Let it first be said that there is nothing shocking or confusing about the present state of the world generally or the violent resurgence of antisemitism specifically. The repeated attacks on the Jewish people in France, Poland, Germany, the United States and elsewhere mirror the period of discriminatory laws and pogroms that swept through Europe in the years leading up to the death camps. Neo-Nazism, like the original Nazism, is not senseless but is a highly organized bureaucratic machine that seeks to both replace the existing liberal democratic political order and prevent the wretched of the earth from revolting against it.
PREFACE TO THE INTRODUCTORY DRAFT EDITION OF (((The Conspiracy))): A Political Economy of Antisemitism, Crisis and the Socialism of Fools by J.S. Khoom
I’ve been struggling to finish this piece. The research required for this project is momentous and absolutely needed. I was going to wait to finish this before publishing this essay but recent events prove to me that even an incomplete article is needed. The COVID-19 pandemic has further popularized antisemitic sentiment as seen on the many signs at the anti-quarantine protests. Neo nazis openly carrying signs depicting Jews as rats with the caption “the real plague.” At the same time many of my friends and comrades in the left have been spreading antisemitic messages that refer to Anne Frank and other Holocaust victims as “colonizer Jews.” I consider these to be dangerous mentalities that contributes to an environment of genocide and ethnic cleansing. If we are to defeat fascism now and forever it will be through solidarity and mutual self-defense. But how can we have those things when many people lack the basic education on Jews and the Holocaust to not repeat antisemitic beliefs? This is a larger problem than a few signs at a rally or disturbingly phrased facebook posts. In America and Europe a large portion of the population does not know the basic facts of the Holocaust including how many people died. I believe education must be the basis for any solidarity.
The Jewish left has failed to take up this task and provide precise clarity on the nature of antisemitism and its relationship to capitalism. In that absence reactionary ideas take hold in the larger society and in our leftist communities. Fascism will not be defeated if we allow such sentiments to spread. It will defeat us. I hope this essay provides the basis for a new kind of politics which sees the interconnection of all things - racism, antisemitism, imperialism, colonization and capital. We won’t be able to take apart the machine if we don’t even know how the parts fit together.
The Resurgence of Antisemitism in the 21st Century
“It is possible to imagine without difficulty what awaits the Jews at the mere outbreak of the future world war. But even without war the next development of world reaction signifies with certainty the physical extermination of the Jews.” - Leon Trotsky (1938)
“You hang the Hitlerites after they have murdered millions of people? What were you thinking before they had killed millions? Aren’t dozens of corpses enough to make you think? Does it take millions of corpses to stir your humanity?” - Wilhelm Reich, Listen Little Man! (1948)
The crumbling old powers of Europe have once again entered into an unholy alliance. The worst scoundrels of our day have revived and updated the genocidal politics of the twentieth century for the new millennium. Hate crimes and deadly attacks on synagogues are on the rise, Nazi collaborationists are celebrated as war heroes in Eastern Europe, world leaders praise Hitler’s Final Solution, paramilitaries train for a race war, and conspiracy theories about the imagined world dominance of Jews spread ever further with new communication technologies. Antisemitism is entering a new phase of popularity not seen since World War II. The European and the American Jew’s status as an assimilated immigrant group faces an existential threat. The followers of Hitler and Mussolini were not totally defeated in 1945 and have instead been waiting with tiki torches. The most brutal and violent elements of class society openly organize towards our extinction. The pogrom has returned as a key feature of Jewish life.
At a 2017 rally in Charlottesville an antifascist protester Heather Heyer was struck and killed by white supremacist James Alex Fields with his car. A Black church and a synagogue were surrounded by a horde of self-ascribed neo-nazis. Chants of “Jews will not replace us!” and “Blood and soil!” followed by torchlight filled the night skies. It wasn’t the first murder nor would it be the last. Pogroms and attacks against religious institutions have long targeted Sikh temples, Mosques, and Black churches in America. The San Diego, Pittsburgh and Halle, Germany synagogue pogroms sent a clear message to the Jewish people: you’re next. Kosher grocery stores are not even safe, as a recent attack in New Jersey proves. The COVID-19 pandemic also has introduced further opportunities for conspiracies about Jewish power to spread as seen with the attempted attacks on hospitals and Jewish nursing homes. France, Austria, Ukraine, Poland, Germany and the United States have all been experiencing a wave of antisemitic fascism. Neo-nazis surge in popularity in parliamentary elections throughout Europe. The paramilitary factions are preparing for war. They organize in anonymous online terror cells. While antisemitism has never fully retreated it is experiencing a resurgence unlike anything we’ve previously seen in the new millennium.
Many have asked: how have we come to this point? Why now? Shock and confusion dominates the responses. Many choose to see these events as “senseless,” possessing a chaotic unintelligibility that provides no answers as to motive or cause. Let it first be said that there is nothing shocking or confusing about the present state of the world generally or the violent resurgence of antisemitism specifically. The repeated attacks on the Jewish people in France, Poland, Germany, the United States and elsewhere mirror the period of discriminatory laws and pogroms that swept through Europe in the years leading up to the death camps. Neo-Nazism, like the original Nazism, is not senseless but is a highly organized bureaucratic machine that seeks to both replace the existing liberal democratic political order and prevent the wretched of the earth from revolting against it. Its ideology is not violence for violence sake, but violence towards the rational goal of taking power and eliminating their enemies while exploiting popular sentiment. During times of relative stability these forces are too weak to overthrow the liberal capitalist state or repress the political dissent of the masses. The business cycles of boom and bust which regularly produce crises of production, debt and unemployment like seen in post-World War I Germany produce the conditions which popularizes fascism. In times of crisis the most reactionary elements of class society come together to reconstitute the economic and cultural foundation of society through the reorganization of labor and the physical elimination of so-called social problems. It is this historical tendency that explains the resurgence of antisemitism today.
Now is the age of apocalypse. Capitalist-imperialism threatens our ability to feed ourselves, breathe the air and drink the water. The very basis for production is itself threatened by environmental degradation and the dominance of capital. A rise in global conflict over land and resources, economic depressions, climate refugees, civilizational collapse and total extinction are all predicted scenarios from our continued burning of fossil fuels. But we don’t need to look to the future to see the collapse currently underway. Corruption, recession, austerity, war and terror are constant features of life for the people of the world. We are in a time of great crisis and so fascism has returned to the streets, the parliaments and to the concentration camp. The war profiteers and the security state, the compradors, the religious fundamentalists, the militias, the professionals and business have arrived at old answers for new problems - might makes right. Antisemitism emerges once again from the dying gasps of empire. This old enemy of the Jewish masses was defeated before. It must be defeated again.
Because we live in a time of confusion and anxiety there is a lack of clarity over what antisemitism is and how to defeat it. This lack of clarity has the Jewish masses disoriented about who our friends and enemies are. The absence of a Jewish working class analysis of antisemitism means our real fears for survival are exploited by emotional grifters who work against our interests. Assimilation has made for strange bedfellows. Potential allies in the struggle against racial supremacy become enemies, and our enemies become seen as close allies. This arrangement threatens to isolate and destroy the Jewish people. But it is not only the Jews but the whole masses who are threatened. This intervention hopes to clarify the historical role of antisemitism, its relationship to other oppressions, how fascism has become so popular in the modern era and how to defeat it, for everyone’s sake. It is my hope this text helps guide new forms of Jewish organizing and inter-community solidarity.
The conventional definition of antisemitism has nothing to say about modern fascism. It makes no reasoned attempt to explain the Tree of Life or Halle synagogue shootings. The connections between these shooters and international networks of white supremacists is given no thought or mention. It begins and ends with condemnations of individuals but lacks any condemnation of the ideologies driving these individuals. Occasionally Palestinians and student activists are blamed. But Palestinians and student activists did not attack these synagogues - white nationalists did. Any definition of antisemitism which minimizes the threat of far right white supremacism and dramatizes the threat of everyone else is a useless definition of antisemitism. It doesn’t clarify the genocidal violence of Ha Shoah but instead obfuscates it and conflates it with criticisms of Israeli state policy. There has been a disturbing silence from normative Jewish institutions on far right antisemitism. Why? White supremacists on the far right have a proven track record of targeting and massacring the Jewish masses on an industrial scale, and have done so at a rate and frequency many times more than the threat of left wing antisemitism. We should be vigilant towards antisemitism regardless of which political tendency its coming from but it’s ridiculous to assert criticisms of and resistance to a state, its actions and ideology are inherently antisemitic. Why is opposing Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions more worthy of attention and resources than opposing decades old but recently escalating white nationalist attacks on our community in America and Europe? The safety concerns of the Jewish masses is not in alignment with the interests of the Jewish establishment. The problem with the right wing establishment definition of antisemitism is that it is incapable and unwilling to address the real threats facing Jews today. This framework refuses to acknowledge the interconnection of antisemitism to other oppressions by limiting the definition to criticisms of Israel.This normative definition suffers from idealism: it limits antisemitism to thoughts and words which disparage (a nation-state) instead of studying the historical trends, identifying the primary perpetrators of genocidal violence, exposing the forces behind these antagonisms and opposing the present day threats from organizing their desires. The standard definition is inadequate for identifying our true friends and enemies. It projects onto all cultures throughout history an immutable tendency towards antisemitism without cause or reason beyond thoughtless hatred, a sickness of the mind. It turns the modern predicament of the Jewish people into something which always has and always will exist. This ahistoricism contributes to the confusion over what is antisemitism and how to properly address it. Worse yet it implies nothing can change.
We need a critical analysis of antisemitism freed from the constraints of the interests of the Jewish bourgeoisie and the imperialists, and instead from the perspective of the forgotten Jewish working class. It is from this perspective that the primary enemy of the Jewish masses becomes clear eclipsing all others into near irrelevance. The threat of antisemitic fascism comes from the white supremacist far right. They genocided six million Jewish people only 70 years ago. Now they’re once again forming paramilitaries and committing pogroms. There is a need for an analysis of antisemitism that can actually combat antisemitism. This cannot be done through the standard definition. We cannot rely on the Jewish establishment to protect us. We need a materialist analysis that doesn’t focus on mere words or ideas but on power, historical development and action. Only by casting out the old illusions can the necessary clarity be gained. By learning the lessons of history, the Jewish people can begin to defend ourselves.
We cannot begin to understand antisemitism without first understanding the Jewish people. To even speak of a “Jewish people” does a disservice to the diversity of that Jewish people. There has never been a singular Jewish people as there has never been a singular Judaism. There have been Jewish peoples and Judaisms but never a unified Jewishness or Judaism. Jews have and continue to live on every corner of this planet. The Jews of India or China differ in minor and significant ways from Moroccan or Polish Jews and yet every single one of us is a Jew. Being Jewish isn’t even defined by language or religious practices, although they are an important part of the story. Atheistic, Orthodox, goddess worshipping, crypto, rich, poor, artistic, patrilineal, matrilineal, adopted, European, Arab, Ethiopian, zionist, antizionist are just some words that can describe the diversity of Jews. Karaite Jews who reject the authority of the Midrash and Talmud exist in the same overarching ethnoreligous community that includes Rabbinical Judaism and secular revolutionaries. The Jewish peoples have also changed over time. The Jews before the Bablyonian Exile and the First Temple are different from the Jews of the Second Temple or the Jews of the diaspora or the Jews of Israel. We no longer worship goddess figures or idols, sacrifice animals to G-d or have central religious authorities; the Jewish people now have a Jewish nation-state. The Jewish peoples have always been broadly defined, a collection of often conflicting traditions and practices but operating under a similar framework. Fragmentation developed into strategies for adapting to different geographic and cultural contexts. This diversity is the result of millennia of insularity, diaspora, expulsions, assimilation and migration.
There has been a flattening and erasure of the diversity and history of the Jewish peoples. The commonly held view of Jewish history is oppression is central to the Jewish experience. This narrative states there was never a time in which Jews weren’t terrorized and chased from place to place. Often the Jewish people are typecasted as having been a purely economic-political people, money lenders, merchants, usurers and court advisors. Whether we are presented as mere victims suffering from an unbroken five thousand years of oppression or mere victimizers who exploit and steal as the “middle-men” of history, what we find missing is a) the repeated success of the Jewish people to socially and economically integrate in the places we live, and b) the forgotten, oppressed Jewish masses. Jews weren’t only bankers and merchants or court advisors, we were mostly artisans, farmer-peasants and other manual laborers. Many, including Jews, speak of Jewish history as the history of usurers and court Jews with maybe a few passing mentions of the ghettos and shetls. The Jewish peoples are falsely presented as victimized exploiters. While banking, business and politics are a part of the Jewish story it is a minor part of that story. In actuality Jews were a small minority group employed in every occupation in the ancient and feudal world just like today. Jews often lived quite comfortably with their Christian and Muslim neighbors during times of stability. Many German Jews were successfully integrated into gentile society before the Nazis and Ha Shoah, and some were so assimilated their children and grandchildren were raised as Christians. Pogroms, expulsion and discrimination against us was practically unheard of in the ancient world and were siginificant but infrequent events under feudalism. These periods of stability would not last. Abram Leon notes: “The irony of history wills that the most radical anti-Semitic ideology in all history should triumph precisely in the period when Judaism is on the road of economic and social assimilation”. Social unrest, economic crisis and war again and again would alter the fate of the Jews in antiquity, feudalism, capitalism and even Soviet socialism.
There are six major events which define the historical development of antisemitism: 1) Greco-Roman Conquest, 2) Constantinian Christianity, 3) The Crusades, 4) The Inquisitions, 5) The Rise of Fascism, 6) The creation of Israel. Antisemitism as a result is a mixture of ethnic, religious, racial, economic and political elements. Each one of these moments represents a pivotal shift in the relationship between the Jewish people and the powerful empires it has been subject to. In each of these periods, as in our own, imperialist warfare was the primary antagonism which furthers the advancement of antisemitism. Enzo Traverso says: “The Jewish genocide was first of all a product of the war. It would have been an absolutely inconceivable event without the social, political, military and even psychological context created by the war on the eastern front. Only the Second World War allowed Hitler’s visceral hatred of Jews and his anti-communism to be welded together into a total war against ‘Jewish Bolshevism’...In this perspective the extermination of the Jews was the culmination of a modern Thirty Years War, which began in 1914 with the collapse of the old dynastic balance of power among the major European powers. ‘Outsiders’ of the modern West, Jews were thus the chosen victims of this long European civil war, unleashed in the trenches of the first global conflict and completed in the ovens of Treblinka and Birkenau.” Assimilation of the Jews into gentile society prior to these events laid the ideological ground for first the conspiracy theories and then the genocides. More will be said later about these events, their relationship to the present, and the features of modern antisemitism.
So what then, explains the historical role and development of antisemitism? Any accurate explanation must confront four contradictions - 1) the popular association of money and power with the Jewish people vs. the minority presence of the Jewish people within the ruling class, 2) the attacks on Jews being justified as an attack on power vs. the victims of violent antisemitism being powerless (especially to defend themselves), 3) the anti-elite sentiment of antisemitism vs. its popularity amongst the ruling class, 4) the relative absence of antisemitism during times of prosperity and relative peace vs. its mass appeal during times of crisis and war. For instance, my father is a waiter who married a Christian, I am an unemployed college drop out and my grandparents are retired educators. What do we have to do with money and power? What did the Russian peasants and factory workers my family are descended from have to do with this mythic figure of Jewish capital? The Cossacks, like other pogromists, did not target elites but the underclass. The Nazis targeted the poor and the unfed, the permanently unemployed and the sick. If antisemitism was ever about opposing Jewish power then its victims suggest otherwise. The story of Jewish money is only relevant to the experiences of the majority of the world’s Jews when the forces of antisemitism weaponize this mythology against the masses. It is not just the Jewish masses who are harmed but the entirety of the masses. Many other oppressed peoples also are targeted by these myths, linked together in a grand conspiracy against white supremacy and capitalism. Antisemitic ideology presents itself as a war against the rich and powerful. Antisemitic practice always directs this class rage towards the masses. August Bebel called antisemitism “the socialism of fools.” Antisemitism must be understood as the ruling class manipulating the people into scapegoating the Jews for problems the ruling class is itself responsible for. At the heart of antisemitism is a sort of psychological projection but on a societal scale. How was it the Jewish workers’ (let alone the Jewish bankers’) fault Germany lost a war of inter-imperialist aggression and accrued a national debt which helped trigger a crisis? It wasn’t. But the role of the Jew in antisemitic ideology is not to accurately describe and change socioeconomic conditions but to replace class analysis with a racial, national and religious one for the benefit of the antisemite.
How do these false ideas about the Jewish peoples spread? Where do they come from? Every major period of antisemitism builds on the developments of the past but with new forms and content. One of the oldest features of antisemitism, a common feature found in the days of old Europe, Nazi Germany and the United States, is the conspiracy. It is a commonly held belief in my circle of the Jewish community that if you dig deep enough into any conspiracy theory eventually you will find the Jews. There is a sick truth to this; the Jew is the star of every conspiracy theory. Even conspiracy theories that do not mention the Jews at first eventually link back to grand conspiracies of Jewish harm to gentiles and world dominance. Whether it was the belief Jews had conspired to kill Christ, held secret pacts with Satan, had intentionally spread the bubonic plague, control the ebbs and flows of the world economy, or are conspiring against so-called western civilization itself conspiracy theories about the perceived power of the Jewish people result in real world violence. The conspiratorial instigates the antisemite into action. It provides the ideological perspective to an otherwise loose collection of bigots to organize together. Conspiracy theories about Jews inflate and exaggerate the power we have in relation to other groups. The integration of the Jewish people into most aspects of social and economic life during periods of stability and assimilation helps further confuse the masses. When individual Jews do possess power or are exploitative it’s used as evidence of the grand conspiracy which includes all Jews even those without power. A materialist analysis would instead reveal that the Jewish masses do not possess power over the nation-states and empires they live as subjects to. The Jewish bourgeoisie is a small part of the larger ruling class. They have become equals with the gentiles in the ruling class of many nations, not their superiors, after years of discriminatory and exclusionary laws to prevent the Jewish peoples from being equals. But this is beside the point. The victims of these conspiratorial politics are rarely agents or symbols of the ruling class. The power of the Jewish bourgeoisie is not the primary target of antisemitism. How else do you explain the vicious attacks on the Jewish masses who have nothing to do with banking or finance? Why are the poorest and most destitute of Jews attacked? Why artists, journalists, doctors, the faithful and activists? The precarious masses of people who do not own property and possess minimal power or influence as individuals and as a class under capitalism is presented as a powerful enemy by the fascists. If the Jewish masses are not organized in their self-defense we are at risk of annihilation if fascism is allowed to reach the stage of the final solution like it did in Nazi Germany.
Conspiracy theories aren’t mere baseless rumors. Any discussion of antisemitism must contend with the Nazi legacy. Conspiracy theories about the Jewish people are part of the organizing towards ethnic cleansing and genocide. Conspiracies about world Jewish dominance propagated by the Nazi Party were followed by the gas chamber and the concentration camp. Fascist politics is explicitly about genocide and ethnic cleansing. Fascism is itself the study and science of genocide. Hitler looked to earlier genocides as models for his own and those genociders did the same with their predecessors. Ben Kiernan said: “From the sixteenth century, many Europeans began looking to ancient precedents, even for genocide, a phenomenon that had become more frequent after European expansion accelerated in 1492. A cult of antiquity inspired those on the brink of modernity even as they took up technological innovations, including those used in mass murder.” The modern followers of Hitler and Mussolini are genocide denialists, apologists and proponents. This contradiction of “the Holocaust didn’t happen but if it did it wasn’t as destructive as they say but also the Jews deserved it” is nothing else but a call and apology for genocide even in its denialism. The fascists are preparing for a “racial holy war.” These initial pogroms are only the beginning.
Ben Kiernan in his book Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide from Sparta to Darfur analyzed the shared features of different ethnic cleansings and genocides throughout history. He found that there were four major themes genociders and ethnic cleansers held in common: 1) cults of antiquity (romanticization of the past, glorification of prior empires), 2) cults of agriculture (animosity towards nonagriculturalists or “improper use of the land,” territorial nationalism), 3) racism and ethnocentrism, 4) imperialist or territorial expansionism. These features exist within a society before the genocidal event. Genocides and ethnic cleansings should be thought of as a process, which doesnt begin with but develops step-by-step into mass murder. The Nazi concentration camps were open for almost a decade before they became extermination camps. Discriminatory laws, racial propaganda and pogroms are the prehistory of the concentration camp, which is itself a prehistory of genocide. This is fascist ideology stripped down to its barest essentials and every one of these traits describes what the United States of America and Europe have been doing for centuries. Their histories are fraught with colonial exploitation, slavery, imperialist warfare and genocide. These nation states are fertile grounds for fascist recruitment.
These are concerning times. Constant lone terror attacks by white supremacists, paramilitaries working directly with the state as security, state run concentration camps, governments including or even being run by white nationalists, never ending wars, climate catastrophe, blood and soil nationalism, and a failing neoliberal economic order are all contributing to a death march. If fascism and antisemitism have been surging in popularity as of late it is because the ingredients for both have been in the culture of European and American empire this entire time and the present conditions are bringing it to a boil. With a long history of genocide, race science, slavery, conspiratorial thinking and war is it a surprise so many people in Europe and America are calling for genocide today? The popularity of fascist parties such as Alternative for Deutschland in Germany, the occupation of Kashmir by the Hindutva fascist government, the Turkish military preparing for genocide against the Kurds, and the violence of paramilitaries like Atomwaffen Division in North America suggest a terrifying possibility: a new Axis Powers much larger than the last, and a new international fascist bloc. A 21st century fascism at the stage of open genocide would have the capacity to kill at an industrial scale that is historically unimaginable. The Nazi genocide will look simplistic and technologically archaic in comparison. Repression of critical journalism, political dissent, labor, environmental protectors, civil rights and human rights organizations will intensify globally, this has already been the norm. All of this will be disastrous for the people of the world, the masses. This is why fascism must be combatted. We must closely study the historical background to our present condition in order to understand why the Jewish Question has once again become relevant to so many nations and what its relationship to the Migrant Question, the Muslim Question, the Palestinian Question and so many others is in modern fascist politics. We must weaponize our intellect for the antifascist struggle and hone our craft to address these emerging conditions. This must start with a historical and modern understanding of our enemies.
HISTORICIZING ANTISEMITISM [needs more research]
The Ancient World
What was the political context for the development of antisemitism in the ancient world? The defining characteristic of antisemitism during antiquity was ethnic and religious. It was the result of conflict between the Jewish people and early states and empires. The Jewish peoples had been conquered by rival nations and pushed into diaspora many times in the ancient world. The Jews themselves conquered land and resources like many other early protonations. These early warring states and empires, organized around ethnic and religious lines were often brutal in their relationship with the Jewish peoples. The Greek ruling class for instance resented the Jewish people for their great deal of autonomy as subjects and citizens within the Roman Empire. But it was not until the Alexandrian riots of 38 CE that hostility and rivalry with Jews began to develop into a violent mass ideology; the people of Greece targeted their violent rage at the Jewish community as a whole. The Alexandrian riots was the first pogrom ever committed in recorded human history and it was against the Jewish people, who had been accused of not being loyal to the emperor and being “too numerous”. This accusation of disloyalty will also be a consistent theme in the history of antisemitism. Jews and Gentiles in the Ancient World notes:
“[T]his riot illustrates a typical pattern of ancient massacres of Jews: first, long-standing resentment at the privileged position and influence of the Jews, whether political or economic; second and more immediate, the accusation that the Jews were unpatriotic, inasmuch as they refused to participate in the state cults, which, like a flag, united all the diverse peoples of the empire; third, the rousing of the passions of the mob by professional agitators (though this is perhaps exceptional); and fourth, the intervention of the government to preserve order while blaming the Jews for causing the riot.” pg. 114
“Not long after this incident, the Alexandrian Jews sent a delegation, headed by Philo, to the Emperor Caligula in Rome to ask him to reassert the traditional Jewish rights granted by the Ptolemies and confirmed by Julius Caesar and Augustus (Josephus, Ant. 18.257–60). The opponents of the Jews likewise sent a delegation, headed by the grammarian and intellectual Apion. Here the “Jewish question,” for the first time in history, was discussed before a high tribunal. Apion’s argument was that the Jews were unpatriotic because they did not pay the honors due to the emperor. Philo, in his treatise Legatio ad Gaium, describes the ridicule that the emperor poured on the Jewish delegation; nevertheless, Caligula did not harm the Jewish delegation but merely dismissed them with a joke” pg. 96
Sentiments we would observe to be antisemitic in a modern context certainly existed before this point but it is at this moment that we first see the pattern of anti Jewish violence develop. The Alexandrian pogrom represented the first step towards the eventual realization of Auschwitz. The historical precursors to blood and soil nationalism, accusations of disloyalty, anger at the position of the Jewish ruling class but expulsion and violence targeted at the Jewish masses, the mass quality of fascism led by agitating forces that we would later see utilized by the Nazis are all present in this first pogrom.
The confines of the Roman Empire is where we first see this second pattern, this contradiction of the Jewish condition: assimilation as a precursor to differentiation, discrimination, and violence. Jews like the historian Josephus had taken on Latin names much like earlier generations of Hellenistic Jews did with Greek names. Jews would enjoy a unique status of autonomy within the empire and be allowed to proselytize, own property and do business. But this would inspire ire in the ruling classes of Roman society and Jews were expelled from Rome in 19 CE. That same year Germanicus during a visit to Egypt would not include Jews in his distribution of grain - punishing the whole Jewish masses for the alleged financial crimes of a few Jewish merchants in Rome. But the emperor Tiberius would reverse this expulsion in 31 CE and the emperor Claudius would reaffirm the civic rights of Jews in an edict in 41 CE. Petitions to remove the rights of Jews would be written after the Jewish Wars of 66-67 but these would be refused by successive emperors and despite brief periods of laws restricting Jewish practice (such as circumcision) and proselytizing, Jews would continue to enjoy a protected status as Roman subjects after the antisemitic violence of the 38 CE pogrom. Here we see a period of assimilation resulting in violence, leading to a renewed period of assimilation which would later itself degrade into discrimination and violence.
Jews had legal protections but not economic protections. Unlike modern antisemitism which conflates the Jewish peoples with wealth the Jewish subjects of ancient Rome were conflated with beggars. The breakdown of the patronage system, the rise of an absentee landlord class, drought and famine, debt and the opulence of the governors, aristocratic and high priest classes all contributed to a widening division between rich and poor in Judea and the surrounding areas. In the decades following the Alexandrian pogrom Jews would repeatedly revolt against Roman rule and the ruling class. Debt registers were burned, the houses of the wealthy priests would be attacked, and Roman collaborators, Jewish or not, assassinated in the streets. These revolts started amongst the Jewish peasantry but spread to and were dominated by the urban populace and often led by popular prophets. Widespread discontent led to the creation of radical movements such as the Zealots and the first cloak-and-dagger assassin organization the Sicarii. Jewish-Roman Wars and the Bar Kokhba Revolt were not only struggles for political independence but a genuine movement of the masses against empire and exploitation. Rome ruled indirectly, selecting representatives of the native population to govern and so the revolts focused not only on Rome but the selected high priest and aristocratic elite who ruled in the interests of Rome. The Roman example, while not the mature ideology of antisemitism we see later in history, provides the first glimpse of a contradiction - the dual character of Jews as an impoverished mass and Jews as an exploitative merchant people by those exploiting and killing the Jewish masses. Despite this antisemitism wasn’t a frequent or significant feature of antiquity. Its presence shows up late and is the exception to the norm of Jewish integration and protection in the empires they lived in during that time. The forces of antisemitism certainly existed but had yet to muster the strength they would later gain.
“For this reason we also constantly thank God that when you received the word of God which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but for what it really is, the word of God, which also performs its work in you who believe. For you, brethren, became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea, for you also endured the same sufferings at the hands of your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews, who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove us out. They are not pleasing to God, but hostile to all men, hindering us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved; with the result that they always fill up the measure of their sins. But wrath has come upon them to the utmost.” - Apostle Paul, Thessalonians 2:14-16.
Christianity originally began as a persecuted Jewish heretical sect. It would transform into the preferred cult of the Roman Empire. But because of the many laws of the Torah that would hinder mass proselytizing and conversions (such as requirements for circumcision) of gentiles the Apostle Paul had to make clear those Halakhic laws only applied to the non-Christian Jewish peoples, that covenant was only made between the Jews and G-d. An even stronger distinction between Judaism and Christianity developed where previously the lines were more blurred. This created conditions favorable for its mass appeal and eventual adoption by Constantine. The transition of Christianity from a persecuted minority religion to the state religion of Rome transformed its relationship to empire. The vision of Christ as the messiah of a people’s religion, a faith that uplifted the poor and opposed the powerful, died and was resurrected as the religion of conquerors. Constantine would pass a litany of laws targeting the Jewish people: prohibition of rest on Saturday, prohibition of mixed marriages, and conversion from Christianity to Judaism punishable by death. He is quoted as saying:
"It was, in the first place, declared improper to follow the custom of the Jews in the celebration of this holy festival, because, their hands having been stained with crime, the minds of these wretched men are necessarily blinded. ... Let us, then, have nothing in common with the Jews, who are our adversaries. ... Let us ... studiously avoiding all contact with that evil way. ... For how can they entertain right views on any point who, after having compassed the death of the Lord, being out of their minds, are guided not by sound reason, but by an unrestrained passion, wherever their innate madness carries them. ... lest your pure minds should appear to share in the customs of a people so utterly depraved. ... Therefore, this irregularity must be corrected, in order that we may no more have anything in common with those parricides and the murderers of our Lord. ... no single point in common with the perjury of the Jews."
This began a long antagonistic relationship between Christianity and the Jewish people. The existence of the Jews threatens the legitimacy of Christianity’s theological justifications for power. Jews are a contradiction within Christian empire. We are both nonbelievers who will not be saved and the religion the Christian messiah and his followers believed . Our presence suggests the theological basis for Christian hegemony is contested. Jews were seen as a rival competitor faith whose belief that Jesus did not meet the standards for the Messiah, and the Messiah had yet to come was dangerous. Christianity claimed to be the true inheritors and children of Israel which makes the existence of the Jewish people inconvenient. Roman colonization and imperialism meets a rival religion and its result is religious antagonism and oppression. This ethnoreligious persecution wouldn’t stop with the Protestant Reformation which despite its supposed glories did not change much the church’s perspective on Jews. Protestantism continued the Catholic tradition of oppressing the Jewish people as it inherited the empires once under the authority of the pope and the longstanding religious antagonism between the Christians and the Jewish people, