found guilty of the Haymarket
The day after a riot of the unemployed on Aug. 17, Goldman addresses a public
meeting, urging those in need to take bread if they are hungry. The next
evening she helps lead a procession of several hundred anarchists to Union
Square, where, among many other speakers, she addresses a crowd of the
On Aug. 21, Goldman again leads a march of a thousand people to Union Square,
where, speaking in German and English, she repeats her belief that workers have
a right to take bread if they are hungry, and to demonstrate their needs
"before the palaces of the rich"; about three thousand gather to listen.
Goldman's speech is characterized by the press as "incendiary" and, over a week
later, cited as the reason for her arrest.
Goldman lectures in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, on Aug. 23, before
traveling to Philadelphia. While in Philadelphia, Goldman meets German
anarchist Max Baginksi and American-born anarchist Voltairine de Cleyre for the
Scheduled to speak to the unemployed, Goldman is arrested in Philadelphia on
New York warrants charging her with incitement to riot for her Aug. 21
On Sept. 6, a New York Grand Jury indicts Goldman on three charges. She is
returned from Philadelphia to New York on Sept. 9, where she is placed in
confinement. On Sept. 11, pleads not guilty; released on bail Sept. 14.
Benefit concert on Sept. 23 intended to raise money for Goldman's defense is a
Goldman tried in court; defended by ex-mayor
of New York A. Oakey Hall. Denies speaking the words attributed to her by
police detectives who monitored her speech. Jury finds Goldman guilty of
aiding and abetting an unlawful assemblage.
Goldman is sentenced to Blackwell's Island penitentiary for one year. Begins
her term on Oct. 18.
In prison, Goldman is initially put in charge of the sewing shop, but soon
trained to serve as a nurse in the prison hospital. Reads widely while in
Benefit concert and ball held in New York City for Goldman and others
imprisoned for speaking at the Aug. 21 demonstration. Voltairine de Cleyre
delivers a speech, "In Defense of Emma Goldman and the Right of
Strike of the Pullman railroad car plant in Chicago begins on May 11; by July
3, federal troops are called in to quell the strike.
Goldman released from prison after serving ten months. She sells a report
about her prison experience for $150 to the New York World, which
publishes it the day after her release.
Large anarchist gathering in New York welcomes Goldman back. Among the
speakers are Voltairine de Cleyre, English anarchist Charles Mowbray, and
Italian anarchist Maria Roda.
Goldman scheduled to speak on "The Right of Free Speech" at a mass meeting
called by the American Labor Union in Newark.
Meets with the American journalist and labor rights advocate John Swinton and
his wife Orsena, who had both visited her at Blackwell's Island.
Goldman's interest in reaching more American-born citizens grows; resolves to
conduct more propaganda in the English language.
Goldman speaks in Baltimore.
Moves into an apartment with Edward Brady.
Goldman begins a new campaign for the commutation of Berkman's prison sentence;
works as a nurse.
Goldman speaks at a poorly attended commemoration of the Haymarket martyrs in
New York; other speakers include Charles Mowbray, German anarchist and
barkeeper Justus Schwab, Voltairine de Cleyre, Max Baginski, and John Edelmann,
editor of the anarchist journal Solidarity.
Scheduled to speak with Charles Mowbray in West Hoboken, N.J., and Baltimore.
Goldman helps organize a benefit ball sponsored by the joint anarchist groups
of New York.
Goldman lectures on strikes at a meeting in New York City.
Goldman and friends Claus Timmerman and Edward Brady open an ice-cream parlor
in Brownsville, Brooklyn; within three months, the venture fails and the shop
Upon investigating the possibility of appealing Berkman's case before the
Supreme Court, Goldman and others discover there are no grounds for an appeal,
as Berkman made no formal objections to the judge's rulings during the
proceedings. Goldman tries to convince Berkman to appeal to the Pennsylvania
Board of Pardons to set aside or reduce his prison sentence and begins to
solicit funds for that purpose.
Goldman sails to England under the name "Mrs. E. G. Brady" fearing that her
real identity would limit her freedom to travel in Europe. Funds for her
travel and a portion of living expenses are provided by Modest Stein.
Spends five-and-a-half weeks in Great Britain, where she finds a greater amount
of political freedom than in the United States. During her three weeks in
England, she addresses large crowds at open-air
meetings in London, and meetings at Hyde Park, Whitechapel, Canning Town,
Barking, and Stratford. Topics include "The Futility of Politics and Its
On Sept. 13, Goldman appears among several other lecturers--including James
Tochatti of the British anarchist journal Liberty and French anarchist
Louise Michel--at an event in Finsbury. She lectures on "Political Justice in
England and America," highlighting Berkman's case.
In England, meets anarchist theorists Peter Kropotkin and Errico Malatesta,
German police authorities monitor Goldman's movements in London, prepared to
arrest her if she enters Germany.
On Sept. 14 Goldman travels to Scotland; delivers successful lectures in
Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Maybole.
By Oct. 1, Goldman travels to Vienna to begin formal training in nursing and
midwifery at the Allgemeines Krankenhaus. Keeps a low profile in Vienna, as
political persecution there is known to be harsh.
During this period she discovers and devours works by Friedrich Nietzsche,
attends performances of Wagner operas, sees Eleonora Duse perform, and attends
the lectures of Professor Karl Bruhl and Sigmund Freud.
Goldman completes her medical training in Austria; travels to Paris where she
meets anarchist editor Augustin Hamon.
Back in New York, Goldman resides with Edward Brady in a German neighborhood on
Eleventh Street; she rebels against Brady's periodic fits of jealousy. Earns a
meager living as a midwife and nurse; witnesses the plight of many women
suffering from unwanted pregnancies.
Persuades Berkman to appeal to the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons for his
release from prison. Helps to launch a broad-based campaign for his case;
solicits Voltairine de Cleyre's support.
Helps to arrange lectures for the English anarchist and labor leader John
Turner, whose visit gives Goldman the opportunity to gain experience addressing
English-speaking audiences. Goldman speaks at Turner's concluding lecture in
New York on Apr. 30.
Begins to suffer from "nervous attacks" that are attributed to an inverted
womb; Goldman unwilling to undergo surgery to resolve the problem.
At a demonstration in Union Square, Goldman helps to distribute a May Day
anarchist manifesto written by her and a group of American-born comrades in New
Brady supports Goldman financially so that she can take a break from nursing to
relax and begin preparations for an East Coast winter lecture series. In her
leisure time, Brady tutors Goldman's reading of the works of the
seventeenth-century French dramatists Racine, Corneille, and Moliere.
Independently, she studies modern literature, including the novels of Emile
Bomb explodes in a religious procession in Barcelona, killing eleven people;
Spanish authorities imprison over four hundred people, including anarchists,
suspected of involvement in the bombing. The severity of the punishment sparks
Goldman is urged to support the free-silver campaign of presidential candidate
William Jennings Bryan; she declines, considering the free-silver issue and the
presidential campaign diversions from a radical agenda.
Johann Most, Goldman's former mentor, denounces her at an event in New York
when she solicits funds for the commemoration of the execution of the Haymarket
In Philadelphia, on Nov. 4, Goldman speaks at the Ladies' Liberal League about
her "Experiences on Blackwell's Island." On Nov. 8, she delivers two
lectures--before a mass meeting called by a Jewish group to honor the Haymarket
martyrs and to raise money for Berkman, the second on "Woman's Cause" to the
Young Men's Liberal League.
Goldman lectures in Baltimore and raises money for Berkman's appeal.
Following an appearance in Buffalo, Goldman lectures to enthusiastic audiences
in Pittsburgh, primarily in German, and continues to raise money for the
Berkman fund. Topics include "The Jews in America," "Anarchism in America,"
and "The Effect of the Recent Election on the Condition of the Workingmen."
Her concluding lecture addresses the Haymarket Affair.
William McKinley inaugurated as president of the United States.
Goldman's lectures in Providence, R.I., include "What Is Anarchism?" and "Is It
Possible to Realize Anarchism?" The audience at an open-air meeting is
reportedly "spell-bound" by Goldman's message. When she attempts to speak at
another open-air meeting, however, the police intervene on the grounds
that she doesn't have a permit. Local socialists disavow any connection
Goldman speaks in Philadelphia; her lecture on "The Women in the Present and
Future" is "loudly applauded." She is credited with the ability to relate
anarchism to the working people of Philadelphia, thus helping to boost the
Returning to New York, Goldman undergoes an operation on her foot, requiring
several months of recuperation.
Carl Nold and Henry Bauer, convicted and imprisoned for aiding Berkman's
attempt to assassinate Frick, are released from the Western State Penitentiary
Goldman's lecture on "Marriage" is published in the anarchist journal
Anarchist Michel Angiolillo assassinates Antonio Canovas del Castillo, premier
of Spain, who in May had ordered the execution of five anarchists held
responsible for the bombing in Barcelona the year before. The torture and
inhumane treatment of several hundred others imprisoned in connection with the
bombing were widely protested throughout Europe. In New York, Goldman and
others--including Italian and Spanish anarchists, and Harry Kelly, John
Edelmann, Justus Schwab, and Edward Brady--had organized a demonstration in
front of the Spanish consulate.
Goldman among several speakers at a meeting of one thousand people in New York
celebrating Canovas's assassination.
In response to criticism from anarchists that she had glorified
Canovas's murder, Goldman defends her position at a small meeting in New
Goldman conducts a lecture tour through eighteen cities in eastern and
midwestern states to promote anarchism and Alexander Berkman's release from
prison--intended topics include "Why I am an Anarchist-Communist," "Woman,"
"Marriage," and "Berkman's Unjust Sentence."
Lectures begin in Providence, R.I.; speaks at two open-air meetings--attended
by thousands--when the mayor warns Goldman that she will be arrested if she
speaks in the open-air again. Despite the prohibition, Goldman continues to
lecture in Providence; addresses the assassination of the Spanish premier.
On Sept. 5, she speaks in Boston on "Must We Become Angels to Live in an
Anarchist Society?" and collects money for the victims of the Spanish
authorities in the aftermath of the assassination of the premier.
When she attempts to address another open-air meeting in Providence on Sept.
7, she is arrested and jailed overnight. The following day she is given
twenty-four hours to leave town or face three months imprisonment.
Goldman returns to Boston on Sept. 12 where she lectures on the Sept. 10
killings of immigrant miners striking in Hazleton, Pa. Travels to New Haven
and New York to speak again on the Hazleton strikers.
Beginning Sept. 15, Goldman delivers four lectures in Philadelphia before
several English-speaking organizations, including the Ladies' Liberal League
and the Single Tax Society. Her lectures include "Free Love." Before the
largest free-thought organization of Philadelphia, the Friendship Liberal
League, she critiques the freethinkers' "partial application of the principles
Portland editor A. J. Pope arrested and jailed for sending "obscene" material
in the anarchist Firebrand through the mail. Abe
Isaak and Henry Addis, the other Firebrand
editors, are arrested within the next few days on the same charge.
From Philadelphia, Goldman travels to Washington, D.C., where she lectures
before a German free-thought society.
Goldman then travels to Pittsburgh to meet Carl Nold and Henry Bauer; they
inform her that if Berkman's appeal for pardon is denied, he plans to attempt
an escape from prison.
Goldman speaks before the Turnerverein in Monaca, Pa.; complies with their
request not to speak on her proposed topic, "Woman, Marriage, and
On Sept. 27, Goldman addresses a labor congress organized by Eugene Debs in
Goldman remains in Chicago to lecture; speaks to the Lucifer Circle on the
theme of "Prostitution: Its Causes and Cure" and on "Free Love." On Oct. 13
Goldman is among several speakers-- including Max Baginski, Lucy Parsons, and
Moses Harman--at a well-attended event to raise money for the imprisoned
editors of the Firebrand.
In St. Louis, Goldman speaks to German- and English-speaking audiences while
continuing to raise money for Berkman's prison fund.
On Oct. 19, the St. Louis House of Delegates passes a resolution supporting
the mayor's prohibition of Goldman's open-air meetings. Goldman's
lectures--including "Revolution" and "Why I Am an Anarchist and Communist"--are
held in private halls under police surveillance.
Traveling for hours by train and wagon to learn about the plight of farmers,
Goldman speaks to well-attended meetings in Caplinger Mills, Mo., home of rural
anarchist Kate Austin. Her lecture topics include "The Aim of Humanity,"
"Religion," "Anarchy," and "Free Love."
Goldman scheduled to lecture in Kansas City and Topeka, Kans.
On Nov. 11 in Chicago, Goldman addresses an assembly in German to commemorate
the Haymarket martyrs.
Goldman lectures four times in Detroit, aided by Robert Reitzel and his paper,
Der arme Teufel. On Nov. 19, Goldman speaks at
the People's Tabernacle despite opposition from the congregation; the
event is sensationalized in the press. In response to Goldman's talk,
the deacons and members of the church request the pastor's resignation.
Goldman lectures in Cleveland before several liberal societies, including the
Franklin Club. On Nov. 21 she lectures on "What Anarchy Means" and collects
donations for the Firebrand editors.
Goldman delivers several successful lectures in Buffalo--where she speaks at
the Trade and Labor Council Hall, the Spiritualist Temple, and before German
anarchists--and Rochester, where she visits her family for the first time since
1894. Considers her meetings in Rochester, Buffalo, and Detroit to be the best
of her 1897 tour.
Berkman's appeal before the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons is postponed.
By mid-December, Goldman returns to New York.
Goldman announces her lecture topics for the year: "Charity," "Patriotism,"
"Authority," "Majority Rule," "The New Woman," "The Woman Question," and "The
Inquisition of Our Postal Service."
Goldman's youngest brother, Morris, moves into the apartment she shares with
Brady in New York City.
During this period, Goldman is in contact with Filipino rebels and helps to
support their attempts to gain independence from Spain.
Goldman scheduled to speak on "The New Woman" (in German) to the Social Science
Club in Brooklyn.
Lectures on anarchism in English and Yiddish in Providence without interference
from the mayor or police; Goldman assisted by John H. Cook, former president of
the Central Labor Union.
To help cover traveling expenses, Goldman earns a percentage on sales she
makes for Brady's stationery business while on tour.
Lectures on "Authority" to economics students in Boston.
Goldman scheduled to speak to the Philosophical Society in Brooklyn.
Twelve-state lecture tour: Goldman addresses sixty-six meetings and
participates in one debate. Several reporters note Goldman's improvement as a
public speaker as she develops her command of the English language.
The U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana harbor,
killing 2 officers and 258 crew members, which becomes the spark for the
Goldman's tour begins in Philadelphia where she lectures before several
well-attended gatherings sponsored by the Ladies' Liberal League, the Single
Tax Society, the Society of Ethical Research, and the German Anarchist Society.
Notes an increasing interest in anarchism among younger members of the
Friendship Liberal League, to which she lectures twice. Topics include "The
Absurdity of Non-resistance to Evil," "The Basis of Morality," and "Freedom."
February 23-March 12
After scheduled visits to Baltimore and Washington, D.C., Goldman is invited to
Pittsburgh and coal mining towns in western Pennsylvania by anarchists Carl
Nold and Henry Bauer in association with the International Workingmen's
Association. Though the Pittsburgh region is heavily populated by Germans,
most of Goldman's speaking engagements are purposely conducted in English.
Talks include "Patriotism," with specific reference to the miners shot by the
police at Hazleton, Pa., in September, and the possibility of war between Spain
and the United States. She addresses the Monaca, Pa., local of the Glass
Blowers' Union, one of the most conservative unions in the country. Lectures
in western coal mining towns include McKeesport, Roscoe, West Newton, and
Homestead; Goldman also scheduled to speak in Beaver Falls, Carnegie, Duquesne,
Charleroi, and Tarentum. Goldman's engagement in Allegheny is canceled when
the owners of the liberal Northside Turner Hall refuse to let her speak.
Goldman suffers several "nervous attacks" from the strain of continuous
Goldman among several speakers at an international celebration of the
twenty-seventh anniversary of the Paris Commune in Pittsburgh attended by three
Goldman delivers three lectures in Cleveland, including a well-attended meeting
of the Franklin Club.
Just weeks before his death on Mar. 31, Goldman visits the ailing Robert
Reitzel in Detroit.
In Chicago, Goldman is aided by Josef Peukert, who secures for her several
speaking engagements before labor unions. Addresses the Economic Educational
Club (a primarily American-born audience), the Brewers and Malters Union, the
Painters and Decorators Union, the Co-operative College of Citizenship,
the Turn-Verein Vorwärts Society, the German group of the
International Workingmen's Association, and the Bakers' and
Confectioners' Union. Lectures include "Trades Unionism," "Passive Resistance"
(both in German), and "The New Woman."
While in Chicago, she visits Max Baginski at the Arbeiter
Zeitung office. Fearing that Baginski had disapproved of
Berkman's attempt to kill Frick, she had avoided seeing him; she finds,
however, that they share many similar viewpoints. She also meets Moses
Harman, the editor of Lucifer, with whom
she discusses women's emancipation.
Visits Michael Schwab, who served more than six years in prison for charges
relating to the Haymarket affair before he was pardoned. Hospitalized with
tuberculosis, Schwab dies a few months later, on June 29.
Goldman lectures in Cincinnati to a large meeting of the Ohio Liberal
Brady complains about their separation; she responds by asserting her need for
March 29-April 2
Goldman returns to Chicago for additional lectures; speaks before the gymnastic
society Gut Heil in a Chicago suburb and to residents of a Jewish neighborhood
On Mar. 31, Goldman lectures on "The Inquisition of Our Postal Service" to the
Progressive Bohemian Labor Organization, addressing recent censorship cases,
including the conviction of the Firebrand
editors. The organization votes unanimously to adopt a resolution
protesting postal censorship.
On Apr. 2, Goldman honored at a farewell meeting held by the Committee on
Agitation of the Progressive Labor Organizations of Chicago.
Goldman scheduled to speak in Milwaukee.
"Patriotism" is among the five lectures Goldman presents in St. Louis;
encounters no interference by the mayor or police. Local comrades note an
increase of young women in attendance.
Goldman makes her first visit to Denver, where she is hosted by a small group
of American anarchists. Her five lectures are met with surprising
enthusiasm--"The Basis of Morality" noted as her best. Sponsors include the
Denver Educational Club, a largely Jewish group.
Goldman visits Salt Lake City.
Spanish-American War begins.
Goldman in San Francisco; opens her engagements with a lecture on "Patriotism,"
which, following the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, becomes her most
important and successful lecture. Her other speeches--at least four, including
a talk at a May Day celebration--are well attended and receive fair press
coverage. Goldman also debates the German socialist Emil Lies, editor of the
Tageblatt. Goldman especially impressed with Abe
Isaak, former editor of the Firebrand and current
editor of Free Society, who had recently settled in
San Francisco with his family. Goldman's San Francisco activities supported in
part by local single-taxers.
While in San Francisco, Goldman meets the young socialist Anna Strunsky, who
will become a lifelong friend and associate, and through Strunsky, the writer
In San Jose, her lecture on "Patriotism" is so controversial that she has
difficulty maintaining control of the platform. From San Jose, she travels for
the first time to Los Angeles, sponsored by a wealthy acquaintance from New
Mexico. Lectures to several large audiences. Goldman severs her relationship
with her sponsor when he proposes marriage; she continues lecturing among
Jewish sympathizers and organizes a group to conduct ongoing anarchist
activities. Goldman denounced in the Freiheit for
having alienated workers from anarchism when, under the direction of her
wealthy manager, she lectured and resided in expensive halls and hotels.
Following Los Angeles, she returns to San Francisco for additional lectures.
Goldman delivers three lectures in Portland, Oreg. Logistical problems cause
the cancellation of scheduled events in Tacoma and Seattle.
In Chicago, Goldman attends the first convention of Eugene Debs's Social
Democracy movement; in her view it is a "fiasco." When she is at first
prevented from speaking at the event, Debs personally invites Goldman to
address the convention.
Pleased with the success of her lecture tour, Goldman returns to New York. In
association with Salvatore Palavicini and other Italian anarchists, helps to
support local labor struggles.
Empress Elizabeth of Austria is stabbed by anarchist Luigi Leccheni. Goldman
considers the act a "folly" but refuses to condemn it; her activities are
subsequently monitored by the police and scorned by the press.
Goldman supports efforts of Berkman's defense committee to seek a pardon. With
Justus Schwab and Brady, she reluctantly follows the recommendation of defense
attorneys to seek Andrew Carnegie's influence in granting a pardon. They
approach Benjamin Tucker, editor of Liberty, to
meet with Carnegie, but reject his suggestion that Berkman be presented
as a "penitent sinner." All plans to meet with Carnegie are eventually
International Anti-Anarchist Conference, prompted by the assassination of the
Empress of Austria, is convened by Italian government officials in Rome;
attended by fifty-four delegates representing twenty-one countries, including
police chiefs from several European countries and major cities. Conference
marks the development of strategic international surveillance of and exchange
of information about anarchist activities.
Goldman ends her relationship with Edward Brady.
Goldman speaks at a large meeting at Cooper Union to protest the International
Anti-Anarchist Conference in Rome.
Goldman conducts a nine-month lecture tour of eleven states, beginning in
Barre, Vt., where she is hosted by Salvatore Palavicini. She delivers several
lectures in Barre, including "The New Woman" and "The Corrupting Influence of
Politics on Man"--the first anarchist lectures in English ever presented
When she is prevented from delivering her last lecture, "Authority versus
Liberty," on Jan. 31, Goldman's comrades print and distribute five thousand
copies of a manifesto containing the text of Goldman's barred speech.
While in Barre, Goldman meets Luigi Galleani, editor of the anarchist journal
President William McKinley signs peace treaty with Spain. United States
acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines; Spain relinquishes its claim
Insurgent forces begin rebellion against U.S. rule in the Philippines.
Goldman delivers ten lectures, in German and English, in Philadelphia; speaks
before the Friendship Liberal League, Ladies' Liberal League, the Fellowship
for Ethical Research, the Knights of Liberty, and the Arbeiter Bund.
Goldman helps organize a regional committee of anarchists from Philadelphia
and surrounding areas.
Goldman addresses two large meetings in Cleveland.
Goldman's lectures in Detroit include "The Power of the Idea" and "A Criticism
of Ethics." Goldman is offered financial support for her future medical
studies by Herman Miller, a friend of Robert Reitzel and president of the
Cleveland Brewing Company.
Invited by the Ohio Liberal Society to lecture on trade unionism, Goldman
addresses three meetings in Cincinnati. From Cincinnati, Goldman travels to
St. Louis where she delivers ten lectures, including one before the
conservative Bricklayers' Union.
Close by, she speaks before two large gatherings in the mining town of Mount
Olive. Her lecture on "The Eight-Hour Struggle and the Condition of the Miners
of the Whole World" is especially well received.
Goldman spends over a month in Chicago, delivering about twenty-five lectures.
Her efforts to speak before a wide variety of trade unions, philosophical and
social societies, and women's clubs are aided by Max Baginski and other German
comrades; the International Workingmen's Association helps her organize English
Goldman lectures on "Trades-Unionism and What It Should Be" and other issues
in German and English before the International Workingmen's Association and
trade unions including the Brewers and Malters Union, the Painters and
Decorators Union, and the Journeymen Tailors Union. Goldman's presentation to
the conservative Amalgamated Wood Workers Union is the first to take place by
Additional lectures--including "Religion," "Women's Emancipation," "Politics
and Its Corrupting Influence on Man," "The Origin of Evil," and "The Basis of
Morality"--are delivered to the Friesinuge Gemeinde, several chapters of the
Turner Society, the Freethought Society, and the Women's Sick Benefit Society.
Her lecture on "Sex Problems" is debated by many of the Chicago comrades who
feel the subject matter is inappropriate for public discussion.
Before leaving Chicago, Goldman organizes a social science club so that the
local comrades will continue to organize in her absence.
Goldman spends a few days visiting miners in Spring Valley, Ill. By May 20,
she arrives in Tacoma, Wash., where she participates in a debate on "Socialism
versus Anarchism." A group of spiritualists lend her use of their temple free
of charge for a series of lectures, but when she proposes to lecture on "Free
Love," they deny her the use of the hall.
Goldman delivers two well-attended lectures in Seattle.
Goldman visits an anarchist colony at Lakebay, Wash. By June 10, she is
scheduled to hold a series of meetings in Portland, Oreg., followed by lectures
in the farming community of Scio, Oreg., where use of the city hall is donated
to Goldman by the marshal of Scio.
Goldman arrives in San Francisco on June 22, where she begins a seven-week
series of lectures in San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, and Stockton. "Why I
Am an Anarchist Communist," "The Aim of Humanity," "The Development of
Trades-Unionism," and "Charity" number among her lectures. Socialists
antagonistic to her on several occasions. Her lecture on "Sex Problems"
continues to stir debate; some applaud her courage to speak about this taboo
Goldman delivers three lectures in Ouray, Colo., followed by several lectures
in Denver, including "The Power of an Idea," "Education" before the
Smeltermen's Union, and an open-air meeting on "Patriotism."
At the invitation of Kate Austin, Goldman travels to the farming community of
Caplinger Mills, Mo., where she delivers three lectures, including
In the mining town of Spring Valley, Ill., Goldman heads a Labor Day
procession, which ends with a meeting in the central market place, a direct
violation of the mayor's denial of authorization to do so.
