This article is devoted to one of the poorly studied aspects of the civil war and revolution in Spain of 1936-1939. Despite the eighty years that have passed since the end of that war, many poorly studied subjects remain in its history, and many topics continue to be heatedly debated, including among people who are studying the Spanish Civil War professionally. One such episode is the story of the struggle for control over the collection and export of citrus fruits between the various political forces of the Republican camp. In this case, an attempt is made to conduct a comprehensive review of this conflict, which includes both confrontation at the level of high politics and armed clashes, resulting in a large number of victims and arrests. In many ways these events anticipated the May political crisis of 1937, which led to serious changes in the social and political life of the Spanish Republic. However, some details of this conflict can be clarified only thanks to work with materials held in Russian archives.