September 23-October 10
Goldman addresses thirteen meetings in Pittsburgh and surrounding cities,
including West Newton, McDonald, and Roscoe, Pa.
Goldman arranges for their trusted comrade Eric B. Morton to begin to dig a
tunnel for Berkman's escape.
Goldman's lecture tour complete, she returns to New York City. Under the guise
of pursuing a new legal action in Berkman's case, with Saul Yanofsky of the
Freie Arbeiter Stimme, Goldman raises money to
support the cost of digging Berkman's prison escape tunnel. If
successful, Berkman intends to meet Goldman in Europe.
Goldman embarks for Europe to attend the 1900 International Anti-Parliamentary
Congress in Paris and with the intention of studying medicine in Zurich,
November 13-December 9
Goldman arrives in London where she stays with Harry Kelly and his family and
lectures in English and German. Among her proposed topics are "America: The
Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave," "Strikes and Their Effect on the
American Worker," and "Marriage." While visiting Peter Kropotkin at his home
in Bromley, she meets the Russian populist Nicholas Chaikovsky, whom Goldman
greatly admires. She argues heatedly with Kropotkin about the political
significance of "the sex problem."
Following one of her German lectures, she meets the Czechoslovakian refugee
Hippolyte Havel, with whom she later falls in love.
Goldman appears in London among a cast of international speakers, including
Louise Michel and Kropotkin, at a "Grand Meeting and Concert for the Benefit of
the Agitation in Favour of the Political Victims in Italy."
Goldman travels to Leeds and Bradford for several lectures.
Goldman returns to London.
Goldman attends a Russian New Year party in London where she meets notable
Russian revolutionary exiles, including L. B. Goldenberg and V. N.
Goldman travels to Glasgow, Dundee, and Edinburgh, Scotland to lecture. On
Jan. 21 in Dundee she lectures on "Authority versus Liberty" and "The Aim of
Humanity." In Edinburgh, she meets anarchist Thomas Bell.
Goldman spends the month in London before traveling to Paris. On Feb. 20,
Goldman speaks out against the Anglo-Boer War at a meeting of the Freedom
Discussion Group; lectures on "The Effect of War on the Workers." Her
activities are credited for providing impetus to the London anarchist
On Feb. 25, Goldman scheduled to deliver her lecture "The Basis of Morality"
in German. On Feb. 26, she is honored at a farewell concert and ball where she
speaks about the striking Bohemian miners; other speakers include Peter
Kropotkin and Louise Michel.
Goldman begins debate in the anarchist press about the importance of
developing consistent propaganda and supporting individual lecturers
Accompanied by Hippolyte Havel, Goldman visits Paris in preparation for the
September International Anti-Parliamentary Congress in Paris. While immersing
herself in French culture, Goldman becomes acquainted with the leading figures
of the French anarchist movement and other progressive circles, including
Augustin Hamon and Victor Dave. Decides against pursuing further medical
studies so that she can concentrate on political activities.
Goldman delivers a statement to the organizing committee of the Paris congress
about her most recent lecture tour in the United States, the necessity of
organizing American-born citizens into the anarchist movement, and the
reluctance of some anarchists to participate in the Paris congress.
U.S. anarchists debate the importance of selecting American-born delegates to
represent their movement at the Paris congress; it is eventually decided that
Goldman, although an immigrant, will be a suitable representative. Other
representatives also selected. Goldman asked by several American comrades,
including Lizzie and William Holmes, Abe Isaak, and Susan Patton, to present
papers at the congress.
Goldman meets up with some Italian comrades from the United States, including
Salvatore Palavicini. Reunites with Max Baginski when he arrives in Paris.
French intelligence notes presence of Goldman and Havel at a women's congress
The tunnel being dug for Berkman's escape is discovered. Although prison
officials cannot verify who is responsible, Berkman is placed in solitary
confinement. Eric B. Morton, sick from the physical hardship of digging the
tunnel, sails to France where he is nursed back to health by Goldman.
King Umberto of Italy is killed by Gaetano Bresci, an Italian anarchist Goldman
had met in Paterson, N.J.
Meets Oscar Panizza, whose writings she had read in the Der arme
Discusses issues of sexuality, including homosexuality, with Dr. Eugene
The International Anti-Parliamentary Congress, scheduled to begin the following
day, is prohibited by the French Council of Ministers. Protest meeting called
for that evening is prevented by the police. Though some of the scheduled
meetings are canceled, others take place in secret locations.
Goldman's "The Sex Question" is one of eight anarchist lectures scheduled to
be presented on Sept. 21--although some French comrades were opposed to this
topic being addressed in public for fear that it would lead to further
misconceptions of anarchism.
During this period, Goldman also attends the Neo-Malthusian Congress in Paris,
which holds its meetings in secret because of a French law prohibiting
organized attempts to limit offspring. Goldman obtains birth control
literature and contraceptives to take back to the United States.
Following the Paris congress, Goldman earns her living as a boarding room cook
and as an American tour guide at the Paris Exposition.
Goldman returns to New York with Hippolyte Havel and Eric B. Morton. Newspaper
reports claim that Goldman had, under an assumed name, rented a hall on Dec. 11
for a mass meeting of the Social Science Club. Goldman the principal speaker;
statement favoring the assassination of King Umberto attributed to her.
Goldman scheduled to speak to the Italian group of New London, Conn., on Dec.
Goldman supports herself by working as a nurse in New York City; helps to
arrange a U.S. tour for Peter Kropotkin in March and April.
Goldman reestablishes friendship with her former lover Edward Brady.
Goldman lecture tour begins with a free-speech battle in Philadelphia when she
is prevented from speaking before the Shirt Makers Union. Goldman and the
organizations that sponsor her talks, including the Single Tax Society, defy
police orders; Goldman speaks in public on at least two occasions. On April 14
she speaks at an event sponsored by the Social Science Club; other speakers
include Voltairine de Cleyre. Despite the Social Science Club's opposition to
Goldman's anarchist views, it passes a resolution protesting the violation of
her right to free speech.
Speaks in Lynn, Mass., Boston, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, St. Louis, Chicago, and
Spring Valley, Ill., on such topics as "Anarchism and Trade Unionism," "The
Causes of Vice," and "Cooperation a Factor in the Industrial Struggle."
July 15-August 15
Goldman spends a month with her sister Helena, in Rochester, N.Y., traveling
briefly to Niagara Falls and to Buffalo, N.Y., to visit the Pan-American
Goldman visits Alexander Berkman at the penitentiary in Allegheny, Pa., the
first time she has seen him in nine years.
President William McKinley shot by self-proclaimed
anarchist Leon Czolgosz in Buffalo, N.Y., at the Pan-American
Exposition. Police claim that Czolgosz was inspired by one of Goldman's
lectures. She is in St. Louis when she learns about the assassination and
recollects that she first met Czolgosz at her May 5 lecture on "The Modern
Phase of Anarchy" before the Franklin Liberal Club in Cleveland.
Goldman leaves St. Louis for Chicago.
In an atmosphere of intense anti-anarchist
hysteria, Goldman goes into temporary hiding at the home of American-born
anarchist sympathizers. On Sept. 10, she is arrested by Chicago police and
subjected to intensive interrogation. Though initially denied, bail is set at
President McKinley dies on Sept. 14.
Goldman released; case dropped for lack of evidence.
Goldman expresses her sympathy for Leon Czolgosz in an article, "The Tragedy at
Buffalo," published in Free Society (Chicago),
prompting many of her close anarchist associates to distance themselves from
Finding much difficulty in securing an apartment and job, Goldman adopts the
pseudonym "E. G. Smith."
Czolgosz executed on Oct. 29.
Goldman avoids public appearances.
Criminal Anarchy Act passed in New York State.
Goldman continues to conceal her real identity, at times to no avail. Chased
from her apartment on First Street, Goldman moves to a crowded Lower East Side
tenement building on Market Street. She finds work as a night-shift
nurse for poor immigrants living on the Lower East Side.
Increased repression in Russia and a strike of Pennsylvania coal miners propel
Goldman to resume her political work.
Conducts lecture tour to raise funds for the students and peasants under
attack in Russia and for the striking coal miners. Her activities are closely
monitored by police detectives; many of her lectures are outlawed, especially
in coal-mining cities like Wilkes-Barre
and McKeesport, Pa. Despite police harassment, Goldman holds successful
lectures in Chicago; scheduled to speak in Milwaukee and Cleveland.
Police arrest Goldman and Max Baginski in New York City for being "suspicious
persons"; released after questioning.
Anti-anarchist immigration act passed by Congress.
Edward Brady, former lover of Goldman, dies.
Alarmed by the threat to civil liberties posed by the anti-anarchist
immigration law and the public hysteria of the moment, prominent American
liberals, including Theodore Schroeder, rally to her support.
First attempt to test anti-anarchist
immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Goldman is scheduled
to speak, English anarchist John Turner is arrested and charged with promoting
anarchism and violating alien labor laws. Turner detained on Ellis Island
until his deportation.
In an effort to mobilize broad support from American citizens for John Turner,
Goldman acts under the pseudonym E. G. Smith to form a permanent Free Speech
League in New York City.
Cooper Union mass meeting protests anti-anarchist
proceedings against John Turner, still awaiting deportation.
Goldman, on behalf of the Free Speech League, undertakes a brief lecture tour
to gain support for John Turner; speaks before garment workers in Rochester and
miners in Pennsylvania.
Russo-Japanese War begins.
Goldman seeks to extend her influence beyond the immigrant community by
exposing a broader American audience to anarchism. Travels to Philadelphia to
lecture on "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation." Her first attempts to
deliver lecture stalled by police. Public support for free speech gains her
eventual success in delivering the lecture.
Supreme Court rules on the John Turner case (Turner v.
Williams, 194 U.S. 279) that Congress has unlimited power
to exclude aliens and deport those who have entered in violation of the
laws, including philosophical anarchists.
Goldman hosts two members of the Russian Social Revolutionary party seeking to
organize support for political freedom in Russia. With the assistance of the
American Friends of Russian Freedom, Goldman manages a successful tour of
Catherine Breshkovskaya (the "Grandmother of the Russian Revolution"), recently
freed from Siberian exile.
Goldman among a cast of speakers at one of the largest reported New York City
anarchist meetings in support of the Russian anarchist movement.
Exhausted by nursing, Goldman opens her own business as a "Vienna scalp and
face specialist" in New York City.
January 9 (22)
"Bloody Sunday" in St. Petersburg, Russia. Goldman continues to lecture and
raise funds to gain support for political freedom in Russia.
Goldman speaks at memorial meeting for Louise Michel.
Ricardo Flores Magon moves to St. Louis where his friendship with Goldman
Catherine Breshkovskaya returns to Europe.
Goldman meets Russian actor Paul Orleneff; assists him in the management of the
Orleneff troupe's theater engagements in New York City.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) established in Chicago.
Russia and Japan sign peace treaty at Portsmouth, N.H.
October 17 (30)
Czar Nicholas II signs manifesto guaranteeing civil liberties in Russia.
Renewed pogroms of Jews in Russia. Orleneff troupe arranges benefit
performances on behalf of Jewish victims.
Goldman accompanies Orleneff troupe on tour to Boston.
Russian revolution crushed.
Goldman, in Chicago with the Orleneff troupe, identifies herself without a
pseudonym at lectures to local anarchists.
First issue of Mother Earth published; first run
numbers three thousand.
Goldman begins national lecture tour with associate editor Max Baginski;
speaking engagements scheduled in Cleveland, Toronto, Rochester, Syracuse, and
Utica. Encounters interference in Buffalo when the police mandate that their
lectures be presented in English, preventing Baginski from addressing the
Death of Johann Most.
Goldman discontinues her scalp and facial massage business; devotes full
attention to the publication of Mother Earth.
Goldman speaks at an anarchist gathering at Grand Central Palace in New York
City to commemorate the life of Johann Most.
Alexander Berkman released from prison; Goldman and Berkman unite in Detroit.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Chicago, where they are followed by the press.
Newspaper falsely reports that Goldman and Berkman have married.
Goldman scheduled to speak in Yiddish and English in Pittsburgh on the
following topics: "The Constitution," "The Idaho Outrage" (addressing the
arrests of Bill Haywood, Charles Moyer, and George A. Pettibone of the Western
Federation of Miners), "The General Strike," and "The False and True Conception
Goldman and others address a crowd of two thousand people who had gathered to
greet Alexander Berkman in New York City.
Goldman vacations at farm in Ossining with Berkman and Baginski.
Goldman devotes October issue of Mother Earth to
the commemoration of the fifth anniversary of Leon Czolgosz's death,
despite the objection of many of her political associates.
Scheduled to speak at a meeting to protest the Oct. 27 arrests of several
anarchists for debating whether Czolgosz was an anarchist, Goldman is arrested
for articles published in Mother Earth and for
inciting to riot. Nine others also arrested.
Goldman released on $1,000 bail.
Goldman pleads not guilty to criminal anarchy charges before the New York City
Goldman scheduled to speak at the nineteenth anniversary commemoration of the
Chicago martyrs, organized by the Freiheit Publishing Association.
Mother Earth Masquerade Ball at Webster Hall in
New York City disrupted by police; owner is forced to close the hall.
Goldman lectures on "False and True Conceptions of Anarchism" before the
Brooklyn Philosophical Association.
Goldman arrested by the New York City Anarchist Police Squad while delivering
the same lecture she had successfully presented the previous month; charged
with publicly expressing "incendiary sentiments." Berkman and two others also
Case against Goldman from Oct. 30, 1906, arrest dismissed by the New York City
Police evidence from Goldman's Jan. 6 arrest presented before the New York City
magistrate's court; case later dismissed.
New York City police suppress meeting where Goldman is scheduled to speak.
Berkman attempts to run a small printing business.
Goldman speaks in Boston, Lynn, and Chelsea, Mass.
Goldman shares platform with Luigi Galleani at the Barre, Vt., opera house.
Late February, Early March
Russian exile Grigory Gershuni, recently escaped from Siberia, visits Goldman
to encourage her work on behalf of Russian freedom.
Goldman leaves New York City for national lecture tour; asks Berkman to take
charge as editor of Mother Earth in her absence.
All lecture halls in Columbus, Ohio, are closed to Goldman.
Mayor Brand Whitlock of Toledo, Ohio does not allow Goldman to speak until Kate
Sherwood, a respected political activist and community leader, convinces him of
Goldman's right to speak.
Goldman's scheduled Detroit lectures stopped by the local police.
Successful lecture series in Chicago before audiences of many nationalities,
including Jewish, Danish, and German. Her topics include the Paris Commune,
the trial of Moyer and Haywood, and the "Revolutionary Spirit of the Modern
Speaking on such subjects as "Education of Children" and "Direct Action versus
Legislation," Goldman continues lecture tour in Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and
Goldman makes her first visit to Winnipeg, Canada; lectures in German and
English on topics including "Crimes of Parents and Education" and "The Position
of Jews in Russia."
Goldman expected to lecture in St. Louis; lectures in Denver.
Addressing audiences in German and English, Goldman speaks in San Francisco and
San Jose on such issues as "The Corrupting Influence of Religion" and character
Hundreds of people turn out on successive nights in Los Angeles to hear Goldman
speak, and, on one occasion, debate socialist Claude Riddle. Organizes a
Social Science Club with fifty-five charter members to study social issues,
literature, and art. goldman declares her intent to start a movement on behalf
of Mexico among U.S. radicals.
Buoyed by the success of her speaking engagements--"the first tour of any
consequence I have made since 1898"--Goldman travels to Portland, Tacoma, Home
Colony, Wa., Seattle, and Calgary, Canada.
Goldman back in New York City in time to celebrate her thirty-eighth
Goldman's essay, "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation" translated and published
by German and Japanese anarchists.
Goldman selected to act as an American representative at the International
Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam.
Haywood acquitted; Goldman and associates send telegram to President Theodore
Roosevelt to express their joy.
Goldman and other anarchists speak about the Boise trials (of Haywood et al.)
at the Manhattan Lyceum in New York City.
Goldman travels with Baginski to Amsterdam.
International Anarchist Congress takes place in Amsterdam, attended by three
After attending anti-militarist congress organized by Dutch pacifist
anarchists, Goldman tours major European cities. In Paris, Goldman visits
Peter Kropotkin and Max Nettlau; visits Sébastien Faure's
for poor and orphaned children, and studies syndicalism at the
Confédération Générale du Travail.
U.S. Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, anticipating Goldman's return
from Europe, directs the East Coast commissioners of immigration to fully
verify Goldman's U.S. citizenship before allowing her to cross the border.
Goldman speaks in London, England, on "The Labor Struggle in America"; is
trailed by Scotland Yard detectives.
Goldman evades U.S. immigration authorities by entering New York via
Finding Mother Earth in terrible financial shape
upon her return from Europe, Goldman conducts lecture tour in Massachusetts
Goldman lectures in German, English, and Yiddish on "Trade Unionism," "The
Woman in the Future," and "The Child and its Enemies," among other topics, in
cities throughout New York State.
Large crowd turns out to hear Goldman in Baltimore.
Police prevent Goldman from delivering her lecture on "The Revolutionary
Spirit in Modern Drama" in Washington, D.C.
Lectures in Pittsburgh.
Goldman heads out for a tour of the western states via Montreal, London, Ont.,
Toronto, and Cleveland; scheduled to speak in English and German on "The
[Economic] Crisis: Its Cause and Remedy," "The Relation of Anarchism to Trade
Unionism," "Syndicalism a New Phase of the Labor Struggle," and "Woman Under
Giuseppe Guarnacoto, reported to be a former resident of Paterson and a
follower of Goldman, assassinates Father Leo Henrichs at the altar of a
Catholic church in Denver.
Goldman delivers several lectures in St. Louis, despite word from Chicago
authorities who, in coordination with Washington D.C. officials, threaten to
deport Goldman under the immigration law.
Chicago Chief of Police George Shippy attacked by alleged anarchist Lazarus
Averbuch; Shippy's son shot. Goldman implicated in incident, which prompts new
legislation to coordinate efforts of city, state, and federal authorities to
stamp out all anarchist agitation.
In Chicago, Goldman is barred by police from addressing any meetings in a
public hall. Goldman meets with the press, vowing that she will seek an
opportunity to lecture in Chicago no matter what the authorities do to prevent
Goldman repeatedly barred from speaking at public lecture halls in Chicago;
meets Ben Reitman, a physician specializing in gynecology and venereal disease,
who offers to arrange a speaking engagement for Goldman at a storeroom on
Dearborn Street, the meeting place of his Brotherhood Welfare Association,
otherwise known as the Hobo College.
Despite an indication from Chicago authorities that Goldman will be allowed to
speak if she makes no incendiary remarks against the police or the government,
Goldman is prevented from speaking at Ben Reitman's hall.
Chicago newspapers report a budding romance between Goldman and Reitman.
Police forcibly remove Goldman from Workingmen's Hall in Chicago, where she is
scheduled to speak on "Anarchy as It Really Is," an event organized by the
newly created Freedom of Speech Society.
Goldman unable to secure a hall in Chicago.
Temporarily abandoning attempts to speak in Chicago, Goldman meets success in
Milwaukee, where large crowds, including Milwaukee socialist Victor Berger,
come to hear her.
Lecturing in Minneapolis, Goldman denies knowledge of those involved in a bomb
explosion at a New York City demonstration of the unemployed in Union Square.
News reports claim that Selig Silverstein, the bomb-thrower, was a member of
Goldman's Anarchistic Federation.
March 31-April 5
Goldman delivers several lectures in Winnipeg, including discussions
encouraging street railway employees to strike for an eight-hour workday.
President Theodore Roosevelt investigates legality of not only barring
anarchist propaganda that advocates political violence, but also prosecuting
those who produce the material.
Goldman leaves Winnipeg; temporarily detained and interrogated at the border by
U.S. immigration officials.
Goldman enters the United States; itinerary includes lectures in Minneapolis,
Salt Lake City, and Sacramento.
Accompanied by Ben Reitman, Goldman arrives in San Francisco, where the police
notify her that anarchist propaganda cannot be circulated.
Objecting to the notoriety caused by Goldman's presence, the management of the
St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco forces Goldman to leave; encounters an
escalated level of surveillance.
Despite warnings, police do not interfere with Goldman's lecture at Walton's
Pavilion in San Francisco, which is attended by five thousand people.
Goldman ends her San Francisco lecture series with a speech on patriotism. In
attendance is U.S. soldier William Buwalda, stationed at the Presidio, who is
witnessed shaking hands with Goldman following her speech. Buwalda is
subsequently court-martialed for this action.
April 28-May 2
Goldman lectures in Los Angeles; debates socialist Kaspar Bauer on the question
of "Socialism versus Anarchism." While in Los Angeles, Goldman visits George
Goldman delivers five lectures in Portland--including "Why Emancipation Has
Failed to Free Women" and "Direct Action a Logical Method of
Anarchism"--following initial free-speech battle. Goldman's success attributed
in part to support received from Charles Erskine Scott Wood, Portland attorney
Local Portland anarchists organize protest against the court-martial and
imprisonment of William Buwalda.
Goldman presents two lectures in Spokane: "What Anarchism Really Stands For"
and "The Menace of Patriotism."
Marking the last leg of her tour, Goldman travels to Montana; despite police
harassment and lack of press coverage, Goldman speaks in Butte and Helena.
Goldman vacations in Ossining, N.Y.
Goldman captivated by J. W. Fleming's invitation to make a two-year tour of
Australia; tentatively plans to travel to Australia in February.
New York World publishes Goldman's article,
"What I Believe."
Ben Reitman delivers speech on the meaning of Labor Day at Cooper Union. When
the audience learns that the speech was written by Goldman, there is a
tremendous uproar; Berkman and young anarchist Becky Edelsohn arrested.
Goldman begins five-week Sunday afternoon Yiddish lecture series under the
sponsorship of the Free Worker Group in New York City; talks include "Love and
Marriage," "The Revolutionary Spirit in the Modern Drama," and "The Political
Goldman tormented by revelation of Reitman's infidelity.
On the eve of her departure for her next lecture tour, Goldman delivers a
farewell lecture in New York City on "The Exoneration of the Devil" (based on a
popular play at the time).
Goldman begins national lecture tour while the country is immersed in
presidential campaigning; hopes to wind up her tour on the West Coast and
depart for Australia in the new year. Lecture topics include "The Political
Circus and Its Clowns," "Puritanism, the Great Obstacle to Liberty," and "Life
Large audiences attend Goldman's lectures in Pittsburgh and Cleveland.
Goldman prevented from speaking in Indianapolis.
October 30-November 1
Goldman lectures in St. Louis; meets William Marion Reedy, editor of the
St. Louis Mirror, whose article "The Daughter of
the Dream," published later that week, praises her.
Goldman lectures in cities throughout Missouri: Springfield, Liberal, and
Omaha chief of police prevents Goldman from lecturing in the hall of her
choice; crowds gather to hear Goldman at other sites in the city.
Goldman's lectures in Des Moines, Iowa, are successful.
Lectures in Minneapolis and St. Paul poorly attended.
Goldman in Winnipeg for lectures and a debate with socialist J. D. Houston.
Goldman scheduled to lecture in Fargo, N.Dak., Butte, and Spokane.
Seattle police take Goldman into custody after the lock on a closed hall is
broken to allow Goldman entry to speak; released when she promises to leave the
Goldman protests actions of the police authorities in Everett, Wash., who
prevent her from speaking on the claim that vigilantes will harm her.
Goldman and Reitman arrested in Bellingham, Wash., in anticipation of
Goldman's scheduled lecture.
Goldman released from jail; placed on board a train bound for Canada.
Following lectures in Vancouver, Goldman lectures in Portland and conducts two
debates--one with Democrat John Barnhill, the other with socialist Walter
Goldman lectures in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Pasadena on such topics as "The
Psychology of Violence" and "Puritanism, the Greatest Obstacle to Liberty."
Some of Los Angeles's leading drama critics attend her lecture "The Drama, the
Most Forcible Disseminator of Radicalism."
Goldman lectures on "The Dissolution of Our Institutions" in San Francisco,
followed by a statement by William Buwalda, the soldier court-martialed the
previous year and recently pardoned by President Roosevelt. Event takes place
without police interference.
Goldman and Reitman arrested on charges of conspiracy against the government;
both held on bail. Buwalda arrested for disturbing the peace. Supporters of
Goldman and Reitman rally to protest the arrests on Jan. 15; police forcibly
In jail, Goldman learns about her father's death.
Goldman released Jan. 18; participates in a public debate on "Anarchism versus
Socialism." Case dropped Jan. 28.
Goldman's anticipated departure for Australia is postponed.
Goldman speaks to a crowd of over two thousand people in San Francisco on "Why
I Am an Anarchist."
Goldman stays in San Francisco with hopes of delivering the lectures she was
prevented from giving during the week of her arrest and imprisonment.
Delivers two lectures and participates in one debate in Los Angeles.
Goldman lectures in El Paso, Tex.; prevented by city authorities from holding
meeting in Spanish.
Goldman attempts to lecture in San Antonio; unable to secure a hall.
Goldman speaks on the outskirts of Houston in a hall owned by the Single
Taxers; remarks that this event is "the most inspiring meeting of my entire
Tour ends with two meetings in Forth Worth.
Goldman in Rochester, N.Y.
Goldman conducts Sunday lecture series in Yiddish and English in New York City;
topics include "The Psychology of Violence," "Minorities versus Majorities,"
and the modern drama.
U.S. Court in Buffalo invalidates the citizenship of Jacob A. Kersner,
Goldman's legal husband; threatens Goldman's claim to U.S. citizenship and
results in cancellation of Goldman's trip to Australia.
Goldman's essay "A Woman Without a Country," responding to the threat of
deportation, published in Mother Earth.
With increased public attention on her citizenship status, Goldman is stopped
repeatedly by the police.
Scheduled to speak at a Mother Earth May Day
concert and dance in New York City.
Goldman speaks at a convention of the National Committee for the Relief of the
Unemployed in New York City, encouraging the unemployed to organize.
May 10 and 13
Goldman scheduled to speak in New York on "Direct Action as a Logical Tactic of
Anarchists" and "How Parents Should Raise Children" (in Yiddish).
Goldman scheduled to speak in New Haven on "Anarchy: What It Stands For";
police admit her into the lecture hall, but prevent entry to thousands of
people waiting outside.
Goldman and Berkman invited by civil libertarian Alden Freeman to lunch at the
elite New Jersey Society of Mayflower Descendants; subsequent scandal threatens
Freeman's membership in the club.
Police break up Goldman's Sunday lecture series, claiming that she did not
follow the subject of her lecture on "Henrik Ibsen as the Pioneer of Modern
Drama"; two arrests made.
Goldman speaks at the Sunrise Club in New York City on "The Hypocrisy of
Puritanism," sharply criticizing Anthony Comstock, anti-vice crusader.
Brooklyn chief of police orders cancellation of a Goldman lecture.
"A Demand for Free Speech" manifesto signed and circulated by prominent
individuals to protest the recent suppression of Goldman's rights. Free Speech
Society is formed.
Free-speech conference to take place in New York City.
Goldman scheduled to speak in East Orange, N.J., at a meeting organized by
Alden Freeman to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Thomas Paine's death;
police prevent her from entering the lecture hall. Crowd relocates to
Freeman's barn, where Goldman delivers lecture suppressed by police on May
Large meeting organized by the Free Speech Society takes place at Cooper Union
to protest harassment of Goldman and to win back the right of free speech.
Speakers include former congressman Robert Baker, Alden Freeman, Voltairine de
Cleyre, James P. Morton, and Harry Kelly. Telegrams from Eugene Debs and
Goldman tests her free-speech rights by delivering a lecture before the Harlem
Liberal Alliance; standoff with police, but no interference.
Goldman prevented from speaking in New York City at a meeting sponsored by
Mother Earth to celebrate the antiwar uprising in
Spain. Other speakers include Voltairine de Cleyre, Harry Kelly, and
Reitman secures a lecture hall in Boston despite police intimidation of hall
Goldman, accompanied by Reitman, conducts a short lecture tour of
Massachusetts, Vermont, and Rhode Island.
While in Worcester, Goldman attends lecture by Sigmund Freud at Clark
Mayor of Burlington, Vt., prevents Goldman from speaking anywhere in his
Unable to secure a lecture hall in Worcester, Goldman is invited to speak on
the private property of Rev. Eliot White.
September 24-October 21
Goldman engaged in free-speech battle in Philadelphia. Police chief will let
Goldman speak on the condition that he review her speech prior to the
engagement; Free Speech Association deems proposed review an infringement on
Goldman's free-speech rights and Goldman refuses to comply.
When Goldman is prevented from entering lecture hall, Voltairine de Cleyre
reads Goldman's lecture to the audience.
Goldman appeals for injunction to restrain the Philadelphia police from
further intimidation; testifies before the Philadelphia courts.
Philadelphia judge denies injunction, claiming that the police had the right
to prevent both citizens and aliens from speaking if their words were deemed
likely to cause a public disturbance; in addition, claims that Goldman is not a
citizen and therefore is not guaranteed constitutional right to free speech.
Goldman is chief speaker at a New York City mass meeting called to protest the
Oct. 13 execution of Francisco Ferrer, founder of the modern school movement,
Goldman marches in a parade of six hundred anarchists and socialists in New
York City to protest Ferrer's execution.
Prevented from speaking in a Brooklyn lecture hall, Goldman addresses a crowd
of three thousand in an open-air meeting; Reitman arrested for failing to
obtain a permit.
Goldman speaks on "Will the Vote Free Woman: Woman Suffrage" to an audience of
three hundred women, many of whom are suffragists. A collection is taken for
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, recently sentenced to a three-month prison term
resulting from her arrest during a free-speech battle in Spokane.
Goldman scheduled to deliver her last lecture, "White Slave Traffic," in New
York City before embarking on her western tour.
Goldman delivers a total of 120 lectures before forty thousand people in
thirty-seven cities in twenty-five states; credits her success to the
organizing skills of Ben Reitman.
Her tour begins with free-speech battles that thwart her from speaking in
Detroit, Columbus, and Buffalo.
January issue of Mother Earth held by the U.S.
Postmaster on Anthony Comstock's objection to the publication of
Goldman's essay "White Slave Traffic." Released on Jan. 29 when
officials decide there is nothing legally objectionable in the magazine.
Large audiences attend Goldman's lectures in Cleveland.
Goldman holds a successful meeting in Toledo.
In Chicago, Goldman conducts six lectures in English and three in Yiddish.
Goldman holds three successful meetings in Milwaukee.
Goldman's speaking engagements in Madison, Wis., set off a storm of protest
from state and university officials who deny any formal endorsement of
Press attributes Goldman's unsuccessful meeting in Hannibal, Mo., to the
intimidation posed by police when they record the names of everyone who stepped
inside the lecture hall.
Goldman's lectures in St. Louis include "Ferrer and the Modern School," "Leo
Tolstoy, the Last Great Christian, His Life and His Work," and "Art in Relation
Police chief of Springfield, Ill., attempts to stop Goldman from lecturing.
Goldman attracts sizable crowds in Detroit.
Goldman hissed by her Ann Arbor audiences.
Goldman speaks in Buffalo, despite residues of Czolgosz-inspired
apprehension and disapproval of anarchism.
Holds three meetings in Rochester.
Goldman speaks on "The General Strike [of Philadelphia]" in Pittsburgh. Press
does not announce her talks in fear that she will prompt a riot.
A celebration of the fifth anniversary of Mother
Earth takes place in New York City.
Despite an absence of press coverage, Goldman conducts four lectures in
Goldman lectures for the first time in Sioux City, Iowa.
Organized on short notice, Goldman's lecture in Omaha is well received.
Amendment to the Immigration Act of 1907 is passed, forbidding entrance to the
United States of criminals, paupers, anarchists, and persons carrying
Goldman's lectures in Denver well attended.
Goldman and Reitman arrested in Cheyenne, Wyo., while conducting an open-air
meeting. Arrests spur further interest in Goldman.
Goldman lectures in San Francisco and debates a socialist on "whether
collective regulation or free love will guarantee a healthy race."
Goldman visits Jack London and his wife Charmian at their ranch at Glen Ellen,
Goldman lectures on anarchism and "Marriage and Love" in Reno.
Goldman pleased by the overwhelmingly positive reception to her lectures and
debate in Los Angeles; claims to have delivered that city's first-ever
Goldman lectures in San Diego, Portland, Seattle, and Spokane.
Car in which Goldman and Reitman are riding is struck by a freight train in
Spokane. Goldman thrown from car and badly bruised.
Goldman speaks in Butte, Bismarck, and Fargo; travels through Milwaukee and
The Mann Act, popularly known as the "white slave traffic act," passed by
Congress, prohibiting interstate or international transport of women for
Summer and Fall
Goldman divides her time between New York City and the Ossining farm where she
prepares Anarchism and Other Essays for
publication; Berkman begins writing Prison Memoirs of an
Canadian subscribers denied receipt of Mother
Earth books on orders of Canadian authorities because of
their "treasonable nature."
Bombing of the Los Angeles Times building by James
and John McNamara kills twenty people; anarchist involvement immediately
At a public meeting in New York City, Goldman and Reitman question Anthony
Comstock about his promotion of laws denying the use of mails for "obscene"
Goldman sets out to organize public protest in response to the pending
execution of Japanese anarchist Kotoku Shusui (Denjiro), his common-law wife,
Kanno Sugako, and twenty-four others.
Goldman scheduled to lecture on "The Danger of the Growing Power of the Church"
in New York City.
Police authorities deny Goldman the right to speak in Washington, D.C., and
Indianapolis. Escapes police interference in Baltimore where she presents five
Anarchism and Other Essays published.
Goldman begins Sunday lecture series in New York City on anarchism, the drama,
"Tolstoy, the Rebel," and "The Parody of Philanthropy."
Anarchist ball sponsored by Mother Earth in New
Mother Earth office moved from 210 East Thirteenth
Street to 55 West 28th Street, New York City.
Goldman speaks at the inauguration of the new Ferrer School in New York City.
Goldman begins her annual "pilgrimage" with a lecture in Rochester. Over the
next six months she will travel to fifty cities in eighteen states, delivering
150 lectures and debates.
Goldman's lectures in Buffalo and Pittsburgh poorly attended.
Successful events in Cleveland, especially the Jewish meeting.
Goldman has mixed results in Columbus; denied opportunity to speak on several
occasions. Goldman receives support from many members of the United Mine
Workers, although the leaders of the UMW vote against inviting Goldman to speak
at their convention.
Goldman holds small meetings in Elyria and Dayton, Ohio.
Speaks in Cincinnati.
Execution of twelve anarchists in Japan.
After free-speech battle in Indianapolis, Goldman is offered use of the
Pentecost Tabernacle by a preacher; the next day she speaks at the Universalist
Goldman holds two meetings in Toledo.
January 31-February 5
Lectures in Detroit disappointing.
Goldman's lectures in Ann Arbor received more favorably than previous year.
Speaking engagement in Grand Rapids hosted by William Buwalda.
Goldman lectures in Chicago.
February 26-March 3
With the help of William Marion Reedy, Goldman's lectures are widely attended
in St. Louis. Meets political artist Robert Minor. Roger Baldwin arranges two
speaking engagements for Goldman at the exclusive Wednesday Ladies' Club.
Lecture topics include "The Eternal Spirit of Revolution," "The Social
Importance of Ferrer's Modern School," "Tolstoy--Artist and Rebel," and
Goldman encounters police interference in Staunton, Ill., but manages to speak
before members of this mining town despite arrest of one comrade.
Goldman lectures in Belleville, Ill., Milwaukee, and Madison.
Ricardo Flores Magón appeals to Goldman for support of the
revolutionary movement in Mexico.
Scheduling problems for Goldman's lecture series in St. Paul-- holds only one
Fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City kills 146 people,
mostly young women.
Goldman delivers six lectures in Minneapolis and three lectures in Omaha.
Goldman speaks to law students in Lincoln, Nebr., and Lawrence, Kans.
Scheduled to participate in a debate and speak before a Jewish audience in
Goldman scheduled to speak in Kansas City, Mo.
Free Speech League incorporated in Albany, N.Y., by Leonard D. Abbott,
president, and Brand Whitlock, vice president.
Goldman's lecture on "Victims of Morality" among the most well attended in
Goldman speaks in Salt Lake City.
Climax of land revolt in Baja California led by the Partido Liberal Mexicano;
Porfirio Diaz signs a peace treaty with Francisco Madero in Mexico.
April 30-May 7
Goldman immensely pleased with success of her tour in Los Angeles; holds eleven
meetings and raises financial support for the Mexican cause, and likens the
uprising to the Paris Commune.
Goldman holds two meetings in San Diego.
Goldman accused of being an agent provocateur by the editors of
publication of the Social-Democratic Party in London, England. Accusation
prompts anarchists and liberal journalists and lawyers to rally to Goldman's
defense; statement protesting charges made by
Justice is circulated.
Goldman lectures twice in Fresno, Calif.
Eight lectures and a debate in San Francisco.
Late May-early June
Goldman lectures in Portland and Seattle.
Six-month tour concluded with lectures in Spokane, Colville, Wash., Boise, and
Denver. Collections made for Mexican comrades.
Goldman spends time with Alexander Berkman at their Ossining summer retreat
while Berkman completes Prison Memoirs of an
Goldman rallies support for the Mexican Revolution at a mass meeting at Union
Square in New York City. Other speakers include Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and Max
Unable to secure a mainstream publisher for Berkman's book, Goldman seeks
financial support from attorney Gilbert Roe and journalist Lincoln Steffens for
its publication by the Mother Earth Publishing Association.
Goldman speaks out about "The Growing Religious Superstition" at a mass meeting
in New York City.
Goldman among speakers at a New York City commemoration of the second
anniversary of the death of Francisco Ferrer. Other speakers include Leonard
Abbott, James P. Morton, and Harry Kelly. Bayard Boyesen, professor at
Columbia University and a teacher at the Ferrer School, is later fired by
university administrators for having shared the platform with Goldman at this
October 15-December 10
Series of Sunday afternoon and evening lectures in Yiddish and English to
residents of New York City's Lower East Side. Lecture topics include "Marriage
and the Lot of Children among the Poor," "Government by Spies: The McNamara
Case and Burns," "Art and Revolution," "Communism, the Most Practical Basis for
Society," "Mary Wollstonecraft, the Pioneer of Modern Womanhood," and
"Socialism Caught in Its Political Trap."
Mother Earth concert and ball to take place in New
John and James McNamara plead guilty to bombing the Los Angeles
building; admission of guilt creates controversy among their supporters who
believed them to be innocent. Goldman defends their action in
Mother Earth editorial.
Goldman scheduled to present a farewell lecture on "Sex, the Element of
Creative Work," in New York City, before departing for annual lecture tour with
Paul Orleneff returns to the United States for a brief series of dramatic
Lawrence, Mass., textile strike begins.
Goldman debates socialist Sol Fieldman twice in New York on "Direct versus
Political Action." Bill Haywood and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn take collections
for the striking textile workers.
Mother Earth alerts its readers to a major
free-speech fight in San Diego.
Goldman a scheduled speaker at a meeting organized by the Italian Socialist
Federation in Union Square to raise support for the Lawrence strikers.
Goldman's annual lecture tour begins in Ohio; speaks in Cleveland, Lorain,
Elyria, Columbus, and Dayton; topics include "Anarchism, the Moving Spirit in
the Labor Struggle" and "Maternity," a Drama by
Eugene Brieux (Why the Poor Should Not Have Children)."
Lectures in Indianapolis and St. Louis.
Aroused by the experience of hearing her lecture, Almeda Sperry begins a
passionate correspondence with Goldman.
Goldman continues lectures in Chicago; topics include "The Failure of
Christianity" and "Edmond Rostand's Chantecler."
Debates Dr. Denslow Lewis
on "Resolved, that the institution of marriage is detrimental to the best
interests of society."
Meets Russian revolutionary Vladimir Bourtzeff.
March 10-April 13
Speaking engagements in Grand Rapids, Detroit, Ann Arbor, Milwaukee, Madison,
Minneapolis, Omaha, Kansas City, and Lawrence, Kans.
Goldman's lectures in Denver positively received; lecture topics include
"Woman's Inhumanity to Man" and "The Failure of Charity."
Post features interviews with and articles by Goldman.
Extends stay in Denver to teach a course on the modern drama.
Goldman in Salt Lake City.
Continuation of lecture tour in Los Angeles; Goldman responds to growing
intensity of free-speech battle in San Diego. On May 13, she speaks at the Los
Angeles funeral of IWW agitator Joseph Mikolasek, killed by the San Diego
police on May 7.
Mob of vigilantes waits for Goldman's arrival at the San Diego train station;
follows her to the Grant Hotel in an attempt to run her out of town. Reitman
is kidnapped, tarred, and sage-brushed, his buttocks singed by cigar with the
letters "I.W.W." Goldman flees from San Diego to Los Angeles.
U.S. grand jury initiated to investigate the IWW as "an organization operating
contrary to the laws of the United States." Proceedings terminated before
Goldman formally called to testify.
Goldman and Reitman among speakers at two large protest meetings held in Los
Goldman and Reitman in San Francisco; lectures on anarchism and the San Diego
free-speech battle are widely attended despite condemnation of Goldman in the
Socialists deny Goldman use of their Oakland auditorium.
Reitman and Goldman speak in Sacramento about their recent experience in San
Goldman continues lecture tour in Portland.
Goldman's lecture series in Seattle threatened by U.S. military veterans who
protest her right to speak. Mayor orders a large contingent of police to
monitor, rather than bar, her lectures. Goldman speaks in public in defiance
of anonymous death threat; no attempts made on her life.
Goldman travels to Spokane, Colville, Wash., and Butte to lecture.
Following a long illness, Voltairine de Cleyre dies at the age of forty-five.
June 26-July 13
Goldman returns to Denver intending to teach classes on eugenics and on modern
drama; eugenics class canceled for lack of interest. Public lecture topics
include "Patriotism--a Menace to Liberty" and "Vice, Its Cause and Cure."
Her lecture circuit completed, Goldman stops at the Waldheim cemetery in
Chicago to visit Voltairine de Cleyre's grave.
Goldman pleased to return to a well-organized _Mother Earth_ office in New
Summer and Fall
Goldman vacations and writes at the Ossining farm; grows impatient with
Berkman's difficulties with revision of Prison
Goldman impressed by African-American political theorist W. E. B. Du Bois
lecture at the Sunrise Club in New York.
October 6-December 22
Goldman holds a Yiddish and English Sunday lecture series in New York City;
topics include "The Psychology of Anarchism," "The Dupes of Politics," "Sex
Sterilization of Criminals," "The Resurrection of Alexander Berkman:
Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist," "The Failure of
Efficiency--the Modern Menace," and Damaged
Goods by Eugène
Brieux (A Powerful Drama, Dealing with the Curse of Venereal Disease).
Woodrow Wilson elected president; Socialist candidate Eugene Debs receives over
Goldman participates in major commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of
the Haymarket martyrs in New York, sponsored by more than a dozen anarchist and
Goldman scheduled to speak at a meeting organized by Almeda Sperry in New
Kensington, Pa., followed by meetings in Pittsburgh, New Castle, and McKees
Goldman scheduled to lecture on syndicalism in the Brownsville section of
Gala celebration of Peter Kropotkin's seventieth birthday in New York City
cosponsored by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme and
Mother Earth; Goldman a featured speaker.
Berkman and Goldman speak at the Chicago celebration of Kropotkin's birthday.
Goldman scheduled to lecture on Leonid Andreyev's King
Hunger in Brownsville.
Mother Earth Grand Ball and Reunion in New York.
January 12-February 16
Goldman delivers six Sunday lectures in New York City on the modern drama,
discussing the plays of Scandinavian, German, Austrian, French, English, and
Russian dramatists including August Strindberg, Gerhart Hauptmann, Arthur
Schnitzler, Frank Wedekind, Maurice Maeterlinck, Edmond Rostand, Octave
Mirbeau, Eugène Brieux, George Bernard Shaw, Arthur Pinero, John
Charles Rann Kennedy, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, Maxim Gorki, and Leonid
Lecture in Hartford, Conn.
Lecture in Newark, N.J.
The International Exhibition of Modern Art--the Armory Show--opens at the 69th
Regiment Armory in New York City.
Benefit event for Mother Earth's eighth
anniversary and for Goldman on the eve of her departure for her annual
February 22-April 22
Goldman describes her engagements in Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, Ann Arbor,
Indianapolis, St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Mo.,
Coffeyville, Lawrence, and Topeka, Kans., as "dreadfully uneventful and dull."
Lecture topics include "Sex Sterilization of Criminals," "The Psychology of
Anarchism," "Woman's Inhumanity to Man," "Syndicalism--the Modern Menace to
Capitalism," "Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist,"
"Syndicalism, the Strongest
Weapon of Labor--a Discussion of Direct Action, Sabotage and the General
Strike," and the modern drama.
Paterson, N.J., silk strike begins.
Goldman opens series of lectures on Nietzsche at the Woman's Club in Denver.
Goldman lectures on the modern drama in Denver, which "brought larger and more
representative audiences than we have ever had in Denver."
Goldman delivers thirteen lectures in Los Angeles.
Goldman accompanies Reitman, obsessed with returning to San Diego, to the place
of his abduction by vigilantes the previous year.
Goldman and Reitman arrested on arrival in San Diego; vigilantes surround the
police station. Police order Goldman and Reitman to board the afternoon train
back to Los Angeles.
In Los Angeles, Goldman and others speak out against continued vigilante
intimidation in San Diego.
May 25-June 8
Goldman delivers a series of anarchist propaganda lectures in San Francisco,
followed by several talks on the modern drama, including Stanley Houghton's
Hindel Wakes, John Galsworthy's The
Justice Crush All, and Charles Rann Kennedy's The
Dignity of Labor.
Arahata Kanson translates Goldman's essay "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation"
June 16-July 9
Goldman lectures on anarchism and the modern drama in Los Angeles. General
lecture topics include "Friedrich Nietzsche, the Anti-Governmentalist," "The
Social Evil," and "The Child and Its Enemies: The Revolutionary Developments in
Modern Education." Dramatists discussed include Henrik Ibsen, Hermann
Sudermann, Otto Hartleben, J. M. Synge, William Butler Yeats, Lady Isabella
Gregory, Lennox Robinson, Thomas C. Murray, and E. N. Chirikov.
Paterson silk strike ends in failure.
Due to her popular success the previous month, Goldman is welcomed back to San
Francisco to continue her lecture series. Debates socialist Maynard Shipley,
and, in addition to a series on the modern drama, delivers several talks on
general topics including "The Relation of the Individual to Society" and, in
Yiddish, "Should the Poor Have Many Children." Goldman notes that her lecture
on "The Social Evil" attracted the biggest and most diverse audience.
In Portland, Goldman delivers lectures on the modern drama, including the works
of playwrights Ludwig Thoma, Stanley Houghton, and Katherine Githa Sowerby.
Other public speaking engagements include a debate with socialist W. F. Ries
and a lecture on the sterilization laws adopted by the state of Oregon.
In Seattle, while distributing advance lecture bills for Goldman, Reitman and
another publicist are arrested on the charge of "peddling bills without a
license," and released on five dollars bail.
The Seattle Free Speech League protests the actions of the president of the
University of Washington, who disallowed the scheduling of Goldman's lectures
at campus facilities.
Goldman delivers several lectures in Seattle, including three in the IWW
meeting hall; describes them as "the most wonderful I have addressed in many
Canadian immigration authorities prevent Goldman from entering the country.
Goldman participates in debate on "Anarchism versus Socialism," and speaks on
"Marriage and Love" in Everett, Wash., despite the mayor's intention to bar her
Goldman delivers three lectures in Spokane, including "The Social and
Revolutionary Significance of the Modern Drama."
"The Growing Danger of the Power of the Church" is the most popular of two
lectures delivered by Goldman in Butte, Mont.
Back in New York City, Goldman engages in a search for a large apartment to
combine the Mother Earth office with a household
comprised of Reitman and his
mother, Berkman, Mother Earth secretary M. Eleanor
Fitzgerald, and French
housekeeper Rhoda Smith. By the end of the month, she moves from 210 East 13th
Street, where she has lived since 1903, to 74 West 119th Street.
Settled in her new home, Goldman prepares her modern drama manuscript for
Goldman organizes political support for IWW members arrested in connection
with strike of Canadian miners, and for Jesus Rangel, Charles Kline and twelve
members of the Partido Liberal Mexicano charged with murdering a deputy sheriff
in San Antonio, Tex.
Goldman among speakers at a Francisco Ferrer memorial meeting in New York
Annual Mother Earth reunion concert and ball takes
place in New York.
Goldman delivers two lectures in Trenton, N.J.
November 2-December 28
Goldman conducts Sunday evening lectures series in New York City; topics
include "Our Moral Censors," "The Place of Anarchism in Modern Thought," "The
Strike of Mothers," "The Intellectual Proletarians," and "Why Strikes Are
Goldman hosts a social gathering for British syndicalist Tom Mann.
Despite warnings by the Paterson, N.J., police forbidding Goldman from
speaking, she addresses members of the IWW on "The Spirit of Anarchism in the
Labor Struggle." Goldman is forced off the platform; audience members engage
in battle with the police to release her.
Annual "Christmas Gathering of the Mother
EarthFamily" in New York City.
Goldman's Mother Earth essay "Self-Defense for
Labor" responds to a series of
violent labor violations; in the absence of legal protection against the danger
of exercising their right to organize, Goldman calls on workers to arm
themselves for self-defense.
Joe Hill arrested in Utah; charged with murder despite lack of evidence.
Goldman's household arrangement with Reitman and his mother fails. Goldman's
relationship with him becomes "unbearable"; Reitman moves back to Chicago.
Goldman continues to work on the manuscript of Social
Significance of the Modern Drama.
Philadelphia police expel audience and lock the hall where Goldman is scheduled
to lecture on "The Awakening of Labor"; event moved to another location where
the lecture proceeds without interruption.
Under the auspices of the Free Speech League, Goldman addresses large meeting
in Paterson, N.J., to protest recent violations of free speech; other speakers
include single-taxer Bolton Hall, Leonard Abbott, and Lincoln Steffens.
January 11-March 8
Goldman delivers extensive lecture series in New York City on the modern drama;
expands her repertoire to discuss the works of British poet and dramatist John
Masefield, and American playwrights Mark E. Swan, William J. Hurlbut, Joshua
Rosett, and Edwin Davies Schoonmaker. Responding to the massive unemployment
of the time, Goldman requests contributions for the jobless at each lecture.
Goldman offered high-paying speaking engagements in vaudeville; after brief
contemplation of proposition based on desperate financial need, she turns down
Lecture in Newark, N.J.
Goldman delivers lecture in Philadelphia; notes free-speech victory with
complete retreat of police authorities.
Goldman, in Yiddish, among speakers at an afternoon celebration of the ninth
anniversary of the publication of Mother Earth
and a commemoration of the
Paris Commune; other speakers include Berkman, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Harry
Goldman delivers farewell lecture in New York City. American playwright
George Middleton and actresses Fola La Follette and Mary Shaw speak on "What
Drama Means to Me."
Goldman addresses demonstration of unemployed workers at Union Square in New
York City; rally is followed by march along Fifth Avenue. Event launches
city-wide campaign of the unemployed, in which Berkman takes an active role.
The Social Significance of the Modern Drama
Reunited, Goldman and Reitman open their seventh annual tour in Chicago with
"splendid" Jewish meetings.
Goldman lectures on "The Conflict of the Sexes" in Chicago; attended by at
least one thousand people.
Goldman presents expanded afternoon lecture series on the modern drama in
Chicago. Playwrights analyzed include British dramatist St. John Hankin, Welsh
author John O. Francis, and American dramatists Eugene Walter and George
Other lectures presented in Chicago during this period include "Our Moral
Censors," "The Individual and Society," "The Hypocrisy of Charity," "Beyond
Good and Evil," "Anarchism and Labor" (in German), and "The Mother Strike."
In Chicago, Goldman befriends Margaret Anderson, editor of the literary
magazine Little Review.
Goldman lectures in Madison, Minneapolis, and Des Moines.
Massacre of striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colo., by armed company guards from
John D. Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel & Iron Co.; eleven children and two
women among those killed.
April 28-May 9
Goldman delivers seven propaganda lectures and eleven modern drama talks in
On May 3, Goldman addresses large meeting organized by the Anti-Militarist
League of Denver to protest the use of federal troops in the Colorado mining
strike and the war with Mexico.
Goldman attributes Denver IWW free-speech victory in part to the efforts of
Reitman, who helped secure the release of twenty-seven IWW members from the
Goldman makes brief appearance in Salt Lake City.
May 15-June 11
In Los Angeles, Goldman continues delivering propaganda and modern drama
lectures, which includes discussion of Irish playwright Seamus O'Kelly. Her
propaganda lectures include "Revolution and Reform--Which?" and "The Place of
the Church in the Labor Struggle." Goldman reports to birth-control advocate
Margaret Sanger that "Not one of my lectures brings out such a crowd as the one
on the birth strike and it is the same with the W[oman] R[ebel]. It sells
better than anything we have" (May 26, 1914).
June 14-July 10
Goldman reception in San Francisco disappointing compared to her experience in
Los Angeles. Lectures include "The Intellectual Proletarians," "The Superman
in Relation to the Social Revolution," "The Mothers' Strike," and
"Anti-Militarism: The Reply to War."
Accidental bomb explosion at Lexington Avenue in New York City kills four
people, including Arthur Caron, Carl Hansen, and Charles Berg, anarchists who
knew Berkman from the protests at John D. Rockefeller's estate in Tarrytown,
Goldman travels to Eureka and Arcata, lumber towns in Humboldt County, Calif.;
delivers first-known anarchist lectures there to enthusiastic audiences.
On July 11 in New York City, a rally and public funeral of six thousand people
mourn the deaths of those killed in the Lexington Avenue explosion. Berkman, a
key organizer of event, speaks at rally despite heavy police surveillance.
Goldman furious when she receives the July issue of Mother
unbeknownst to her, has been filled with "harangues...of a most violent
character.... [including] prattle about force and dynamite."
Goldman lectures in Portland, much aided by C. E. S. Wood. Among the most
notable and well attended of her lectures is "Intellectual Proletarians" at the
Portland Public Library. Other talks presented include "The Immorality of
Prohibition and Continence," about the prohibition campaign of Portland, which
Goldman later described as "one of the most exciting evenings in my public
career." The focus of her drama criticism expands during this tour to include
the work of Norwegian playwright Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.
July 26-August 3
Goldman reports that her lectures in Seattle are "flat and uninteresting."
Outbreak of World War I in Europe.
Goldman speaks at a hastily organized event in Tacoma, Wash., on "The Birth
Strike--Why and How the Poor Should Not Have Children." Following Tacoma, she
travels to Home Colony.
Goldman returns to Portland to deliver a series of free lectures.
Goldman delivers five lectures in Butte, of which the most popular are her
antiwar and birth control talks.
Goldman makes brief stop in Chicago before returning to New York City, where
she finds Mother Earth in disastrous financial
condition as a result of Berkman's poor management.
Margaret Sanger indicted for obscenity in connection with her journal
Woman Rebel. A few months later, Sanger flees the country
until Oct. 1915.
To decrease financial burden, Goldman relocates her residence and the _Mother
Earth_ office from West 119th Street to smaller quarters located at 20 East
Goldman encourages Berkman to embark on an independent lecture tour; places
Max Baginski and her nephew Saxe Commins in charge of editorial work of
Part one of Peter Kropotkin's 1913 essay, "Wars and Capitalism," reprinted in
Mother Earth, in an effort to refute Kropotkin's
stance in favor of the war.
October 23-November 15
Goldman returns to Chicago for series of propaganda and modern drama lectures,
delivered in both English and Yiddish. General lecture topics include "War and
the Sacred Right of Property," "The Betrayal of the International," "The False
Pretenses of Culture," "The Psychology of War," "The Tsar and 'My' Jews," "The
War and 'Our Lord'," "The Misconceptions of Free Love," and "Woman and War."
Her English series on the drama, titled "The Modern Drama as a Mirror of
Individual, Class and Social Rebellion Against the Tyranny of the Past," takes
place in Chicago's elegant Fine Arts Building, made possible by the financial
backing of a wealthy supporter. Goldman's usual focus on European dramatists
is expanded to include for the first time Swedish dramatist Hjalmar Bergman;
French playwrights Paul Hervieu, (Félix) Henry Bataille, and Henri
Italian dramatists Gabriele D'Annunzio and Giuseppe Giacosa; Spanish playwright
José Echegaray; Yiddish dramatists Jacob Gordin, Sholem Asch, David
Pinski, and Max Nordau; and American playwright Butler Davenport.
Goldman describes the audience of her Chicago Press Club luncheon lecture on
"The Relationship of Anarchism to Literature" as "five hundred hard-faced
In Chicago, Goldman participates in event to commemorate the twenty-seventh
anniversary of the death of the Haymarket martyrs.
Goldman delivers lectures in Detroit and Ann Arbor.
Goldman delighted with the success of her meetings, including lecture on "The
War and 'Our Lord,'" in Grand Rapids, Mich., organized by William Buwalda of
the Analyser Club.
November 29-December 6
In St. Louis, Goldman delivers eight English and two Yiddish lectures to
Lectures in Indianapolis and Cincinnati; interaction with Indianapolis audience
at her lecture on "Free Love" described as "both interesting and funny."
Goldman presents two English and two Yiddish lectures in Cleveland, and
delivers an address before the Council of Economics.
In Pittsburgh, Goldman holds a meeting organized by lawyer Jacob Margolis.
Goldman delivers lecture on the war to an audience of eighteen hundred people
at an event organized by her niece Miriam Cominsky in Rochester. Days later,
Goldman speaks on "The Birth Strike."
Goldman hosts New Year's eve party at her apartment on East 125th Street; Mabel
Dodge among those invited.
Goldman helps organize defense of Matthew Schmidt and David Caplan, arrested
for complicity in the 1910 bombing of the Los Angeles
Goldman delivers series of lectures on the war and on sexuality in New York
City, Albany, Schenectady, and Boston. Topics include "Anarchism and
Literature," "Feminism--A Criticism of Woman's Struggle for the Vote and
'Freedom'," "Nietzsche, The Intellectual Storm-Center of the Great War," "The
Intermediate Sex (A Study of Homosexuality)," and "Man--Monogamist or
At the end of 1915, Reitman reports that Goldman has delivered a total of 321
lectures that year.
Goldman attends concert of her nephew David Hochstein, a violinist with
William Sanger arrested for circulating a copy of Margaret Sanger's pamphlet
Goldman lectures on "Limitation of Offspring" to six hundred people, one of the
liberal New York Sunrise Club's largest audiences. Although she details
explicit information about birth control methods, Goldman is not arrested.
Mother Earth "Red Revel" Ball takes place in New
York City; attended by close to eight hundred people of many nationalities.
Goldman helps raise money for the defense fund of Frank Abarno and Carmine
Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, arrested on
March 2 for conspiracy to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral. On April 9, Abarno and
Carbone are convicted and sentenced to six to twelve years in prison.
Goldman disappointed by the poor attendance at the tenth anniversary of
Mother Earth in New York.
Goldman shares the platform with Harry Kelly, Italian anarchist Carlo Tresca,
Pedro Esteve, Russian anarchist William Shatoff, and physician and anarchist
Michael Cohn for an international celebration of the anniversary of the Paris
Commune. Goldman attributes poor turnout to the divided stance among radicals
on the war.
Goldman lectures again on "Limitation of Offspring--Why and How Small Families
are Preferable" in New York. Although explicit information is repeated and
detectives are present, no arrests are made.
Goldman invited by the students of the Union Theological Seminary in New York
to speak on "The Message of Anarchism," but administration cancels the
Writing from exile in Europe, Margaret Sanger criticizes Goldman for failing to
provide adequate support and coverage of Sanger's legal battles. Goldman calls
her charge "very unfair" and assures her that Mother
Earth will stand by her.
The Organizing Junta of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, including the
bothers, appeals to the readers of Mother Earth
for solidarity with the Mexican revolutionary movement.
Goldman poses for a portrait by artist Robert Henri.
Goldman debates economist Isaac Hourwich on "Social Revolution versus Social
Reform" in New York City in a benefit for the Ferrer School; attended by nearly
two thousand people.
Goldman speaks on "The Failure of Christianity" and the Billy Sunday movement
in Paterson, N.J., after attending one of Sunday's revival meetings.
Motivated primarily by need to pay off debts of Mother
Earth, Goldman embarks on a lecture tour. One of her first
engagements, in Philadelphia, is delivering "The Limitation of Offspring"
in Yiddish before an audience of twelve hundred.
International Anarchist Manifesto on the War issued from London; Goldman among
over thirty anarchist signatories from the United States, Italy, France, Spain,
the Netherlands, and Russia.
Goldman lectures on the war, drama, birth control, and sexuality in
Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago, Milwaukee,
Madison, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Denver. topics include "Jealousy, Its Cause
and Possible Cure," the Modern School, and feminism. Finds that audiences are
most receptive to her lectures on war and on birth control, although Catholic
socialists harass her in Washington, D.C.
Goldman continues her lecture tour in Los Angeles and San Diego, raising
support for the Caplan-Schmidt defense fund.
While in Los Angeles, Goldman presents her critique of feminism to a hostile
group of five hundred members of the Woman's City Club, who, according to
Goldman, denounce her as "an enemy of woman's freedom."
Goldman delivers twenty-four lectures in San Francisco; topics include "The
Psychology of War," "The Follies of Feminism (A criticism of the Modern Woman's
Movement)," "Religion and the War," and "The Right of the Child Not to Be
Born." According to Reitman, Goldman presents "an inspired address" on "The
Philosophy of Atheism" before the Congress of Religious Philosophy at the Civic
Lectures continue in Portland; on Aug. 6, while beginning a speech on "Birth
Control," Goldman and Reitman are arrested for distributing birth control
literature. Goldman released on $500 bail provided by C. E. S. Wood.
Goldman and Reitman are fined $100. Despite proclamation by the chief of
police that Goldman will not be allowed to speak again in Portland, she
presents "The Intermediate Sex" later that night, and two lectures the
Goldman speaks on "The Sham of Culture" at the Portland Public Library to
Goldman's case dismissed by Portland Circuit Judge Gatens who concludes, "There
is too much tendency to prudery nowadays."
Goldman lectures in Seattle where she has difficulty securing halls.
Goldman returns to New York.
William Sanger convicted for illegal distribution of birth control literature;
Sanger serves thirty-day jail sentence in lieu of paying $150 fine.
Goldman scheduled to speak at meeting to rally support for David Caplan and
Matthew Schmidt prior to the opening of their trials. (During the course of
Schmidt's trial, it is revealed that Donald Vose, the son of an anarchist
friend of Goldman's, had been employed since May 1914 by detective William J.
Burns to spy on Goldman in order to locate Schmidt. Vose resided at Goldman's
apartment and at her farm in Ossining the previous year, and witnessed Schmidt
visiting Goldman. Schmidt was later arrested.)
Reitman, in Chicago, begins work on a book about venereal disease; Goldman
reviews the first chapter.
Goldman delivers five lectures--including "Preparedness, the Road to Universal
Slaughter" in Philadelphia. Scott Nearing of the University of Pennsylvania
attends one of her lectures.
Goldman lectures in Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Ann Arbor,
Detroit, Akron, and Youngstown. On Nov. 11, the anniversary of the Haymarket
martyrs, Goldman delivers her "Preparedness" lecture to three thousand
employees of a Westinghouse defense plant at a street lecture in East
IWW member and songwriter Joe Hill (Joseph Hillstrom) executed in Utah.
November 19-December 5
Goldman presents sixteen lectures in Chicago, including six in Yiddish; "Sex,
the Great Element of Creative Art" and "The Right of the Child Not to be Born"
among the topics addressed.
Goldman lectures in St. Louis, Indianapolis, Columbus, Akron, Cleveland, and
Youngstown. Goldman remarks that the Akron newspaper reports on her birth
control lectures were among the most intelligent she had ever seen.
Goldman returns to New York ill and exhausted; seeks better accommodations at
the Theresa Hotel in New York, as the Mother Earth
office has no bath. Hotel management refuses to grant her residence.
Attorney Harry Weinberger protests on Goldman's behalf.
Goldman lectures in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh,
on sexuality, modern drama, and the war, including "Preparedness: A Conspiracy
between the Munitions Manufacturers and Washington." Also lectures before
enthusiastic members of a prominent women's club in Brooklyn.
Matthew Schmidt convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Berkman announces publication of the first issue of his San Francisco-based
journal The Blast.
Goldman continues her lectures--including "The Ego and His Own, a review of Max
Stirner's book," "The Family, the Great Obstacle to Development," and
"Nietzsche and the German Kaiser"--in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C.,
and Pittsburgh. Her lectures on modern drama include Irish playwrights Synge,
Yeats, Thomas Cornelius Murray, Rutherford Mayne, and Lennox Robinson.
Goldman arrested in New York City for her birth control lecture the previous
week; released on $500 bail. Preliminary hearing takes place Feb. 28; case
postponed for Special Sessions April 5. Goldman appeals for support.
Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón, editors of the Mexican anarchist
Regeneración, arrested and jailed on
charges of "having used the mails to
incite murder, arson, and treason." Months later, they are both convicted and
given prison sentences and fines.
Celebration in New York City for Margaret Sanger following the dismissal of all
charges against her; Robert Minor's motion for Goldman to speak at the meeting
is not supported.
Mass meeting held in San Francisco to protest Goldman's Feb. 11 arrest.
Goldman prepares for her birth control trial and continues to lecture in New
York; drama critique includes discussion of British playwright Harley
Goldman chairs public meeting in New York to protest imprisonment of Matthew
Goldman's courtroom hearing on her birth control violation takes place amid
ruckus between police and her supporters.
Benefit banquet for Goldman at the Hotel Brevoort is attended by notable
artists, writers, socialists, and doctors, including John Cowper Powys,
Alexander Harvey, Robert Henri, George Bellows, Robert Minor, Boardman
Robinson, and Rose Pastor Stokes.
Goldman defends herself in birth control trial. She is convicted, and, in lieu
of paying $100 fine, serves fifteen days in the Queens County Penitentiary;
released May 4.
Reitman arrested in New York for distributing pamphlets on birth control.
Large gathering at Carnegie Hall to celebrate Goldman's release from jail.
Program includes speeches by Masses editor Max
Eastman, Harry Weinberger, Arturo Giovannitti, and socialist Rose Pastor
Stokes. At the close of the meeting, Rose Pastor Stokes hands out one
hundred typewritten notices including
outlawed information about birth control.
Reitman convicted and sentenced to sixty days in Queens County Jail.
Goldman speaks from the back of a car at an open-air demonstration in Union
Square to protest Reitman's imprisonment for distributing birth control. Ida
Rauh Eastman, Bolton Hall, and Jessie Ashley are arrested later and charged
with illegally distributing birth control information at the meeting.
Goldman conducts lecture tour in Philadelphia, Cleveland, Denver, Los Angeles,
and San Francisco; topics include "Free or Forced Motherhood," "Anarchism and
Human Nature--Do They Harmonize?," "The Family--Its Enslaving Effect upon
Parents and Children," "Art and Revolution: The Irish Uprising," in addition to
lectures on the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt
Goldman plans meeting with Giovannitti and others to begin work on an
During strike of thirty thousand iron-ore miners of the Mesabi range in
northern Minnesota, Carlo Tresca and other IWW strike leaders are arrested on
charge of inciting the murder of a deputy.
Social dance and benefit for the defense funds of David Caplan and Enrique and
Ricardo Flores Magón takes place in Los Angeles. Goldman and Berkman
their success in raising the $10,000 bail necessary to secure the release of
the Magon brothers.
A bomb is thrown into the crowd at a Preparedness Day parade in San Francisco,
killing ten and wounding forty people. On the same day, Goldman proceeds as
planned with her scheduled talk on "Preparedness, the Road to Universal
The authorities immediately suspect anarchist involvement in the bombing. A
few days later, they search and seize material located at the offices of
Blast, and threaten to arrest Berkman and M. Eleanor
Fitzgerald. Later that
week, Warren Billings, Israel Weinberg, Edward Nolan, Thomas Mooney, and Rena
Mooney are arrested. Goldman and Berkman begin to organize support for their
Goldman lectures in Portland, Seattle, and Denver; Goldman's lecture "The Gary
System" addresses the topic of public school education. In Denver, Goldman's
lectures include "The Educational and Sexual Dwarfing of the Child," and a
course on "Russian Literature--The Voice of Revolt."
Trial of Warren Billings begins in San Francisco.
Goldman's lecture tour concluded, she takes a brief vacation in Provincetown
with her niece Stella. Following the conviction and sentencing of Warren
Billings to life imprisonment, Goldman resumes work with Berkman in New York in
support of the Mooney case.
Appearing in court to testify on behalf of Bolton Hall, Goldman is arrested for
having distributed birth control information on May 20. (Hall is later
acquitted of the charge.) Goldman released on $500 bond; Harry Weinberger
serves as her attorney.
Margaret Sanger is arrested for distributing birth control information.
Protesting violations of free speech and vigilante intimidation, five members
of the IWW are killed and thirty-one wounded by vigilantes in Everett, Wash.;
seventy-four IWW members are later tried for the murder of a deputy and a
lumber company official.
Goldman lectures in Chicago, Milwaukee, Ann Arbor, Detroit, Cleveland, and
Rochester on education, Russian literature, birth control, sexuality, and
Bill Haywood, Lucy Parsons, and Goldman speak at a large memorial meeting in
Chicago for the Haymarket martyrs. Collections are made for, in Goldman's
words, "the living victims in the social war," including Mooney, Tresca,
Caplan, Schmidt, and the IWW members arrested in Everett.
Goldman speaks at a large meeting in Carnegie Hall called by the United Hebrew
Trades to protest the arrests and trials of those accused of throwing a bomb at
the San Francisco Preparedness Day parade. Other speakers include lawyer Frank
Walsh, Max Eastman, United Hebrew Trades leader Max Pine, Giovannitti, and
Reitman arrested in Cleveland for organizing volunteers to distribute birth
control information at Goldman's lecture "Is Birth Control Harmful--a
Discussion of the Limitation of Offspring."
At one of Goldman's lectures in Rochester, Reitman is again arrested for
distributing illegal birth control literature.
Goldman lectures before Yiddish- and English-speaking audiences in New York,
Cleveland, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Passaic, N.J., Boston, Springfield,
and Brockton, Mass.; topics include "Obedience, A Social Vice," "Celibacy or
Sex Expression," "Vice and Censorship, Twin Sisters--How Vice is Not
Suppressed," "Michael Bakunin, His Life and Work," "Walt Whitman, the Liberator
of Sex," "The Speculators in War and Starvation," "American Democracy in
Relation to the Russian Revolution," and a course on Russian literature.
Goldman preoccupied with threat of Berkman's extradition to California in
connection with the Mooney case.
Following the February Revolution in Russia, Goldman supports William
Shatoff's return to Russia with a contingent of Russian exiles and refugees.
Goldman and Berkman entrust Louise Berger with the delivery of a manifesto they
have written to the people of Russia to protest the imprisonment of Mooney and
Billings. Goldman and Berkman attend Leon Trotsky's farewell lecture in New
York City. They contemplate visiting Russia, but decide to postpone plans when
they learn that the British government has held up the return of several
Goldman acquitted by a New York court on charge of circulating birth control
information at the May 20, 1916, Union Square open-air meeting. Goldman
credits especially Ida Rauh Eastman, who risks self-incrimination in order to
disprove Goldman's involvement in distributing literature.
Reitman is convicted on charges resulting from his arrest of Dec. 12, 1916, and
sentenced to serve six months in jail and to pay a fine of $1,000 in addition
to court costs. Goldman angry that Margaret Sanger, in Cleveland at the time,
failed to help rally support for Reitman.
Alien Immigration Act passed; allows deportation of undesirable aliens "any
time after their entry."
In Cleveland, Goldman speaks on "The Message of Anarchism" before a full
assembly of the North Congregational Church. The following day she addresses a
free-speech meeting; Goldman dismayed that other speakers have refused to
attend event if birth control included among issues addressed.
Mooney convicted and sentenced to hang on May 17. Goldman intensifies
organizing efforts to prevent his execution.
Following large rally in support of Reitman the prior evening, Reitman is
acquitted on charges from his Dec. 15, 1916 birth control arrest in
Mooney's defense attorney W. Bourke Cockran speaks at mass meeting at Carnegie
Hall organized by Goldman and Berkman.
Goldman speaks at several meetings chaired by John Sloan of the New York Art
The United States enters World War I.
Political Prisoners Ball, which Goldman has helped organize, benefits the San
Francisco Labor Defense for Mooney and Billings; features "cell-booth bazaar
and prison garb and military costumes." Goldman counts forty-five hundred
people in attendance.
Goldman lectures in New York, Springfield, Mass., and Philadelphia; topics
include "Billy Sunday (Charlatan and Vulgarian)," "The State and its Powerful
Opponents: Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Stirner, Ralph Waldo Emerson, David
Thoreau, and Others," "Woman's Inhumanity to Man," and Russian literature.
Conference to organize a No-Conscription League held at the
office; away lecturing, Goldman claims that she sent a message that, as a
woman, she felt she could not claim a position on whether or not the League
should urge men against registering for the military.
Mooney's scheduled date of execution is stayed while case is appealed.
On the same day that the Selective Service Act is passed authorizing federal
conscription for the armed forces and requiring the registration of all men
between the ages of twenty-one and thirty, Goldman addresses an
anti-conscription gathering of close to ten thousand people chaired by Leonard
Abbott in New York City. Other speakers include Berkman and Harry Weinberger.
No arrests made, but many detectives present.
Goldman speaks before a Jewish audience in Philadelphia on "Victims of
Morality," addressing morality as it relates to private ownership, government
and laws, and women. The police warn her against addressing conscription when
she begins to urge mothers to prevent their sons from fighting in the war.
Event inspires the formation of a No-Conscription League in Philadelphia.
On an order from Washington, D.C., New York postal authorities hold up June
issue of Mother Earth.
Kropotkin returns to Russia.
At a peace meeting in Madison Square Garden, Morris Becker, Louis Kramer, and
two others are arrested for circulating leaflets advertising a June 4 mass
meeting of the No-Conscription League. Although Goldman and Berkman attempt to
claim full responsibility for the event, Becker and Kramer are later found
guilty of conspiracy to advise people against military registration.
On the eve of the official military registration day, Goldman, among others,
addresses a mass meeting organized by the No-Conscription League; attended by
ten thousand people. Goldman stops the meeting when a conflict with uniformed
soldiers and sailors breaks out.
Ignoring rumors of a death threat, Goldman speaks at an anti-conscription
meeting chaired by Berkman. Officers arrest all men of draft age who cannot
show proof of registration.
Goldman and Berkman arrested by U.S. Marshal Thomas McCarthy; later indicted on
charge of conspiracy to violate the Draft Act.
President Wilson signs the Espionage Act, which sets penalties of up to twenty
years imprisonment and fines of up to $10,000 for persons aiding the enemy,
interfering with the draft, or encouraging disloyalty of military members; also
declares nonmailable all written material advocating treason, insurrection, or
forcible resistance to the law.
Goldman and Berkman plead not guilty on conspiracy charges; bail set at $25,000
Goldman disappointed by Reitman's failure to return to New York to support
their pending trial.
Goldman freed on $25,000 bail; the press spreads charges that Goldman's bail
was provided by the German Kaiser. Berkman released on bail June 25.
Goldman consults with some of her closest associates--including writer and
editor Frank Harris, journalist and socialist John Reed, Max Eastman, and
Gilbert Roe--about her disbelief in courtroom justice and her decision to
participate minimally in her pending trial.
First U.S. troops arrive in France.
June 27-July 9
Goldman and Berkman act as independent counsel in their conspiracy trial;
Goldman denies charge that she stated, "We believe in violence and we will use
violence" at the May 18 meeting. After a brief jury deliberation, they are
both found guilty and given the maximum sentence--two years in prison and
$10,000 fine. Judge Julius Mayer recommends their deportation as undesirable
aliens. Goldman's plea to have sentencing deferred is denied; Goldman taken to
Jefferson City, Mo., and Berkman to Atlanta, Ga., to begin their sentences.
Federal authorities demand removal of Mother Earth
office from its location
at 20 East 125th Street; M. Eleanor Fitzgerald relocates office to 226
Vigilantes forcibly gather and ship over twelve hundred striking members of
the IWW in cattle cars from Jerome and Bisbee, Arizona, to California and New
Mexico, where they are guarded by federal military authorities.
Berkman indicted in absentia in San Francisco for complicity in three murders
stemming from the bombing at the 1916 Preparedness Day parade.
Goldman released from Jefferson City, Mo., prison to New York's Tombs prison;
later released on $25,000 bail pending the appeal of her case before the U.S.
Supreme Court. Berkman not released on bail until Sept. 10.
This month's issue of Mother Earth is held up by
Post Office authorities (it proves to be the final issue published).
Goldman steps up efforts to prevent Berkman's extradition to
California--solicits support from the United Hebrew Trades, the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers of America, the Freie Arbeiter
Stimme, the Forward,
prominent individuals including Max Eastman, social worker and nurse Lillian
Wald, Bolton Hall, publisher Benjamin Huebsch, and Sholem Asch, and many other
unions and organizations.
In Butte, Mont., while assisting striking miners, IWW General Executive Board
member Frank Little is brutally murdered.
Accompanied by Reitman, Goldman speaks about the status of her case, Berkman's
threatened extradition, and conscription at several meetings in Chicago.
Mother Earth denied second-class mailing
privileges by Post Office authorities.
The People's Council in Minneapolis convenes; although elected by various
anarchist groups to serve as a delegate, Goldman refuses, objecting to its
implicit prowar stance.
In response to growing IWW opposition to the war, federal authorities raid IWW
headquarters in twenty-four cities. Raids precede arrests later that month of
over one hundred IWW members, including Bill Haywood, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn,
Arturo Giovannitti, and Carlo Tresca.
Anarchist Antonio Fornasier is killed by Milwaukee police after heckling a
priest. His comrade Augusta Marinelli, wounded on the same occasion, dies five
days later. Ten men and a woman are arrested for inciting the riot; later
linked to Nov. 24 bomb explosion that occurred while they were still
imprisoned; each found guilty and sentenced to between eleven and twenty-five
years imprisonment. Goldman will later protest the injustice of their case,
claiming a frame-up.
Upon Berkman's release from prison on $25,000 bail, he is arrested for murder
in connection with the Preparedness Day bombing in San Francisco. Prompted by
demonstrations in Russia, President Wilson later orders a federal investigation
of the case.
Police authorities prevent Goldman from speaking publicly at a meeting at the
Kessler Theater in New York; to protest and dramatize police suppression of her
address, she nonetheless appears on stage, a gag over her mouth.
Labor delegation organized by Goldman calls on New York Governor Whitman to
protest Berkman's threatened extradition to California.
Goldman, her niece Stella, and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald begin publication of
Mother Earth Bulletin. Reitman returns to
Chicago, in sharp disagreement with Goldman over the direction of the
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Goldman defends Bolshevism against attacks by
the American press and liberals.
Federal agents begin to investigate Goldman for her suspected role in "the
Guillotine Plot"; implicated in masterminding the organization of "Committees
of Five" to assassinate simultaneously the president and other state officials.
Investigation continued through early 1918, when inconclusive evidence forces
California District Attorney Charles Fickert temporarily withdraws demand for
Berkman's extradition. Berkman released from prison the following day.
Goldman speaks at New York's Hunt's Point Palace on "The Russian Revolution:
Its Promise and Fulfillment" before two thousand people; describes it as a
"most inspiring event."
Goldman meets Helen Keller at a benefit ball for The
Anarchist and feminist poet Louise Olivereau convicted for antiwar activities;
sentenced to ten years in Colorado prison.
Weinberger presents Goldman's and Berkman's appeals before the U.S. Supreme
Court; argues that the Draft Act is unconstitutional.
Police authorities prevent Goldman and Berkman from speaking at a meeting at
the Harlem River Casino in New York organized by labor for the San Francisco
Prior to imprisonment, Goldman delivers her last public lectures in Chicago,
Detroit, and Rochester (in Yiddish and English); topics include "The
Bolsheviki--Their True Nature and Aim," "The Russian Revolution and its
Forerunners," "Maxim Gorki," "Leonid Andreyeff," "America and the Russian
Revolution," "The Spiritual and Intellectual Development of Russia," "The
Spiritual Awakening of Russia," and "Women Martyrs of Russia."
The mayor of Ann Arbor, responding to pressure from the Daughters of the
American Revolution, cancels Goldman's public engagements. Plans to speak in
St. Louis, Minneapolis, Denver, Kansas City, and Cleveland are abandoned in
light of difficulty securing halls and her pending imprisonment.
U.S. Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of the selective service law; on
Jan. 14, affirms all criminal charges arising from non-compliance with the
President Wilson presents his Fourteen Points peace program to Congress.
Supreme Court mandates return of Goldman and Berkman to begin their prison
From Petrograd, the U.S. ambassador notifies the State Department of the
Russian anarchists' threat to hold him personally responsible for Goldman's and
Berkman's safety in prison.
Goldman's niece Stella Ballantine establishes the Mother Earth Book Shop in
Goldman and Berkman are honored in New York at the first United Russian
Convention in America, attended by over 160 delegates from Russian
organizations in the United States.
Prior to surrendering to federal authorities, Goldman meets with
representatives of the newly formed League for the Amnesty of Political
Prisoners, including the chairman, educator Prince Hopkins, treasurer Leonard
Abbott, and secretary M. Eleanor Fitzgerald.
Goldman held in the Tombs prison in New York until Feb. 4, when she is
transported to the federal penitentiary in Jefferson City, Mo.
Goldman begins serving her prison sentence in Jefferson City, Mo., one of about
ninety women federal prisoners. She is assigned the task of sewing jackets and
other items for the state of Missouri, which in turn sells the clothing to
private firms throughout the United States. Her prescribed daily quota causes
intense strain and contributes to her ongoing physical decline.
Goldman is initially allowed to write only one two-page letter every week;
soon granted the right to send an additional weekly letter to her attorney,
Harry Weinberger. Allowed one monthly visit, with some exceptions. Goldman
denied outside recreation on Sunday afternoons when she refuses to attend
morning church services. Throughout Goldman's incarceration, she receives
weekly deliveries of fresh groceries from St. Louis anarchists.
Birth Brutus, Ben Reitman's son with Anna Martindale.
Newspapers report on government charges that Goldman and Berkman had worked
with German spies in foreign countries, an allegation based on correspondence
from Indian nationalist Har Dayal to Berkman found among the papers seized from
the Mother Earth office.
Goldman receives visit from Prince Hopkins, who reports on the activities of
the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners.
Germany and its allies sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Soviet
The Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice orders copies of all
correspondence to and from Goldman sent to its office in Washington, D.C.
Harry Weinberger submits motion to the U.S. District Court, Southern District
of New York, that the bail money provided for Goldman and Berkman should not be
used to pay their fines. Motion granted by Judge Augustus N. Hand on Mar.
Reitman begins his six-month prison sentence in Cleveland for his Jan. 1917
conviction for distributing birth control information.
Ricardo Flores Magón arrested in Los Angeles, placed under $25,000
convicted under the Espionage Act for obstructing the war effort; sentenced to
twenty years imprisonment.
Final issue of Mother Earth Bulletin produced;
future publication made impossible by ongoing government seizures.
Ferrer Center in New York closes.
In reaction to growing protests of Russian anarchists to the Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk, the Cheka--the Soviet secret police--raids anarchist centers in
Moscow. Approximately forty anarchists are killed or wounded, more than five
hundred taken prisoners.
Weinberger meets with the assistant superintendent of prisons in Washington,
D.C., to complain about government tampering and confiscation of Goldman's
Prince Hopkins arrested, indicted by federal grand jury in Los Angeles for
violating the Espionage Act; released on $25,000 bail. On Aug. 30, he pleads
guilty, fined $27,000.
The Sedition Act is passed, penalizing anyone judged to be hindering the war
effort by making false statements, obstructing enlistment, or speaking against
production of war materials, the American government, its constitution, or
flag. Signed into law by President Wilson on May 21.
Goldman granted permission to write two letters every week, in addition to her
letters to Weinberger.
Contemplates writing about the situation of women in prison. Receives news
that William Marion Reedy and attorney Clarence Darrow are interested in the
League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners, but believe that nothing can be
done until after the war. Anticipating orders for her deportation, Goldman
begins to investigate her citizenship status.
Following suspension of the Mother Earth Bulletin,
Stella Ballantine publishes a mimeographed newsletter, Instead
of a Magazine.
Goldman spends her birthday in agonizing pain, induced by strain from her
Federal agents raid the apartment of Goldman's associate M. Eleanor Fitzgerald,
seizing mailing lists and other relevant material. Goldman's associates Carl
Newlander and William Bales arrested for draft evasion following the raid of
U.S. intelligence agencies begin to circulate the names and addresses of over
eight thousand Mother Earth subscribers, targeting
them for investigation.
Goldman reluctantly concurs with Stella Ballantine's decision to close the
Mother Earth Bookshop.
Roger Baldwin visits Goldman in prison.
National Mooney Day; Governor Stephens grants Mooney a reprieve until
Goldman is disturbed by Catherine Breshkovskaya's condemnation of the
Reitman is released from prison.
Goldman impressed by Eugene Debs's courageous stand during his trial and
conviction for violation of the Espionage Act.
U.S. Committee on Public Information promotes widespread publication of
alleged Russian documents that prove Bolshevik leaders are German agents.
With the spread of a deathly strain of influenza, a quarantine is established
at the penitentiary in Jefferson City, Mo., where Goldman is imprisoned; all
outside visits are suspended.
Goldman congratulates her lawyer Harry Weinberger for his brave defense in the
Abrams case. Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman, and Hyman Lachowsky are convicted on
charges of violating the Espionage Act and sentenced to twenty years in federal
prison; Mollie Steimer sentenced to fifteen years.
Roger Baldwin tried before U.S. District Judge Julius Mayer for failure to
register for the draft; sentenced to a year in prison.
Goldman's nephew, the talented violinist David Hochstein, dies in battle; news
about his death does not reach family members until Jan. 1919.
Anti-Anarchist Act passed by Congress, granting the government authority to
deport aliens living in the United States.
Mooney's death sentence commuted to life imprisonment.
Gabriella Segata Antolini, a nineteen-year-old anarchist arrested and
convicted for transporting dynamite in Chicago, is imprisoned in the Jefferson
City, Mo., penitentiary; she and Goldman become good friends.
End of World War I.
Goldman granted the privilege of writing three letters each week in addition to
her weekly communication with Harry Weinberger.
Prison quarantine lifted; influenza outbreak under control. Goldman visited by
M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, who brings her a smuggled communication from Berkman.
Goldman reads and responds to Louise Bryant's book Six Red
Russia: An Observer's Account of Russia before and during the Proletarian
Dictatorship; Goldman is critical of Bryant's portrayal of the
Revolutionaries Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht arrested and murdered in
New York City Police Inspector Thomas J. Tunney testifies before a Senate
subcommittee chaired by Senator Overman investigating links between German
agents and the U.S. Brewers' Association and allied liquor interests; recounts
his investigation of Goldman and Berkman in connection with the Hindu
revolutionary Har Dayal. Claims that Goldman and Berkman are close associates
of Leon Trotsky. Describes Goldman as "a very able and intelligent woman and a
very fine speaker."
Goldman receives a brief visit from Kate Richards O'Hare, who is anticipating
her incarceration for violation of the Espionage Act.
Goldman notes that her mail is being monitored by federal authorities.
Suffering from intense pain from the physical hardship of her prison work,
Goldman resorts to paying her fellow inmates to help her reach the daily
Catherine Breshkovskaya testifies before the Overman Subcommittee on Bolshevik
propaganda. Louise Bryant testifies on Feb. 20: states her belief that
Breshkovskaya is being manipulated by Russian counter-revolutionists;
remarks on Goldman's imprisonment.
Harry Weinberger appeals to the U.S. assistant superintendent of prisons in
Washington, D.C., to assign Goldman to less physically demanding work. Prison
authorities agree to investigate the conditions.
Goldman responds to an anonymous editorial published in the
Liberator attacking the Russian anarchists.
Goldman urges Harry Weinberger to embark on a national speaking tour to
promote amnesty for all political prisoners; Weinberger feels unable to comply
because of lack of financial and human resources.
Goldman interviewed by Winthrop Lane for an independent investigation of
federal prisons slated for publication in the research magazine
Eugene Debs incarcerated.
Immigration officer interrogates Goldman in prison. Following visit, the
Bureau of Immigration privately concludes that there are no legal barriers to
Goldman's deportation. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner General of the Bureau
of Immigration, pursues policy for allowing her deportation.
Socialist Kate Richards O'Hare joins Goldman in prison at the Jefferson City,
Benefit concert at Carnegie Hall for the League for the Amnesty of Political
Prisoners organized by M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, Stella Ballantine, and Harry
German anarchist Gustav Landauer killed following his arrest by a unit of the
Goldman emphatically rejects Reitman's request to visit her in prison.
Socialist Ella Reeve Bloor visits Goldman in prison.
Mail bombs purportedly sent to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and other
prominent officials gain media attention. Government agents wrongly implicate
Goldman and Berkman in the conspiracy.
Goldman laments that "nothing vital" is being done to promote amnesty.
Goldman notes Kate Richard O'Hare's ability to influence much-needed
prison reforms at the Jefferson City penitentiary.
Goldman and other prisoners allowed for the first time weekend picnics in the
Frank Harris assists Goldman with planning a public celebration to welcome her
Goldman celebrates her fiftieth birthday in prison. Especially touched that
William Shatoff sends her a bouquet of flowers from Russia.
Much to Goldman's disappointment, an amnesty conference scheduled to take place
in Chicago July 2-4 is canceled.
Kate Richards O'Hare begins to type Goldman's weekly dictated letters.
Goldman's prison sentence for her primary conviction ends; one-month
sentence in lieu of paying her fine begins.
Still in prison, Goldman is served a warrant for her arrest and deportation;
bond set at $15,000.
Underground anarchists bomb Communist headquarters in Moscow.
Goldman's term of imprisonment at Jefferson City penitentiary expires; released
on bail with orders for deportation pending. Greeted in Jefferson City by mobs
of reporters, friends, and niece Stella Ballantine, who accompanies her to
Rochester. Berkman released from Atlanta penitentiary on Oct. 1.
Stops in Chicago to visit Reitman; meets his wife and child.
General strike called to demand Mooney's release and amnesty for all political
Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover, in New York to review
evidence collected for Goldman's deportation, monitors protest rally that
night. In search of further evidence, Hoover personally inspects storage room
leased by M. Eleanor Fitzgerald and Reitman.
Goldman and Berkman spend a few days in the country to recuperate from harsh
prison conditions before they begin work to oppose their deportations.
Goldman appears before immigration authorities at Ellis Island to appeal her
Dinner in honor of Goldman and Berkman is sponsored by the Ferrer School and a
committee of supporters at the Hotel Brevoort in New York City. Margaret
Scully, who will hold a job as Goldman's secretary for a week, acts as a spy
for the Lusk Committee, submitting her first report detailing events at the
Hotel Brevoort celebration.
Immigration officials question Goldman to determine her citizenship status;
Goldman claims U.S. citizenship from her marriage to Jacob A. Kersner.
Benefit theater performance in New York City raises $500 for Goldman and
Berkman's deportation fight.
Violent raids of the homes of hundreds of suspected radicals take place in New
Goldman and Berkman send out a three-thousand-piece
solicitation to raise support for political prisoners, the fight against
deportation of aliens, and to announce their proposed lecture tour scheduled to
begin at the end of the month.
Goldman speaks at a New York dinner organized by friends of Kate Richards
Goldman and Berkman begin a short lecture tour in Detroit; Nov. 23 event
attended by fifteen hundred people; Goldman claims that two thousand people had
to be turned away for lack of space. Large Jewish audience attends a meeting
on Nov. 25.
Department of Labor orders Berkman's deportation to Russia. Goldman's
deportation order follows on Nov. 29.
Weinberger meets in Washington, D.C., with immigration officials, including
Anthony Caminetti and Assistant Secretary of Labor Louis F. Post.
Goldman and Berkman address an audience of forty-five hundred people in Chicago
about their prison experiences. The following day they address another large
crowd. Large benefit banquet takes place at the Hotel Morrison in Chicago on
Dec. 1. Goldman describes the Detroit and Chicago meetings as "among the most
inspiring in our public career."
Goldman and Berkman detained at Ellis Island.
Goldman and Berkman appear in federal court before Judge Julius M. Mayer, who
declares that as aliens, they have no constitutional rights. They remain in
detention at Ellis Island.
Goldman and Berkman send a mass appeal for political and financial support.
U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis declines to overrule the lower
court's decision in Goldman and Berkman's case.
Soviet representative Ludwig C. A. K. Martens writes to Goldman and Berkman at
Ellis Island, assuring them of their right to travel and speak freely in
Goldman and Berkman send a farewell letter to their supporters.
At dawn, Goldman, Berkman, and 247 radical aliens set sail on the S.S.
Buford, bound for Russia.
January 2 and 6
U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, in coordination with
Department agent J. Edgar Hoover and immigration commissioner
Caminetti, orders the arrest of approximately ten thousand alien
S.S. Buford lands at Hangö, Finland.
On Jan. 19
the deportees are met at the Russo-Finnish
border by Russian representatives and received warmly at a mass
soldiers and peasants in Belo-Ostrov.
Goldman and Berkman settle in Petrograd where they renew their
William Shatoff, now working as Commissar of Railroads, and John
with Grigory Zinoviev, director of the Soviet Executive
Committee, and briefly
with Maxim Gorki at his home in Petrograd.
Attend a conference of anarchists, including Baltic factory
Kronstadt sailors, who echo criticisms of the Bolsheviks voiced
by Left Social
Revolutionaries and others who have paid visits to Goldman and
Berkman in this
Death of Goldman's sister Helena Zodikow Hochstein.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Moscow where they meet with
including Alexandra Kollontai, Commissar for Public Welfare;
Lunacharsky, Commissar for Education; Angelica Balabanoff,
Secretary of the
Third International; and Grigory Chicherin, Assistant Commissar
After attending a conference of Moscow anarchists, Goldman and
granted a meeting with Lenin on March 8 where they express
concern about the
suppression of dissent and the lack of press freedom and propose
establishment of a Russian society for American freedom
independent of the
Third International. Protests of the arrest and Trotsky's
of anarchist V. M. Eikhenbaum (Volin) lead to his transfer to
Butyrki prison in
Moscow and later his release.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Dmitrov to meet with Peter
Goldman and Berkman return to Petrograd to secure work in support
Ninth Congress of the All-Russian
Communist party is held in Moscow; militarization of labor stirs
Goldman and Berkman, frustrated with the Bolshevik leaders'
pettiness and gross
mismanagement, express dissatisfaction with their work
Goldman tours Soviet factories in Petrograd with journalist John
the Chicago Tribune, who previously
her upon her arrival in Finland. Learns firsthand of the poor
and dissatisfaction among the workers.
Goldman and Berkman meet with members of the first British Labor
with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, an unofficial member
delegation. Through Russell, they meet American journalist Henry
Two Ukrainian anarchists, recently released from a Bolshevik
prison, meet with
Goldman and Berkman to inform them about the persecution of the
peasants movement led by anarchist Nestor Makhno.
As she learns more about Bolshevik misdeeds, Goldman becomes
obtain a position directly accountable to the Bolshevik regime.
Berkman finally agree to work for the Petrograd Museum of the
because the extensive traveling will give them an opportunity to
conditions with the least interference from the Bolsheviks.
Goldman protests the unjust imprisonment of two teenage anarchist
girls to the
chief of the Petrograd Cheka.
Following a period of unsuccessful peace negotiations with Russia
by support from France and the United States, the Polish army
eliciting a military response from the Soviets through June and
Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are
Brockton, Mass., in connection with a payroll robbery and the
murder of two
U.S. immigration act passed, authorizing the deportation of all
convicted under the war statutes and certified as "undesirable
Goldman nurses John Reed, in poor health following his release
from a two-month
prison term in Finland for unauthorized travel.
Goldman tours two legendary Czarist prisons; shocked to discover
members of the intelligentsia had been routinely executed
following the October
John Clayton's interview with Goldman is published in several
newspapers, attributing to her a blunt criticism of the Bolshevik
regime and a
longing to return to the United States. To refute the claim that
Berkman oppose the Soviet government, Stella Ballantine releases
written by Goldman the previous month to demonstrate their
support for the
Goldman and Berkman travel to Moscow to collect permits necessary
museum expedition through Russia to gather historical
Goldman and Berkman meet with many foreign delegates, including
in Moscow for the Second Congress of the Third International;
they inform the
delegates about Bolshevik imprisonment of anarchists and other
Meet Maria Spiridonova, leader of the Left Social Revolutionaries
political prisoner under the Czar. They find Spiridonova,
critical of the
Bolshevik regime, living in disguise to avoid further
Meet again with Kropotkin.
July 15-August 6
Eight-member museum expedition, including Henry Alsberg, travels
Goldman given responsibility for collecting materials from
social welfare, and labor bureaus. Though they discover alarming
overt criticism of the Bolshevik regime, they are hesitant to
the Soviet experiment until they have the opportunity to gather
Travel to Kursk, a large industrial center. In Kharkov they meet
a number of
anarchists they had worked with in the United States, including
Aaron and Fanya
Baron, Mark Mratchny, and Senya Fleshin. Tour factories, a
and a prison, where they meet an anarchist political prisoner.
Receive plea to
aid Nestor Makhno's movement, but are reluctant to discontinue
their work with
In Poltava they meet with the leader of the Revkom, a non-soviet
ruling body. Meet the Russian writer Vladimir Korolenko who
speaks to them
about his disenchantment with the Bolsheviks. Also meet with
who, although critical of anti-Semitism
of the Bolsheviks, report no evidence of Bolshevik pogroms
against the Jews.
In Fastov they collect historical materials on pogroms, including
1919 pogroms led by General Denikin of the White Army.
During this period the Polish army gains strength, beginning a
counteroffensive against the Bolsheviks.
Visit Kiev, where the majority of the population is Jewish. Find
material on the Denikin pogroms; interview local Jews whose views
Goldman tours local health facilities, including the Jewish
hospital and the
hospital for disabled children; also visits the local anarchist
With other members of the museum expedition, Goldman attends
held in honor of a visiting Italian and French delegation; meets
one of whom is preparing a manuscript exposing Bolshevik
they are reported to have drowned off the coast of Finland;
Goldman and Berkman visited by two women representing Makhno, who
again that they aid him by circulating his call to the
They determine it is too risky to meet with him in person as he
Henry Alsberg is arrested traveling from Kiev to Odessa with the
expedition; authorities claim he is traveling without permission.
Berkman protest the arrest by immediately sending telegrams to
Chicherin; no response received. Alsberg is temporarily detained
expedition travels on.
Expedition stops in Odessa; advancement of Polish troops prevents
In Odessa, Goldman meets with local officials and again polls
members of the
Jewish community about their experience with and views about
Meets the famous Jewish poet Hayyim Nahman Bialik.
Attends a gathering of anarchists in Odessa.
On the way to Kiev, Berkman is robbed of a large amount of his
Expedition spends a few days in panic-stricken Kiev as residents
brace for a
potential attack by Polish forces.
Reports in the United States and Europe continue to attribute to
negative view of the Bolsheviks; though she privately
wrongdoings, she denies all published accounts and refuses to
Makhno's defeat of Baron Peter Wrangel, the last of the White
wins him temporary good favor from the Bolsheviks.
Russia's armistice with Poland concedes substantial territory to
Kropotkin and Gorki protest Soviet plan to halt all private
Maria Spiridonova arrested.
Death of John Reed.
When Goldman arrives in Moscow a few days later, she consoles
Louise Bryant. Goldman postpones her return trip to Petrograd to
funeral in Moscow on Oct. 23.
Goldman returns to Petrograd with museum expedition to deposit
material they collected.
Following the Red Army's killing of Makhno's commanders in the
orders an attack on Makhno's headquarters; Makhno manages to
reaching Paris where he lives in exile. Trotsky orders the
imprisonment of Russian anarchist Volin.
Goldman attends the third anniversary of the October Revolution
in her estimation "more like the funeral than the birth of the
Goldman travels north with Berkman and another member of the
The San Francisco Examiner publishes an
unauthorized account of Goldman's
experience in Russia, quoting from a series of letters it claims
by Goldman to John Reed; the letters were in actuality written by
her niece Stella Ballantine.
In Archangel the expedition collects leftist and anarchist
publications produced during the rule of the Czar. Also obtains
written by Nicholas Chaikovsky from the period of his provisional
Goldman favorably impressed with the efficiency and integrity of
operations in Archangel.
Museum expedition returns to Petrograd.
Goldman and Berkman leave Petrograd for Moscow to prepare for
with the museum expedition; they stay with Angelica Balabanoff,
head of the
Russo-Italian bureau. Goldman offers to nurse Peter Kropotkin
learns he is very ill.
During an especially harsh winter, workers from several Petrograd
strike to protest unbearable shortages of food, fuel, and
authorities suppress street demonstrations.
Ludwig C. A. K. Martens, the Soviet government's representative
in the United
States, is deported; Goldman expresses no interest in seeing him
Goldman returns to Petrograd. When alerted to Kropotkin's
condition, she promptly returns to Moscow.
Goldman arrives in Dmitrov shortly after Kropotkin's death.
On Feb. 13, Goldman, among others, delivers a public remembrance
Kropotkin's funeral in Moscow. Soviet leaders release only a
anarchist political prisoners following an appeal to allow all
anarchists to attend the ceremony.
Later, Goldman and Berkman decide to discontinue their work with
Museum of the Revolution in order to accept an invitation to
participate in the
organizing committee of a museum honoring Kropotkin, independent
financing and oversight.
Goldman receives permission to visit anarchist prisoners at
among others, sees Fanya and Aaron Baron and Volin.
Goldman and Berkman return to Petrograd.
Goldman prepares articles about Kropotkin's death for the
Nation and the
Manchester Guardian; rejects offer to
Soviet Russia for the New York
Krondstadt uprising in support of striking Petrograd factory
demand democratic election of Soviet representatives. Goldman
attends March 4
meeting of the Petrograd Soviet, which votes to accept Zinoviev's
force the surrender of Krondstadt sailors upon penalty of
Goldman, Berkman, and several others send a letter of protest to
proposing a commission to settle the dispute with the Krondstadt
peacefully; no response received.
Trotsky orders the artillery bombardment of Krondstadt.
Feeling that their last tie to the Bolsheviks has been broken,
Berkman decide to leave Russia and alert the world to what they
Goldman and Berkman return to Moscow determined to cut off all
the Bolshevik government. Plan to request permission to leave
prepared to exit secretly if necessary.
Agree to appeal to anarchists in the United States for funds to
Goldman accompanies Louise Bryant to meet Stanislavsky, "the
father of the
modern Russian theater."
New York Times publishes excerpts from
from Goldman to her niece
Stella Ballantine disclaiming Dec. 1920 reports by American
Washington B. Vanderlip that Goldman had requested he use his
influence to gain
her return to the United States.
Goldman and Berkman alerted about the April 25 Soviet night raid
of the Butyrki
prison intended to break prisoner solidarity; Fanya Baron is
relocated. Soviets attempt to repress all political protests of
Goldman helps collect food provisions for the starving anarchist
In light of Soviet constraints on independent political
and Berkman postpone efforts to organize support for the
Goldman and Berkman begin to receive visits from many foreign
Russia for the International Congress of the Third International;
include Americans Bill Haywood, Agnes Smedley, Bob Robins, Mary
Ella Reeve Bloor, William Z. Foster, and Robert Minor. Goldman
Haywood's flight from the United States; compares his action to a
leaving the ship," abandoning fellow IWW members who remain
Berkman sustains a foot injury, delaying their departure from
Goldman and Berkman meet regularly with the European and
syndicalists, delegates to the international congresses.
The Cheka raids Goldman's Moscow apartment.
Goldman and Berkman renew their friendship with Vera Figner, a
leader of the
Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will") movement.
Goldman and Berkman persuade some of the foreign delegates,
including Tom Mann,
to protest the imprisonment of Volin, G. P. Maksimov, and other
have begun a hunger strike. A delegation meets with Lenin on
July 9; Lenin is
only willing to deport the anarchists, upon penalty of death if
they return to
Russia. Offer is accepted and hunger strike is terminated on
July 13. Goldman
notes that the American Communists remain silent on the issue and
themselves from association with the anarchists.
Goldman attempts also to convince delegates to pressure the
to allow Maria Spiridonova to obtain medical treatment overseas.
German socialist Clara Zetkin. Spiridonova is eventually
Lenin's New Economic Policy begins, a pragmatic retreat from
principles in favor of market mechanisms.
Goldman visits briefly with the "millionaire American hobo" James
who, she believes, does not have the ability to make a worthwhile
the situation in Russia. Goldman disappointed by most published
events in Russia, including reports by Louise Bryant.
Fanya Baron and nine other anarchist prisoners, including the
poet Lev Tcherny,
are shot to death by the Cheka.
Isadora Duncan, sympathetic to the Soviets, attempts to meet with
Under the pretext of representing the Kropotkin Museum at an
conference in Berlin, Goldman, Berkman, and Alexander Schapiro
to leave Russia.
Goldman and Berkman settle in Riga, Latvia. Write to Harry
chances of getting back into the United States. Allowed only a
in Latvia, they seek entry to either Germany or Sweden.
Goldman distressed that she and Berkman depart Russia just days
arrival of Mollie Steimer, Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman, and Hyman
deported from the United States on Nov. 24.
Goldman and Berkman granted Swedish visas.
On the train to Reval, Estonia, Goldman and Berkman are arrested
by the Latvian
secret service; accused of being Bolshevik agents. Detained for
preventing them from attending the anarchist congress in
Goldman, Berkman, and Alexander Schapiro arrive in Stockholm,
Sweden, and are
met by birth-control advocates Albert and Elise Jensen; Goldman
with thirty-year-old Swedish anarchist Arthur Svensson shortly
Volin, Maksimov, and other hunger strikers are deported from
Goldman and Svensson fail in their attempt to surreptitiously
March 26-April 4
The New York World publishes a series
controversial articles by
Goldman exposing the harsh political and economic conditions in
Finally obtaining temporary German visas, Goldman and Berkman
Arthur Svensson joins Goldman and Berkman in Berlin. Later, her
Ballantine visits with six-year-old son Ian.
Develops friendship with anarchist theorist Rudolf Rocker and his
with whom she had begun to correspond while in Russia.
Goldman begins work on book-length
manuscript with the intended title My Two Years in
Goldman completes her manuscript and sells the rights to her book
to Clinton P.
Brainard; receives $1750 in advance against royalties and 50
percent for serial
Ends relationship with Arthur Svensson.
Ricardo Flores Magón dies in Leavenworth Penitentiary.
Visits Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld at the Institute for Sex Psychology
Goldman travels to cities throughout Germany, including
Anti-German sentiment in the United States makes it difficult for
to earn a living writing topical articles for the American
Travels to Bad Leibenstein in Thüringen for niece Stella
treatment with Dr. Graf M. Wiser; Goldman writes an article about
unorthodox therapy, which is later published in a Calcutta
Goldman notified that her manuscript on Russia has been sold to
Page and Company.
Receives visits from many American friends, including M. Eleanor
Ellen Kennan, Michael Cohn, Henry Alsberg, and Agnes Smedley.
Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin are arrested in Russia for
anarchism; released soon after they begin a hunger strike.
Goldman's mother, Taube, dies in Rochester, N.Y.
Goldman and her niece Stella are arrested by the Bavarian police
their arrival in Munich. Police allege that Goldman conducted a
in 1893 (during the period when she was imprisoned at Blackwell's
Both are ordered to leave Bavaria. Stella later returns to the
Following their deportation from Russia, Mollie Steimer and Senya
Goldman and Berkman in Berlin.
Goldman's manuscript published under the title My
Disillusionment in Russia;
the last twelve chapters have been cut without her permission.
negotiates the dispute on Goldman's behalf; wins agreement from
print the remaining chapters in a separate volume with the
Goldman pay for the printing costs, for which she secures a loan
Goldman travels to Hamburg.
Goldman travels to Dresden before returning to Berlin.
Goldman is unable to solicit writing contracts with European and
magazines; finds that mainstream magazines are interested only in
experience in Russia, thus thwarting her attempts to earn a
Goldman howled down during a meeting of five thousand workers in
she criticizes the Soviet government. Goldman warned about the
expressing further criticism of the Soviet Republic.
Following her expulsion from Moscow, Angelica Balabanoff
correspondence with Goldman.
Leaving Berkman in Berlin, Goldman travels to the Netherlands;
speaks at the
celebration organized by Dutch anti-militarist Ferdinand Domela
the twentieth anniversary of the International Anti-Militarist
Enters France from Germany under the name E. G. Kersner; visits a
friends in Paris, including Harry Weinberger and Frank and Nellie
Meets Arthur Leonard Ross who she later hires as her attorney.
Hemingway at a party given by English novelist Ford Madox
Leaves Paris for London where she hopes to find it easier to earn
Resides at the home of Doris Zhook.
Goldman's closest associates in London include John Turner,
Thomas H. Keell,
and William C. Owen.
Meets with British author Rebecca West.
The twelve chapters omitted from Goldman's book on Russia are
separately with a new preface as My Further
Among Goldman's speaking engagements is a talk before the
Club at Oxford University.
In London, a reception for Goldman is sponsored by Bertrand
West, and socialist and sexual theorist Edward Carpenter;
presided over by Col.
Josiah Wedgewood, M.P. Her views on Russia are met with vocal
Writes an article on Russia for the New York
Tribune Sunday edition.
In London, Goldman continues her efforts to expose the Bolsheviks
of the revolution and violators of civil liberties, a task made
and more urgent by the return of a British trade union delegation
favorably on conditions in the Soviet Union.
Goldman lectures on "The Bolshevik Myth and the Condition of the
Prisoners" at South Place Institute, London, her first public
England at which she denounces the Bolsheviks, prompting vocal
some members of the audience.
Goldman and her political associates organize the British
Committee for the
Defence of Political Prisoners in Russia. The committee solicits
celebrities and organizes a conference of trade union branch
discuss conditions in the Soviet Union. Many political figures
intellectuals are alienated by Goldman's stand, though novelist
and publisher C. W. Daniel remain her stalwart supporters.
Goldman lectures on the Soviet Union at a meeting in the East End
of London on
Goldman's lectures on conditions in the Soviet Union include two
Islington on March 6 and the East End on March 17--and one at
At the end of the month she gives three lectures on "Heroic Women
Russian Revolution," and "The Bolshevik Myth" in the Amman
Valley, a series
organized by the South Wales Freedom Group.
Goldman convenes an informal meeting in London of branch
secretaries of trade
unions to discuss conditions in Russia.
Boni and Liveright publishes Berkman's The Bolshevik
Myth in New York.
In an attempt to refute the report of the British trade union
Goldman and her comrades--as the British Committee for the
Defence of Political
Prisoners in Russia--publish a pamphlet, Russia and
Labour Delegation's Report: A Reply.
Goldman continues speaking on conditions in the Soviet Union with
a lecture at
South Place Institute on April 16, "An Exposure of the Trade
Report on Russia"; she delivers a second lecture in London on
Goldman fills speaking engagements in Norwich, Leeds, and
lectures on Soviet Russia.
In Bristol, Goldman lectures on "Labour under the Dictatorship in
the YMCA on May 1, and on "Heroic Women of the Russian
Revolution" at the Folk
House on May 4.
At the end of the month she meets with Edward Carpenter and
Havelock Ellis in
the same week, two writers she admires for their pioneering work
Time and Tide (London) publishes her
"Women of the Russian Revolution."
Discouraged by the public response to her lectures on Russia and
enthusiasm left among the active members of the committee,
Goldman focuses on
her own precarious financial situation. During the summer she
on drama, hoping to reach British drama societies, and, at the
same time, tries
to interest London producers in American plays.
On her birthday, Goldman marries James Colton, an elderly
anarchist friend and
trade unionist from Wales, in order to obtain British citizenship
and the right
to travel and speak more widely.
Time and Tide publishes Goldman's
Tragedy of the Russian Intelligentsia."
Goldman spends two weeks vacationing in Bristol, where friends
she deliver a series of lectures on Russian drama in the fall and
raise the initial expenses.
Goldman spends most of the month in the British Museum reading
dramatists in preparation for her upcoming lectures.
M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, Goldman's close associate from New York,
visits at the
end of the month and through her Goldman meets African-American
actor Paul Robeson, who is starring in Eugene O'Neill's
Emperor Jones in London.
Prompted by a publisher's fleeting interest in a book of
Goldman begins asking her correspondents to send her the letters
written them over the years.
The one-volume English edition of My Disillusionment
Russia, with an
introduction by Rebecca West, is published by C. W. Daniel of
has borrowed $250 from Michael Cohn to underwrite its
Through the British Drama League Goldman solicits lecture dates
affiliated local playgoers societies.
Continues her reading of Russian dramatists in the British
In the middle of the month Goldman travels to Bristol for a
lecture series; she
also delivers individual lectures, including one at exiled
Gustav Beck's church on "Trends in Modern Education."
October 19-November 5
Goldman teaches a six-lecture course on Russian drama at Oakfield
Attends British Drama League conference in Birmingham.
Goldman lectures on drama in Birmingham, Bath, and Birkenhead,
Manchester delivers her first lecture on Eugene O'Neill.
November 12-December 17
Goldman repeats her lecture series on Russian drama at Keats
London; despite excellent publicity, her lectures draw only a
and receipts barely cover her expenses. Publisher C. W. Daniel,
considers issuing a book of her lectures on Russian dramatists
and supplies a
stenographer to record them.
In East London, Goldman repeats the lecture series on Russian
Goldman speaks twice--once on birth control--under the auspices
of the Trades
and Labour Council in Neath, South Wales.
After the lecture series ends, Goldman leaves for France where
she spends the
holidays in Nice at the home of Frank and Nellie Harris.
Goldman remains in Nice for most of the month, finishing a
"Foremost Russian Dramatists," a book based on her lectures, for
hopes to receive an advance from Doubleday, Page and Company.
Berkman is also
in Nice, helping Isadora Duncan edit her autobiography.
Goldman leaves for Paris Jan. 25.
Goldman works at the Bibliothèque Nationale researching lectures
on Ibsen; at
the same time she writes a character sketch of Johann Most for
the June issue
of American Mercury. She returns to
Berkman receives temporary permission to stay in France.
After returning to England, Goldman delivers a number of lectures
in Bristol on
drama, especially Ibsen's plays; she also travels to Liverpool in
lecture on drama.
March 25-April 29
Goldman returns to London for a series of six lectures on
O'Neill, Ibsen, Susan Glaspell, and the German expressionists;
delivers the same lectures in Yiddish as well as lecturing on
and on political topics, such as "The Menace of Dictatorship:
Fascist," with British feminist Sylvia Pankhurst and William C.
Owen at Essex
Hall on April 14.
Goldman continues her work for political prisoners in Russia,
efforts on imprisoned women; enlists the support of influential
politicians like Lady Astor.
Ben Reitman and his family visit Goldman in London.
Goldman lectures in Norwich on April 8.
The British general strike is called off by the Trades Union
nine days, though the coal miners remain out through the
Goldman returns to France and with Berkman rents a cottage in St.
she finishes her manuscript on "Foremost Russian Dramatists" and
sketch of Voltairine de Cleyre.
Friends and political associates in the United States raise money
to visit Canada to lecture.
During the summer American visitors, including authors Howard
Theodore Dreiser and philanthropist Peggy Guggenheim, encourage
write her autobiography.
Goldman sails for Canada, where she arrives Oct. 15, to lecture;
rekindles her hope for readmission to the United States.
Shortly after Goldman's arrival, Leon Malmed, her longtime friend
N.Y., visits and they become lovers.
Eugene Debs dies.
Goldman gives her first lecture in Montreal before an audience of
at His Majesty's Theatre on "The Present Crisis in Russia."
Most of the remaining lectures in Montreal are in Yiddish;
Goldman focuses on
raising funds for political prisoners in Russia, an impassioned
appeal at one
banquet yields $300.
Travels to Toronto on Nov. 26, where she finds the anarchists
and better organized than in Montreal.
Goldman lectures on Ibsen to an audience of five hundred at
Hygeia Hall; the
interest shown persuades her to initiate a series on drama.
Goldman's lectures on Russian drama this month cover Griboyedev,
Ostrovsky, though the attendance is disappointing.
More successful are her three lectures to the Arbeiter Ring: six
attend her Dec. 12 lecture in Yiddish on Gorki. In addition, she
twice at Hygeia Hall, on modern education on Dec. 3 and on the
Bolshevik Russia and Fascist Italy on Dec. 5.
Among her visitors are her brother Morris, her sister Lena, and
children, Saxe Commins and Stella Ballantine.
Goldman concludes her lecture series in Toronto on Russian
talks on Turgenev, Tolstoy, Chekhov, and Andreyev; she also goes
Ontario, to lecture on Communist and Fascist dictatorships on
Jan. 7. After
Leon Malmed visits briefly, at the end of the month she travels
to Winnipeg to
Goldman's first two lectures in Winnipeg draw large audiences: a
lecture attracts four hundred, and a thousand attend an English
lecture on "The
Labor Situation in Europe."
Goldman discovers that Communist influence is stronger and
opposition to her is
more organized in Winnipeg than in other cities. Nonetheless,
nearly twenty times to large and varied audiences during her
month in the city,
including Yiddish groups, a group of college women, even the
local Kiwanis Club
(on "Ideals in Life"); among her topics are drama, anarchism,
and women and the Russian revolution.
In Edmonton, where Goldman expects to give just two lectures, she
fifteen meetings in a week, speaking on trends in modern
birth control, women's emancipation (to the Women's Press Club);
she speaks to
factory girls during their lunch hour and to large Jewish
audiences under the
auspices of the Jewish Council of Women, the Arbeiter Ring,
Hadassah, and Poale
Zion, as well as to professors at the University of Alberta and a
audience of fifteen hundred.
Goldman returns to Toronto.
March 24-April 26
Goldman's English-language lecture series in Toronto covers
social topics as
well as drama, including plays of Susan Glaspell, Eugene O'Neill,
drama. She also researches a new lecture on "The Awakening in
draws eight hundred people. After protests from the Catholic
Goldman delivers the final lecture of the series, on birth
control, to a packed
She also lectures in Yiddish on the history of anarchism and on
Goldman gives a May Day lecture in Toronto on "The Spirit of
Her drama lecture course this month covers Russian theater,
the German expressionists.
Also lectures on China in London, Ontario.
Leon Malmed's wife discovers his correspondence with Goldman,
relationship, and the intensity of Goldman's tie to him wanes.
A fund is established to support Goldman while she writes her
Peggy Guggenheim and Howard Young are among the first
contributors, and W. S.
Van Valkenburgh coordinates an appeal to raise funds.
Goldman spends much of the summer researching and writing new
lectures for her
fall series. She is greatly distracted, however, by the
impending execution of
Sacco and Vanzetti. She addresses a meeting on the case in
Toronto on Aug. 18,
a few days before their execution on Aug. 23. Goldman speaks at
meeting on Sept. 1.
October 11-December 8
Goldman's ambitious lecture series at Hygeia Hall, Toronto,
eighteen lectures and covers drama as well as social and literary
including the plays of Shaw, Galsworthy, and Ibsen, Walt Whitman,
Punishment," "The Menace of Military Preparedness," "Evolution
Bigotry," "The Child and Its Enemies," "Sex--A Dominant Element
in Life and
Art," and "Has Feminism Achieved Its Aim?"
The audiences for her lectures are disappointing, and Goldman
return to Europe in the new year and begin writing her
Family members visit Canada from the United States to see Goldman
departs for France; a farewell banquet is held in her honor on
As she anticipates writing the autobiography, Goldman asks a
wider circle of
friends to loan her her past correspondence to refresh her
On Feb. 7, in her final appearance in Toronto, Goldman lectures
on two books by
Judge Ben Lindsey, The Revolt of Youth
On Feb. 9 Goldman travels to Montreal, where she gives two
Yiddish--on birth control and on art and revolution--and one on
delivered in a private home. She leaves Montreal on Feb. 18 for
Scotia, where she embarks for France on Feb. 20.
In Paris, Goldman is reunited with old friends and comrades,
Mollie Steimer, and Senya Fleshin. She arranges to rent the same
St. Tropez that she had in the summer of 1926, and makes a brief
London in May to pick up material she had left two years
Goldman tries to organize a small gathering of anarchist writers
theoreticians in Paris in May to discuss the future of anarchism
its propaganda, circulating an agenda and soliciting comments.
meeting does not occur as planned, Goldman is gratified that the
generates ideas and discussion.
Goldman settles in St. Tropez to write her autobiography; a young
writer Emily Holmes Coleman, "Demi," acts as her secretary.
Rudolf and Milly Rocker spend much of the summer with Goldman in
By October she has written 100,000 words.
Goldman, accompanied by Henry Alsberg and Otto Kleinberg,
vacations in Spain;
in Barcelona, she meets anarchist intellectuals Federico Urales
Gustavo, and their daughter Federica Montseny.
After two weeks in Paris, Goldman returns to St. Tropez, where
she learns that
friends, principally Peggy Guggenheim and Mark Dix, have
money to help her purchase the cottage and ensure her a place to
Goldman returns to working full-time on her autobiography,
interrupted only by
the visit in February of her nephew Saxe Commins and his wife
Goldman is completely absorbed in writing her book, though the
departure in May
of Emily Holmes Coleman, whose assistance and companionship have
invaluable, is disruptive; eventually her friend's daughter
serves as secretary through the summer.
Goldman takes time out of her busy writing schedule to celebrate
birthday on June 27 with Berkman and visiting American friends
Ben and Ida
American publishers express interest in Goldman's autobiography;
eight of them
Lawyer Arthur Leonard Ross and Saxe Commins act as Goldman's
New York, negotiating the terms of the book contract with
publisher Alfred A.
As Goldman writes, she continues to ask friends to corroborate
her memory of
events and furnish details of personalities; some of her former
however, request to be omitted from her book.
Goldman's representatives sign a book contract with Knopf; she
advance of $7,000.
A slow decline in stock prices accelerates dramatically; on Oct.
Tuesday--the stock market crashes, precipitating the Great
By mid-month Goldman has reached 1915 in the narrative of her
At the end of the month Goldman moves to Paris for the winter to
on her autobiography; British friend Doris Zhook acts as her
In Paris for the winter, Goldman continues writing; Berkman, who
in St. Cloud, helps edit her manuscript.
Goldman mails the first installment of her autobiography to
American journalist and editor H. L. Mencken visits Goldman.
Presented with an expulsion order dating from March 1901, Goldman
immediately to police headquarters. She demands and receives a
stay of ten
days; lawyer Henri Torres ultimately succeeds in overturning the
Mencken petitions the U.S. Department of State to revoke
and grant her a visitor's visa, and requests that the Department
return her personal papers seized in the 1917 raid on the
Goldman sends the publisher what she assumes is the last
installment of her
autobiography--concluding with her deportation from the United
the Buford--but Knopf insists on
chapters covering her years in Russia and Europe.
Berkman is arrested and expelled from France the same day; spends
weeks in Antwerp and Brussels, applying for a new French visa.
attorney Torres and Pierre Renaudel, a French deputy, work for
By the end of the month Berkman's expulsion is revoked, and he is
three-month renewable visa for France.
Goldman travels to Bad Eilsen, Germany, for treatment of her eyes
by Dr. Graf
M. Wiser; she is visited by Danish novelist Karin Michaëlis.
vacations in Berlin.
Returns to St. Tropez; pleased with the editor's revisions of her
she begins work on the two final chapters.
Knopf postpones publication of Goldman's autobiography until the
Eunice M. Schuster, writing a Master's thesis on anarchism, asks
information and assistance; Goldman encourages comrades--W. S.
Hippolyte Havel, Max Nettlau, and anarchist publisher Joseph
Schuster; her thesis is published in 1932 as Native
Anarchism, one of the earliest studies of American
Berkman, denied renewal of his visa once again, is given fifteen
days to leave
France; by mid-month he receives another three-month
On Nov. 21, 450 people attend a fund-raising banquet for Berkman
in New York
City to celebrate his sixtieth birthday.
Stella Ballantine and her son David join Goldman in St.
Goldman finishes her autobiography, Living My
Life, having written
100,000 words since she began the last two chapters in July
Ben Reitman's The Second Oldest
study of pimps, is published.
Goldman, Stella Ballantine, and her son David vacation in Nice;
up on her much delayed correspondence. Berkman, now living in
contemplates opening a typing and translation bureau.
Fall of the monarchy in Spain. Many anarchists, including some
closest associates, are enthusiastic about the prospects for
while Goldman remains skeptical.
Goldman learns that, despite the dreadful economic situation,
Knopf intends to
publish Living My Life in two volumes
at what she
considers an exorbitant price.
Goldman is included in John Haynes Holmes's sermon in New York on
Greatest Living Women."
Together in St. Tropez, Goldman and Berkman celebrate the
anniversary of his release from prison.
The Forward, a Yiddish socialist daily
York, begins serialization of
Goldman's autobiography; Goldman is dissatisfied with both the
editor Abraham Cahan's introductory reminiscence of her.
Goldman continues to catch up on her correspondence, returning
material--correspondence, clippings, etc.--she borrowed from
friends to write
The Ballantines leave after nearly six months with Goldman.
National Congress of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT)
Berkman is presented with another expulsion order, the third in
he rushes to Paris to try to get an extension of his papers.
The Buford episode from Goldman's
appears in the American Mercury.
Goldman contributes an essay to an anthology being compiled by
published as Americans Abroad
Modest Stein and German anarcho-syndicalists Augustin and Therese
Goldman at Bon Esprit.
Goldman is preoccupied throughout the summer with the urgency of
to secure new papers and with Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin's
financial situation in Berlin, and consumed by mounting
disappointment over the
prospects for Living My Life.
Among the visitors to St. Tropez are Harry Kelly, Anna Strunsky
her three daughters, American sculptor Jo Davidson, and Peggy
Writer and editor Frank Harris dies in Nice on Aug. 26; Goldman
to be with Nellie Harris, Frank's widow, and to help arrange his
spends the last week of September in Nice helping Nellie Harris
sort out her
At the end of September, Berkman gets an extension of his papers
to Dec. 21.
Unable to bear the thought of being alone at Bon Esprit, Goldman
considering where she will spend the winter and what she will do
publication of her autobiography. She hopes to arrange a lecture
anarchist Albert de Jong assures her that lectures could be
arranged in the
Netherlands, the German Civil Liberties League expresses interest
lectures, and other engagements elsewhere in Germany are
Goldman travels to Nice to visit Berkman on Oct. 12, and with
Nellie Harris to
Paris on Oct. 15.
Living My Life is published; a
appears on the front page of the New York Times Book
Inscribes copies of her autobiography slated for friends as she
reviews from the United States.
Earlier prospects for lectures in Germany, Holland, and Norway
Growing interest in dramatizing Living My
prompts Goldman to grant
lawyer Arthur Leonard Ross full charge of negotiations over
and cinema rights to her life.
John Haynes Holmes lectures on Living My
overflow audience at Temple Emanu-El in New York City on Dec.
The Nation includes Living
Life among its list of most notable books of
The Rand School in New York City holds a symposium on
Life on Jan. 15.
Goldman lectures at Copenhagen University on "Dictatorship, a
World Menace" to
an audience of one thousand after lectures scheduled there
earlier in the month
are canceled for fear of Communist demonstrations.
Goldman's tour of Germany, organized by the Freie Arbeiter-Union
(FAUD), begins with a meeting in Hamburg followed by meetings in
Braunschweig, and Magdeburg. While the meetings of the Gilde
Bücherfreunde book club are open to the public, the FAUD meetings
are open to
members only, which accounts in part for the meager
February 22-March 10
In addition to lecturing, in Berlin Goldman is preoccupied with
schemes to earn
money--a CBS radio broadcast to America, for which Berkman works
up themes; a
German translation of her autobiography; and German translation
Goldman speaks to a well-attended meeting of the League for Human
"Crime and Punishment in America," confining herself to political
cases; to the Gilde freiheitlicher Bücherfreunde on "The Drama as
a Social and
Educational Factor"; to the Anarcho-Syndikalistischer Frauenbund
on "The Child
and Its Enemy"; and to a FAUD meeting on "Is the Spirit of
Constructive Spirit?" She also speaks in Oberschoneweide and
The second leg of Goldman's tour begins with two successful
meetings in Breslau
(now Wroclaw, Poland)--a lecture to FAUD members on the American
and a public meeting of the Gilde freiheitlicher
The tour continues with two meetings in Dresden and Leipzig, and
engagements in Naumburg, Zella-Mehlis, Erfurt, and Sömmerda.
March 24-April 10
Back in Berlin, Goldman continues to solicit the interest of
publishing houses in translations of German and Russian works for
Lectures to the Women's International League for Peace and
Freedom (WILPF) on
"Woman's Achievement in the United States"; and to the women of
In Denmark, Goldman lectures in German at the student union in
the auspices of the Society for the Defense of Personal Liberty
Problems in a Contemporary Light"; in Odense; and in Aarhus to a
enthusiastic audience on the effects of prohibition in the United
Goldman in Oslo, her first visit to Norway, where she has "three
meetings." One lecture is canceled by the Communist-controlled
association, which objects to her criticism of the Soviet
In Stockholm, Sweden, Goldman lectures on the Mooney-Billings
Arrives back in Berlin, where she learns that CBS has canceled
radio broadcast, fearing that it will be interpreted as an effort
on her part
to reenter the United States.
April 25-May 15
On the last leg of her German tour--through Bavaria,
Hessen--all meetings are sponsored by the FAUD. She lectures in
Furth, Nuremberg, Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Göppingen, Ulm,
Mannheim, and Ludwigshafen. Among her lecture topics are "Birth
American Labor Movement," "Art and Revolution," and "Women's Role
Goldman returns to St. Tropez on May 17, exhausted from her
lecture tour, which
earned her little income; spends much of the rest of the summer
unsuccessfully to interest American publishers in translations of
Verlag books, and German and Swedish publishers in translating
autobiography. She is assisted financially by her brothers
Morris and Herman,
the latter contacting her for the first time in years.
Among Goldman's visitors in St. Tropez are Modest Stein, who
Goldman and Berkman's economic survival; Henry Alsberg; Harry T.
biographer of D. H. Lawrence; and artists Edmund and Alice
Goldman starts making plans for the coming winter; she considers
a visit to
Spain to collect material for articles and possibly for a book,
Federica Montseny in Barcelona, asking her advice; Montseny
encourages her to
come. She also considers another lecture tour, for which
initially German and
Dutch comrades express enthusiasm. In November she determines to
Holland in the new year, but the German comrades discourage a
tour due to lack
of funds--only the Berlin and Dresden branches of WILPF offer
Errico Malatesta dies.
Living My Life published by Duckworth
Goldman is appalled at the
high price of two guineas. Because of low sales, within a month
the price is
reduced in hopes that good reviews will spur library sales.
Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president of the United States.
Goldman leaves St. Tropez, arriving the following day in Paris,
which she finds
the perfect antidote to the loneliness and drudgery of her last
Goldman travels from Paris to the Netherlands via Reims,
Goldman's lecture tour of the Netherlands takes her to The Hague,
Rotterdam, Utrecht, and Hengelo; she speaks on "Dictatorship, the
In London, Goldman begins her stay with a dizzying week of
welcome meetings and
dinners with political associates and old friends, including Paul
Emily Holmes Coleman; prepares her British lecture series.
Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany.
Goldman tries to interest London publishers in Berkman's proposed
of German and Russian books.
Goldman's vacation in Bristol at the home of English friends
Thomas and Nell
Lavers includes informal meetings with local anarchists.
Delivers four well-received lectures in South Wales, including
Punishment" and "The Spirit of Destruction and Construction."
Lectures in London on "Constructive Revolution."
After fire destroys the Reichstag building in Berlin on Feb. 27,
the Nazis move
to consolidate their power; Communist deputies are arrested,
meetings broken up, speakers assaulted, and newspapers
Goldman's attempts to organize a mass meeting in London to
protest the Nazi
takeover ultimately fail because she insists on denouncing
dictatorship in the
Soviet Union as well, a position that alienates many on the
At the end of the month Rudolf and Milly Rocker arrive in London,
"An Anarchist Looks at Life" is Goldman's subject at Foyle's
attended by six hundred; Paul Robeson sings and proposes a vote
seconded by Rebecca West.
Goldman acts as a delegate to the International Anti-War
finds the congress dominated by Communists.
Gives three lectures in Bristol, including "Modern Trends in
"Dictatorship--A Modern Religious Hysteria."
Before returning to St. Tropez for the summer, Goldman is
reunited in Paris
with Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin, and Alexander Schapiro, who
from Berlin. Visitors at Bon Esprit include American liberal
Crouch, and Rudolf and Milly Rocker.
Goldman begins considering a tour of Canada in early 1934, after
completed his projected tour of Canada and the United States.
Goldman solicits fall lecture dates in both Canada and
Mabel Carver Crouch works furiously for Goldman's readmission to
States, organizing a committee and soliciting the help of lawyers
with contacts in the new administration in Washington, D.C.
Toronto anarchists pledge funds to pay for Goldman's passage to
In Paris, at a Yiddish meeting she addresses on Nov. 11, she
learns from German
refugees about the growing horrors in Nazi Germany.
Lecture tour of the Netherlands meets with mixed success: Goldman
Hilversum and Amsterdam on Living My
Life, but her
lecture in Rotterdam on
dictatorship is prohibited. Under surveillance throughout the
trip, she is
arrested at Appeldorn on Nov. 23 and expelled from the country
Roger Baldwin works with the U.S. immigration authorities,
attempting to secure
a visa for Goldman, while the committee organized by Mabel Carver
a formal invitation to Goldman to visit the United States.
Immigration Daniel W. MacCormack advises Baldwin that it is
Secretary of Labor
Frances Perkins who has the legal right to admit Goldman.
Goldman leaves France for Canada; she arrives in Toronto on Dec.
15, where she
applies for a visa at the U.S. consulate for a proposed
Goldman is offered, but declines, a large sum to appear in
in the United States.
U.S. Department of Labor approves a three-month visa, effective
Feb. 1, for
Goldman to lecture on nonpolitical subjects, which may include
Living My Life
under the category of literature. Once word of her tour leaks
lecture agencies in the United States offer their services.
Goldman's brother Morris suffers a mild heart attack.
Goldman gives a well-attended series of lectures at Hygeia Hall
in Toronto; her
topics include "Germany's Tragedy and the Forces That Brought It
"Hitler and His Cohorts," "The Collapse of German Culture," and
Right and Left--a Religious Hysteria." A talk to a Jewish
meeting also raises
money for anarchists forced to flee repression in Nazi
Goldman stops to visit relatives in Rochester, N.Y., before
arriving Feb. 2 in
New York City, where she is mobbed by reporters and photographers
Pennsylvania Station and the Hotel Astor. Overwhelmed by the
demands on her
time, she is nevertheless pleased and surprised by the warmth of
The major exception is the hostility of the Communists toward
"Welcome home" dinner meeting at Town Hall, New York City, is
thousand people apply for the 350 tickets.
Goldman speaks at a Yiddish meeting at the Cooper Union organized
by the Jewish
Anarchist Federation, the Arbeiter Ring, and several unions.
Goldman speaks on Kropotkin's life and work at John Haynes
Church services at Town Hall; the lecture draws a huge audience,
and more than
a thousand people are turned away.
Goldman's lectures on Living My Life
auspices of the Pond lecture
bureau draw disappointingly small crowds; she chafes under the
Department's restrictions on the subjects she may address,
questions from the audience are almost invariably about the
situation, which she is forbidden to discuss; grows critical of
management of her tour.
She speaks three times in New York, and in Boston, Washington,
At the end of the month Goldman's attorney appeals to the
secretary of labor
to lift the restriction on her public utterances and allow her to
Generally dismal response to Goldman's lectures outside New York
Newark, N.J., where she lectures to the Essex County Socialist
party on "The
Menace of Reaction" on March 1 and in Baltimore on "The Collapse
Culture" on March 4 where she also attends the "War and the
at Johns Hopkins University. Only the meetings organized by
anarchist associates are successful--a luncheon and lecture
organized by the
Jewish anarchists in Philadelphia on March 2 and a lecture on
"The Drama of
Europe" at Webster Hall, New York City, on March 5 that draws an
twelve hundred. The money Goldman raises at the latter function
she pledges to
the Vanguard and Freedom groups to publish a pamphlet on the CNT
Goldman grows increasingly frustrated with the efforts of the
complaining that the theaters booked for her lectures are too
ticket prices are too high, and that advertising is misdirected.
publicist Ann Lord's advance work for Goldman's lectures,
to Goldman's anarchist associates and the Yiddish Left, improves
Goldman pins her hopes for a successful tour on obtaining an
extension of her
visa, which Roger Baldwin pursues in Washington, D.C.
Goldman's lecture in New Haven on Living My
and "Today's International Problems" attracts only a small
On a whirlwind visit to her former home town, Rochester, N.Y., on
Goldman addresses members of the City Club, one of her most
since the opening week of the tour.
The first part of Goldman's tour of the Midwest meets with mixed
disappointing turnouts in Toledo on March 19 and Cleveland on
March 20, though
eight hundred attend her March 18 lecture in Detroit.
March 21-April 2
Goldman's five lectures in Chicago, organized by her political
the most successful of her tour; sixteen hundred attend the
lecture under the
auspices of the Free Society Forum on March 22, twelve hundred at
University of Chicago on March 23, and a thousand at Northwestern
March 26. Fifteen hundred attend a banquet in her honor at the
on March 28. The warmth of the reception boosts her morale and
that her ideas still have an audience.
In Chicago she meets new comrades who become valued friends,
and Jay Levey, and Frank Heiner, a blind sociology graduate
student at the
University of Chicago, who impresses Goldman as a promising
Goldman also lectures twice in Wisconsin, on March 24 in
afternoon meeting that draws only a small audience, and at the
Wisconsin at Madison on March 27.
Goldman visits St. Louis, where the receipts for her April 5
lecture on "The
Collapse of German Culture" fail to cover the rental expenses for
Her brother Morris and his wife Babsie visit Goldman in St.
Goldman's lectures on the last leg of her tour continue to meet
success despite the advance work of Ann Lord.
In Pittsburgh on April 11 she draws eight hundred people; in
hundred, where she lectures under the auspices of the Rochester
branch of the
National Council of Jewish Women on April 15; the turnouts in
Buffalo on April
16 and Albany on April 18, by contrast, are disappointing, though
meetings in those cities are comparatively successful.
Goldman's last days in New York are occupied by visits with
and political associates.
On April 25 she speaks at Dana College in Newark, N.J.
Farewell gatherings include one at Webster Hall on April 26 and a
sponsored by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme
Goldman leaves New York for Canada on April 30. Though her
brings her little financial reward, in the course of it she
raises over $1000
for the political prisoners in and refugees from Russia and
Fatigued from her tour of the Unites States but with the
of Ann Lord, Goldman spends the first three weeks of the month in
organizing and delivering lectures. Despite her disappointment
failure of her tour, Goldman feels more acutely than ever the
pain of her exile
from the United States.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover writes to the attorney general
Goldman violated the agreement on which she entered the country,
jeopardizing her chances of return.
Following on the heels of Rudolf Rocker's U.S. and Canadian
Goldman continues her efforts to find an American publisher for
"Nationalism and Culture"; Berkman begins translating it, after
drafting ideas for the articles that the American
Mercury, Harper's, the
commissioned Goldman to write.
Through correspondence with her new protégé Frank Heiner about
its prospects, their relationship grows more intimate.
Goldman's lectures in Montreal draw audiences of three to four
speaks on Hitler and Nazism, "The Collapse of German Culture,"
Living My Life, as well as lecturing in
Back in Toronto, Goldman finds an apartment; after a
disappointing lecture on
the New Deal on May 28 she determines to curtail her public
concentrate on writing.
Goldman has difficulty settling down to write especially without
editorial assistance; Redbook rejects
she submits about her impressions of the United States.
Goldman finds Toronto dull and feels starved for intellectual
she urges her American friends and comrades to visit over the
Goldman's affection for Heiner grows as does her anticipation of
she expects him to become an important force in the American
Goldman celebrates her sixty-fifth birthday in Toronto with a
party attended by
Erich Mühsam, German anarchist poet, dies in a Nazi concentration
The American Mercury accepts Goldman's
"Communism: Bolshevist and
Anarchist, A Comparison," which it publishes--to Goldman's
truncated form as "There is No Communism in Russia" in April
the spirit of the original article.
rejects her article "The
Individual, Society, and the State"; unwilling to revise it, she
instead the article about her U.S. visit that
Redbook rejected. She finishes
writing "The Tragedy of the Political Exiles," which the
Goldman hosts a gathering of young people with the aim of
anarchist group in Toronto and meets with them weekly throughout
Among her visitors are Jeanne and Jay Levey from Chicago and her
Herman and his son Allan.
Berkman's health and mental state decline while translating
San Francisco general strike, the first general strike in U.S.
in support of twelve thousand striking International
Nestor Makhno, Ukrainian anarchist leader, dies in exile in
Goldman's sister Lena and family visit.
The weekly gatherings of young people at her apartment continue;
it hard to disabuse them of their attachment to the state or
is pessimistic about making any new converts.
Goldman hatches a scheme to get Berkman a Lithuanian passport so
he can at
least travel to Canada.
Anarchist conference at Stelton, N.J., organized to discuss the
creation of an
English-language anarchist weekly; Goldman contributes in writing
her ideas on
anarchists building alliances with other groups.
Frank Heiner arrives and stays with Goldman until the beginning
they become lovers.
Goldman presides over a poorly attended meeting at Hygeia Hall
organized by the
Libertarian Groups of Toronto to commemorate the seventh
anniversary of the
executions of Sacco and Vanzetti; Heiner also speaks at the
Goldman misses Heiner after he returns to the United States, and
Roger Baldwin will be successful in his efforts in Washington to
gain a U.S.
visa for her.
Works hard writing the lectures for the following month.
Submits "Was My Life Worth Living?" to
later accepted for publication.
Lectures to a Jewish women's organization in Toronto on "The New
Goldman delivers a series of eight lectures at Forester's Hall,
literary and political topics, including George Bernard Shaw,
manufacturers, Russian literature since the revolution, and
and the Nazi book-burnings. Attendance is very disappointing,
worries about financial survival if refused permission to reenter
States; considers the possibility of dramatizing
Life for theater or film.
She is concerned about her brother Morris who suffers repeated
Of five other meetings during the month, only a lecture to a
workers' organization on "The American Labor Movement and the
on Oct. 2 gives her much satisfaction; even a free anarchist
meeting on Oct. 31
fails to draw a good crowd.
Roger Baldwin discusses Goldman's application for a new U.S.
Rocker's application for an extension of his stay--with the
Washington, who advise him that at present they would deny
only Rocker's application is approved.
The uprising in the mining districts of Asturias, Spain, is
followed by severe
repression; thousands of miners are executed, thousands more
thirty to forty thousand are imprisoned.
Goldman decides to stay in Canada until the spring in the hope of
the United States and seeing Heiner again.
Goldman is more sanguine about her work in Toronto: she sees
promise in the
small group of comrades--especially Dorothy Rogers and Ahrne
Ahrne Thorne, later the editor of the Freie Arbeiter
gratified by the circular against war and fascism they publish at
the end of
After farewell parties in Toronto, Goldman travels to Montreal,
discovers little preparatory work has been done for her
Jeanne Levey informs Goldman that she is discreetly raising a
fund to support
her and, if necessary, pay her passage back to Europe.
November 12-December 11
Goldman's lectures at the Windsor Hotel and the YMCA in Montreal
such as George Bernard Shaw, the individual in society, and a
Bolshevik and anarchist communism. Again the lectures are not
furthermore, a Quebec law prohibits Goldman from selling or
literature at her meetings unless it is first submitted to the
condition she refuses to accept.
After a promising start, neither the Yiddish meetings nor the
Goldman addresses are well attended, so she determines to
organize a series for
the new year on a subscription basis instead.
Harper's publishes Goldman's "Was My
Roger Baldwin advises Goldman that in the current atmosphere of
toward alien radicals she is unlikely to be granted a U.S.
Goldman's brother Herman dies.
In Canada, Goldman is absorbed writing lectures with the hope
that a new
lecture series and published articles will provide a meager
livelihood, as well
as spread anarchist ideas. She considers writing a book of
portraits of famous
people she has known, an idea first suggested by Frank Heiner.
that the sustaining fund Jeanne Levey is helping to raise might
to support its writing.
After a disappointing turnout for her Jan. 17 lecture on moral
current films Goldman cancels further lectures; by contrast,
talks to Jewish
audiences--the Temple Emanu-El adult school on Jan. 7, the second
arranged by Rabbi Harry Stern, and the women's branch of the
Arbeiter Ring on
Jan. 12--are well received and buoy her spirits.
January 9-March 13
Goldman's ten-week lecture series on drama and literature at the
in Montreal includes lectures on Russian and Soviet drama, German
works destroyed by the Nazis, and American drama, especially
Only fifty people subscribe for the series, and few others
Goldman's four lectures in Yiddish this month continue to be her
successful in Montreal, drawing an audience of two hundred when
she speaks on
"the element of sex in unmarried people" on Feb. 1 and raising
some money for
the first time in Montreal when she speaks again to the women's
branch of the
Arbeiter Ring on Feb. 17.
Goldman decides to return to France in the spring after receiving
discouraging reports from friends who have met with Labor
in Washington, D.C., about chances for readmission.
As other possibilities close, Goldman looks increasingly to her
venture as a means of support; she also pursues the idea of a
as she inquires about receiving an advance from a publisher.
Two further lectures to Jewish groups--on "Crime and Punishment"
on March 4 and
birth control on March 15--and the last in her drama series
lectures in Montreal; she returns to Toronto on March 17.
Goldman speaks at two Yiddish meetings in Toronto at the end of
the month, one
a lecture, the other a seventieth birthday celebration for Chaim
the exiled Russian revolutionary.
By the end of the month a formal committee to raise a "Sustaining
Emma Goldman" is organized in New York by her niece Stella
Ballantine and Roger
Baldwin, and three hundred fund-raising letters solicit $3,000 in
to support Goldman while she is writing a book; Jeanne Levey
helps with the
appeal from Chicago.
Goldman grows increasingly concerned about Berkman's financial
raises emergency funds for him and Emmy Eckstein.
March 19-April 9
Goldman delivers a series of four lectures at Toronto's Hygeia
by a group of young anarchists; she speaks on "The Element of Sex
"Youth in Revolt," "The Tragedy of the Modern Woman," and "Crime
In her last month in Canada Goldman speaks in Hamilton, Ontario,
auspices of the National Council of Jewish Women on April 11, and
Toronto, on "Youth in Revolt" to a branch of the Arbeiter Ring on
April 14, and
on birth control at Hygeia Hall on April 16, after meeting with
the head of a
Toronto birth control clinic.
Harper's rejects Goldman's suggestion
write a monthly column about the European situation.
The effort to aid Berkman is formalized with the creation in New
York of the
Alexander Berkman Provisional Committee which plans fund-raising
celebrate the anniversary of his release from prison and his
Goldman attends a farewell dinner in her honor in Toronto that
toward her sustaining fund.
Goldman returns to Montreal where her niece Stella Ballantine
visits her on
Telegrams of tribute greet Goldman at a farewell event hosted by
Rabbi Stern of
Goldman sails from Canada to Le Havre, France; she reaches Paris
on May 15.
Goldman arrives back in St. Tropez in time to celebrate the
Berkman's release from prison in 1906; she finds him in better
health than she
Relations between Goldman, Berkman, and his companion Emmy
surprisingly harmonious given that the three are living in close
Goldman's cottage in St. Tropez.
The serenity is disrupted by the news of Rudolf Rocker's
Berkman's translation and editing of Rocker's book and his
decision to abandon
Goldman receives reports of the progress of the fund-raising
ultimately brings over $1,000.
Begins mobilizing anarchist writers and editors of the movement's
example, Rocker, Nettlau, and Albert de Jong--to publish articles
Berkman's sixty-fifth birthday in November.
As the weeks pass, Goldman grows restless without an outlet for
activity and wonders whether returning to France was wise,
especially as she is
even further away from Frank Heiner. She weighs her options for
the fall and
winter, and considers returning to Canada or lecturing in
Relations between Goldman and Eckstein deteriorate to the point
that they can
no longer live in the same place; at the end of the month Goldman
goes to Nice
with Berkman and visits Nellie Harris; on Goldman's return
Eckstein leaves St.
Among Goldman's visitors this month in St. Tropez are Ben
Reitman's son Brutus
and Dutch friends Dien and Tom Meelis from Toronto.
In the middle of the month Berkman returns to Eckstein in Nice;
Goldman and Berkman are able to discuss their differences and
disappointment with each other's attitude after a long
Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin from Paris and Modest Stein from
visit Bon Esprit this month.
At the end of the month Goldman begins organizing her papers,
lecture notes, and letters before she leaves Bon Esprit for the
Emmy Eckstein reports that Berkman is weak and tires quickly,
though he edits
Goldman's "Two Communisms: Bolshevist and Anarchist."
Berkman helps Goldman to organize her papers and writes letters
on her behalf asking for review copies of books to use in her
tour of England.
Italian troops invade Ethiopia, prompting League of Nations
October 19-November 14
Goldman stays in Paris, visiting friends and political
Jacob Abrams, who encourages her to lecture in Mexico. While
there she learns
that Berkman's weakness may be attributable to prostate
After traveling to London, where she plans to make her home for
Goldman begins a series of lectures on Nov. 21 with "Traders in
Death" to an
audience of about one hundred at the National Trade Union Club.
this with "Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin" at a packed meeting at
House, where she is heckled by Communists, and "Fallacies of
at Broadway Congregational Hall, Hammersmith.
In Leeds on Dec. 1 Goldman gives such a highly successful lecture
literature to the Workers' Circle that the members ask for other
In Plymouth Goldman speaks to the Tamaritans on Dec. 7 on "The
Theatre." The success of her lectures on political topics
surprises her: Six
hundred people--the largest meeting she has ever had in
lecture on "Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin" on Dec. 9, though two
lectures draw smaller crowds.
Goldman begins a lecture tour, hopeful that she can establish a
lecture base in
London for six to eight months a year and spend the summers in
St. Tropez. The
death of King George V on Jan. 20, however, plunges the country
resulting in poor attendance at her lectures.
Deaths of Louise Bryant, journalist and companion of the late
John Reed, and
Dr. William Robinson, early birth control advocate in the United
Lectures to the Leicester Secular Society on "Traders in Death
International Munitions Clique)."
Lectures to the Southend Labour League of Youth on "Youth in
Goldman gives three lectures in London. The first, at the
Workers Circle House
on "The Two Communisms (Bolshevist and Anarchist--A Parallel),"
is disrupted by
Communists. She also lectures on "Russian Literature" at the
Union Club, and on "Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin (How Far Do
Methods Lead To Similar Results?)" in Hammersmith.
Goldman considers publishing a new book of essays drawn from her
lectures, not only as a source of income but also to appease
the Emma Goldman Publication Fund established to enable her to
Jeanne Levey organizes the publication of twelve thousand copies
of "The Place
of the Individual in the Society" in pamphlet form to raise
Berkman has a prostate operation in Nice, unbeknownst to Goldman.
the month, Emmy Eckstein enters the hospital for gastrointestinal
Berkman has a second prostate operation the following month.
Goldman learns of
their condition while completing her scheduled lectures.
Goldman's three lectures in Plymouth draw enthusiastic audiences,
though at the
last she is heckled by local Communists.
Goldman lectures again to the Workers Circle in London.
Goldman's friendship with Eslanda and Paul Robeson deepens, as
friendship with her new admirer and benefactor, Shloime Sutton.
Publishing Company prints a cheaper edition of _Living My Life_
purchasing the rights from Knopf.
Germany remilitarizes the Rhineland in direct contravention of
the Treaty of
Goldman lectures again to the Leicester Secular Society.
Speaks on "The Russian Theatre" to a thousand members of the
Circle, one of the most successful meetings she has ever had in
Goldman's lecture in Hammersmith, London, on "Anarchism (What It
For)" is sparsely attended.
Goldman delivers three lectures to miners in South Wales--at
Ystradgynlais, and Aberdare--sponsored by the National Council of
Colleges. Her lectures on "Mussolini and Hitler" and on "The Two
are surprisingly well received, as it is the first time that the
Colleges had provided a hearing for anarchism and a critique of
Goldman lectures on Living My Life at
Goldman leaves London, arriving in Nice on April 6. Berkman is
hospitalized; in spite of Emmy Eckstein's worsening health, the
two women visit
Goldman writes to drama organizations in Britain and places
drama publications, soliciting lecture dates for the fall: she
offers to speak
on Eugene O'Neill, Clifford Odets, and other contemporary
playwrights, as well
as on "Soviet Literature, Its Struggle and Its Promise."
Berkman is released from the hospital and returns to his domestic
Emmy Eckstein and Goldman in Nice.
Goldman returns to St. Tropez for the summer, unable to bear the
tension between her and Emmy Eckstein; she determines to sell Bon
advertises it for rent with an option to purchase.
Berkman--whose recovery is slow--discovers that, for the first
residency papers have been renewed for a whole year.
Goldman celebrates her sixty-seventh birthday with visiting
and benefactor Michael Cohn and his family. Too ill to celebrate
Berkman telephones in the afternoon.
In the early hours, unable to endure the physical pain, Berkman
the bullet lodges in his spinal column, paralysing him. Goldman
rushes to Nice
to be at his side. He sinks into a coma in the afternoon and
dies at 10 P.M.
Berkman is buried in Nice.
Grief-stricken, Goldman tries to fulfill Berkman's charge that
she take care of
Emmy, who is impaired by her continuing illness.
Memorial meetings for Berkman are held in New York City,
organized by the
Freie Arbeiter Stimme; at Mohegan
and in Paris.
Spanish Civil War begins.
Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin arrive in St. Tropez to comfort
her worst period of grief and psychological depression. Her
spirits are lifted
by Augustin Souchy's invitation to Barcelona to work for the
press office of the Confederación Nacional del
Convicted of high treason in the first of the Moscow show trials,
Bolsheviks Kamenev and Zinoviev are executed.
James Colton, the man Goldman married in 1925 to establish
dies of cancer.
Goldman leaves St. Tropez for Spain.
September 16-December 10
Based in Barcelona, the anarchist stronghold in Catalonia,
Goldman helps to
write the English-language edition of the CNT-FAI's information
visits collectivized farms and factories, and travels to the
Valencia, and Madrid.
She spends the first weeks working closely with Russian-born
Gudell of the CNT-FAI's Foreign Propaganda Department and
English-language radio addresses; Goldman hopes to conduct
Barcelona, as she does not want to leave Spain.
Visits the Aragon front for two days where she is honored to meet
Durruti, a leading FAI activist and militia commander.
Goldman addresses a mass meeting of sixteen thousand people
organized by the
FAI youth in Barcelona.
In Valencia, with German exiles Anita and Hanns-Erich Kaminski,
collectivized villages and farms.
Increasingly aware of how her inability to speak Spanish hinders
her work in
Spain, Goldman plans to shift to publicity work and fund raising
Britain or the United States, where she could make a greater
The threat of Nationalist forces to Madrid prompts the government
to Valencia on November 7.
The CNT joins the Largo Caballero government, accepting four
recognizing the paramount need to fight the fascists, Goldman is
the CNT-FAI's direction, especially its decision to join the
effectively align itself with pro-Soviet forces. In her
close friends, Goldman is highly critical of the collaborative
direction of the
CNT, while publicly she remains supportive.
Durruti is shot by an unknown gunman during the defense of
Madrid; his funeral
in Barcelona on Nov. 22 draws hundreds of thousands of
Goldman is named official representative in London of the CNT-FAI
and of the
Generalitat of Catalonia.
Leaves Barcelona for Paris with the Kaminskis, arriving on Dec.
Goldman arrives in London and finds the propaganda bureau of the
a shambles. Vernon Richards's twice-monthly Spain
World appears to
be Goldman's most reliable vehicle for communicating about the
aspirations of the Spanish anarchists.
Begins organizing publicity campaign about the Spanish
planning mass meetings in London and the provinces, but is
hampered by poor
communication with and lack of urgency among key anarchist
Aside from the London anarchists, Goldman finds allies among
of the Independent Labour Party (ILP), including Fenner Brockway
writer Ethel Mannin, who becomes a close friend. The first fruit
alliance is Goldman's joining forces with a broad English
to the Republican cause to mount an exhibition in February of
cartoons, posters, and pamphlets from Spain.
The death on Jan. 1 of Commissioner of Immigration Daniel W.
threatens to weaken the confidence built up in the Department of
delay any chance of her return to the United States.
Goldman speaks on "The Spanish Revolution and the CNT-FAI" at a
chaired by Ethel Mannin in London.
Lectures on Spain in Plymouth.
Malaga falls to Franco's forces.
In Glasgow, Goldman meets with local anarchists at the home of
secretary of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation. On
Feb. 14 she
speaks in Glasgow to an audience of six hundred on "The Part of
the CNT-FAI in
the Spanish Revolution" in the afternoon; and in Paisley on "The
Collectivisation" in the evening.
Goldman and Ethel Mannin speak on "The Relation of the Church in
Fascism," at Friends House, London, under joint auspices of the
Committee and the ILP.
With Ethel Mannin, Goldman speaks on Spain in Bristol.
Disappointed by the financial failure of the Spanish exhibition
Feb. 20, Goldman begins organizing a benefit performance in
London for the
refugee women and children in Spain.
Gudell notifies Goldman of the establishment of a new committee
members from the CNT and the FAI to handle all foreign propaganda
order to alleviate inefficiency caused by the personal and
between Souchy and Rudiger over propaganda.
Goldman lectures on Spain at a meeting in East London.
In her correspondence with the Spanish comrades Goldman
criticizes the CNT for
collaborating with the Communists and accepting Soviet support;
remains an unwavering supporter.
In Bristol Goldman speaks in the afternoon to a conference of ILP
in the evening on "The Relation of the Church in Spain with
Fascism" at a
meeting arranged by the local ILP.
The benefit concert for the Spanish refugees, which Goldman has
frantically to produce, takes place at Victoria Palace. With
performance, it is an artistic success but raises less money than
Manchester Guardian publishes Goldman's
report that Catalonia had contributed little to the defense of
Sixty thousand people take part in a May Day demonstration and
includes anarchists for the first time in thirty years. Under
the auspices of
the London Committee of the CNT-FAI,
Goldman speaks at the conclusion of the march in Hyde Park.
The "May events" in Barcelona pit rank-and-file anarchists and
Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista (POUM) against Catalan
in armed clashes after assault guards attempt to take over the
telephone exchange; anarchist workers interpret this action as
the beginning of
an attempt by Moscow-aligned forces to suppress the anarchists
and destroy the
social revolution in Spain; CNT-FAI leaders, by contrast, are
less alarmed by
the actions and, rather than fight, call for a cease-fire. The
government dispatches troops from Valencia, but by May 7 when
resistance has virtually collapsed.
The Largo Caballero government is replaced by a government led by
that excludes the CNT and reflects an increase in Communist
Goldman speaks on the Spanish revolution in Norwich at a
sponsored by the Norwich Freedom Group, the ILP, and the Labour
Goldman and Fenner Brockway speak on "Conditions in Spain" in
Goldman writes the introduction to a new commemorative edition of
ABC of Anarchism to be published by the
Freie Arbeiter Stimme.
Views "Fury Over Spain," a film by American Louis Frank;
a public showing of the film to raise funds for
In Paris, Goldman is troubled by the violent opposition among her
anarchist comrades to the CNT-FAI's unwillingness to confront the
assault on its opponents on the Left and its undermining of the
Obtains Spanish and French visas that will enable her to travel
to Spain after
On Aug. 21 she travels to Nice and later in the month to St.
Tropez for her
final stay at Bon Esprit, which is sold shortly after her
departure for Spain
the following month, temporarily freeing Goldman from financial
allowing her to continue her work for Spain.
Goldman leaves Marseille for Valencia.
September 16-November 5
Goldman in Spain, primarily Barcelona: finds the agricultural and
collectives in Catalonia in better condition even than a year
overall conditions in Barcelona are very discouraging compared to
Valencia, especially for refugee women and children.
Alarmed by the number of political prisoners being held by the
government, especially anarchists and POUM members.
Receives promises of support for a more intensive campaign on
behalf of the
CNT-FAI in England, including funds for an office and for the
Spain and the World.
Visits Madrid and the front.
With Souchy, Goldman leaves Valencia for Barcelona, which comes
bombardment by Franco's forces a few days later.
Pedro Herrera confirms Goldman's new role as the London
representative of the
SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity), which was formed
during the summer
to provide relief to Spanish refugees and to promote
for the Spanish anarchists.
Goldman's chances of receiving a U.S. visa are slim, the
immigration informs Roger Baldwin, due to pending legislation and
for adverse publicity.
Republican government begins move from Valencia to Barcelona.
Goldman meets and consults with many anarchists in Paris.
Returns to London; begins searching for premises for an SIA
office and reading
Goldman continues her campaign against the imprisonment of
leftists and anarchists in Spain, writing an article on the
and the World and trying to enlist the assistance
sympathetic Members of Parliament.
In Paris for the International Working 8en's Association (IWMA)
Vazquez's request: French comrades, knowing that publicly she is
the CNT-FAI's policies, try to prevent Goldman from addressing
because she is not an official delegate. The Spanish and Swedish
prevail in their attempt to have her speak, and she defends the
actions and the difficult decisions it has made against criticism
Moves into new offices for the CNT-FAI, SIA, and
Spain and the
central London, but finds little enthusiasm for the SIA venture,
antifascist organizations and Spanish aid committees already
Having read Goldman's article in December's Spain and
World, Vázquez and
Herrera warn her that frequent publicity about political
persecution by the
Negrín government and the Communists only undermines enthusiasm
international proletariat for the cause of anti-fascism; Goldman
noting widespread distrust of the Communists and concern that
have dampened the workers' general enthusiasm for the
Goldman acknowledges that Paul Robeson and his wife are
from her as a result of their close association with the
U.S. labor leader Rose Pesotta meets with Goldman in London;
promises to help
organize a committee to obtain a U.S. visa for Goldman.
Goldman and Ethel Mannin speak on "The Betrayal of the Spanish
People" at a
CNT-FAI program in London; the audience turns against the
Communists when they
attempt to break up the meeting.
Goldman plans a spring benefit for the SIA; feels more confident
prospects when more individuals agree to serve as sponsors,
critic Sir Herbert Read, Laurence Housman, Havelock Ellis, John
George Orwell, and Rebecca West, among others.
Exhibition of drawings by children in Barcelona schools and lace
work by women
refugees opens at the SIA office but draws only a handful of
First issue of the S.I.A. bulletin is
Goldman speaks at a small meeting arranged by the ILP in
Eastbourne at which
Communists in the audience attack her.
Goldman determines to go to Canada in the fall regardless of the
getting a U.S. visa, convinced that she could do more good for
Spain there than
Goldman writes the preface for a collection of writings by
the exiled Italian anarchist intellectual kidnapped and murdered
during the 1937 "May events," which the Italian comrades are
publishing in his
In Scotland, Goldman lectures on Spain three times in Glasgow and
Edinburgh; her topics include "The Betrayal of the Spanish
People" and "The
Constructive Achievements of the CNT-FAI," but the meetings are
Franco's forces, with overwhelming air superiority, launch a
major assault on
the Aragon front; the Republican forces, torn by internal
and by Apr. 15 the Nationalists reach the coast, splitting
German troops occupy Austria; the following day the Anschluss is
Goldman speaks at a well-attended fund-raising meeting in
Leicester for the
SIA; also shows the Louis Frank film, "Fury over Spain."
Large meeting and showing of the Louis Frank film in Peckham,
Herrera calls on Goldman to do all in her power to prevent the
the refugee Basque children (most of their parents are supporters
Spain) from England to Nationalist Spain.
Goldman suffers from shortness of breath, fainting spells, and
In Liverpool, Goldman speaks on Spain at two meetings: on the
first day to a
thousand people at an ILP-sponsored event; on the second to a
of the Workmen's Circle. Both meetings are disrupted by
"Fascism Is Destroying European Civilisation" is the theme of a
in London sponsored by the CNT-FAI; Goldman makes an appeal for
arms--illegal under the terms of the Non-Intervention Pact.
As a delegate, Goldman attends an all-day National Conference on
London, which she is convinced is contrived by the Communist
Literary and musical evening in London for the SIA draws a small
is a financial flop; Mannin finds Goldman's militant speech
the occasion, organized to promote humanitarian ends.
At the beginning of the month, Goldman is reading Orwell's
Catalonia and writing "Trotsky Protests Too Much,"
a reply to
two articles on
the Kronstadt rebellion that appeared in the New York Trotskyist
Herrera announces his intention to leave his position as
secretary of the
General Council of the SIA; his replacement will be Lucia Sanchez
Large demonstration ends at Hyde Park where the CNT-FAI platform
speakers--Goldman, British anarchist Ralph Barr, and veteran
Kavanagh--attract an enthusiastic crowd.
W. S. Van Valkenburgh, American anarchist editor and devoted
correspondent of Goldman's, dies of a heart attack.
Goldman asks anarchist friends in the United States and Canada to
to raise funds for a trip to Canada; encourages Carlo Tresca and
Silver to help her get a U.S. visa through their contacts in
Advises Vázquez that the CNT-FAI bureau should continue its
she is in Canada and urges him to support Spain and
Herrera, in his new capacity at the anarchist Tierra y Libertad
company, expresses interest in publishing Spanish translations of
Living My Life and Berkman's
The International Institute of Social History (IISH) contacts
depositing her and Berkman's correspondence at their archive in
Goldman attends a Writers against Fascism meeting organized by
of Writers for Intellectual Liberty; Goldman describes it as
Thomas H. Keell, British anarchist and one-time editor of
Goldman is one of several speakers at a Hyde Park demonstration
the second anniversary of the Spanish revolution; it draws a
largely because the Communists and their allies hold a rally in
Square at the same time.
At the anarchist Whiteway Colony in Gloucestershire, Goldman
examines the late
Thomas H. Keell's papers on behalf of IISH, which hopes to
acquire part of his
Goldman offers IISH her unpublished sketches and large collection
clippings as well as Berkman's diary. She agrees to help IISH
collections of personal papers from her circle of anarchist
Goldman receives several hundred dollars from anarchists in New
Chicago to pay for her travel expenses.
She is disturbed by reports of her niece Stella Ballantine's
awaits news about her condition.
Leaves London for Paris, having secured a British visa for Spain
at the last
The war scare over events in Czechoslovakia transfixes Goldman as
it does all
She learns that her niece has been hospitalized after suffering a
breakdown; though the long-term prognosis is good, Ballantine's
Leaves Paris for Toulouse, and from there flies to Spain the
September 15-October 29
In Spain, many leading anarchists express to Goldman their strong
the policies of the CNT's National Committee and its conciliation
of the Negrin
government. They are especially critical of Vázquez, who now
destructive actions of the Communists but still wants them
Goldman complains to him, for example, that all the money raised
countries for antifascist women goes to Communist organizations
and none to the
anarchist organization Mujeres Libres. The FAI by contrast is
anxious to begin
a campaign abroad exposing the activities of the Communists in
Goldman is shocked by the number of anarchists and other leftists
prison, among them Jeannette Kiffel, a Polish anarchist and
Goldman's, who has been held incommunicado three months but is
Vázquez and Goldman appeal to Segundo Blanco, CNT minister of
education in the
Goldman visits the metal, transport, and milk syndicates; schools
libertarian principles; and the SIA colonies for refugee
children. Notes that
many collectives have been destroyed.
Goldman witnesses the continuing bombardment of Barcelona from
the air and the
chronic shortage of food and electricity.
Attends the CNT-FAI plenum (Oct. 16-30) and the trial of POUM
charged with espionage and desertion (Oct. 11-22), charges on
are found innocent; they are found guilty, however, of rebellious
during the May events of 1937.
Accompanied by Gudell and Herrera, Goldman visits the 28th
division headed by
Gregorio Jover and the 26th division headed by Ricardo Sanz at
Munich agreement signed by Great Britain, France, Germany, and
the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
Goldman arrives in Paris from Barcelona for the SIA congress,
which meets at
the same time as the IWMA; Goldman joins delegates from Sweden,
Ethel Mannin successfully assumes Goldman's role as SIA
London; raises significantly more financial support for the SIA
Goldman advises Gudell that the next propaganda campaign
undertaken by the
CNT-FAI should be aimed at the release of the political prisoners
Kristallnacht in Germany: This episode, coming on the heels of
crisis, causes outrage in the Western democracies and diverts
developments in Spain.
Goldman spends much of the month in London completing a report on
her visit to
Spain for publication in the anarchist press.
CNT decides to close its offices in London and North America for
reasons. Saornil pledges to continue relations with Goldman and
and hopes that, despite the closure of the CNT-FAI London bureau,
propaganda for the SIA will continue.
Goldman sends five hundred pounds of clothing to Spanish refugees
SIA in Perpignan.
Goldman learns that Emmy Eckstein's health is in serious jeopardy
and that she
must undergo surgery again.
Goldman and John McNair of the ILP speak at a poorly attended
meeting in London
on the crisis in Spain.
Goldman travels to Amsterdam to organize Berkman's and her papers
International Institute of Social History.
Franco's forces launch an offensive in Catalonia.
Working every day since late December at the International
Institute of Social
History in Amsterdam, Goldman finds it impossible to arrange
without also organizing her own; she finally finishes the work on
Learns that Emmy Eckstein's entire large intestine must be
Tom Mooney, wrongly convicted of murder in the San Francisco
bombing in July 1916, is granted an unconditional pardon and
Governor Culbert Olson.
Goldman arrives back in London.
Barcelona falls to Franco's forces.
Goldman is frantic with worry until she receives firm news of the
of anarchists who have escaped from Catalonia after the collapse
resistance in Spain. Most find sanctuary in France but face
in internment camps; others reach Paris without permits.
Vázquez's account for the suddenness of the collapse in Catalonia
exhaustion among the armies after the counterattack by Franco's
forces on the
Ebro front, shortages of military personnel, war-weariness and
among the civilian population exacerbated by food shortages, and
and open removal of the government from Barcelona that led to
panic among the
IISH informs Goldman that her archive has been sent to England in
Nazis invade the Netherlands.
Goldman's letter protesting Zenzl Mühsam's second disappearance
in the Soviet
Union appears in the Manchester
Vázquez and Herrera's circular letter announces that the CNT-FAI
activities abroad and thanks the international community for its
behalf of the Spanish anarchists.
Great Britain and France extend diplomatic recognition to
The Negrín government is overthrown in an overnight coup in
Madrid; CNT members
in the south-central zone are involved in the coup and occupy
posts in the new
National Council of Defense.
Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Goldman travels to Paris to meet refugee Spanish anarchists who
and fraught with misery and internal recriminations and
Franco declares the Spanish civil war at an end.
Goldman returns to London: on the trip she meets a group of fifty
Madrid and Valencia and in her final days in London organizes a
Goldman sails for Canada, arriving in Toronto on April 21, where
Beginning April 27, Goldman lectures in English and Yiddish in
Windsor on "Who Betrayed Spain?" to raise money for Spanish
Emmy Eckstein, Berkman's longtime companion, dies.
Goldman's seventieth birthday is marked in Toronto with a
elicits cables from friends, comrades, and labor organizations
Marks the fiftieth anniversary of Goldman's entry into anarchist
organizes a celebration for September to mark the occasion and to
long-term Spanish Relief Fund.
Nazi-Soviet Pact is signed.
Hitler invades Poland; two days later Great Britain and France
declare war on
Germany, and World War II begins.
Goldman delivers a lecture in Toronto on the Nazi-Soviet Pact to
an audience of
Goldman addresses two long-promised though poorly attended
Dinner to honor Goldman and to launch the Emma Goldman Spanish
Fund features labor leader Rose Pesotta as guest speaker and
attendance and financial support of many of Goldman's closest
On Oct. 4, under the provisions of Canada's War Measures Act,
immigrant anarchists, Arthur Bortolotti, Ruggero Benvenuti,
Ernest Gava, and a
Cuban, Marco Joachim, are arrested for possession of antifascist
literature," including anarchist classics; Bortolotti is also
possession of a handgun and faces deportation to Mussolini's
convicted. Goldman works tirelessly over the succeeding months
Bortolotti's defense, organizing a committee, hiring counsel, and
from sympathizers in Canada and the United States.
Goldman postpones her proposed lecture tour to western Canada in
order to give
her full attention to the defense of the Italian comrades.
Goldman contacts Viking Press with a proposal to write a book
experiences in Spain.
Ben Reitman suffers a mild stroke.
The sentence of Warren Billings, convicted in the 1916 San
Preparedness Day bombing, is reduced to time served and he is
Fortieth anniversary of the New York anarchist newspaper, the
Freie Arbeiter Stimme.
On Nov. 2, Arthur Bortolotti's trial begins.
Goldman spends the first two weeks in Winnipeg and speaks five
fourteen hundred people in two weeks: once in Yiddish to a
on Living My Life; to a large audience
Nazi-Soviet Pact; a lecture on
Hitler and Stalin; a talk to the IWW; and a lecture on "The Jew
in England until the End of the Nineteenth Century" to the Jewish
Goldman attempts to raise $5,000 bail for Bortolotti's release,
with the help
of Dorothy Rogers.
Goldman's mail is intercepted by Canadian censors, their
suspicion raised by
the many letters containing money pouring into her address for
the defense of
Bortolotti, whose case attracts further attention in the United
articles in the Nation and the
Republic solicited by Goldman.
Bortolotti is released on bail, charged now with immigration
than a breach of the War Measures Act.
By mid-January, Goldman returns to raising funds for the Spanish
and continues to raise funds and awareness about Bortolotti's
Goldman's niece Stella Ballantine recovers from a nervous
almost two years.
Goldman suffers a stroke that leaves her paralyzed on the right
side and unable
to speak; she is rushed to the hospital where she remains for six
Goldman returns home to her Toronto apartment on April 1 after
consciousness but not the ability to speak.
Stella Ballantine and Goldman's brother Morris and his wife
Babsie travel to
Toronto to join Dorothy Rogers and Arthur Bortolotti at Goldman's
she suffers a second hemorrhage on May 6.
Goldman dies at the age of seventy; tributes and messages of
in from around the world; her body is taken to the Labor Lyceum
in Toronto to
allow friends and comrades to pay their last respects; Rev. Salem
delivers a eulogy.
Goldman is buried in Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago, close to the
martyrs, her casket covered by an SIA-FAI flag and bouquets of
flowers sent by
friends and organizations across the nation.
A memorial meeting is held at New York's Town Hall, presided over
Abbott; films of Goldman in Spain, Canada, and of her funeral are
speakers include Norman Thomas, Rudolf Rocker, Roger Baldwin,
Carlo Tresca, Eliot White, Rose Pesotta of the ILGWU, Martin
Rogers, and Harry Weinberger.
Taken from the Emma Goldman Papers from Berkeley University, no longer online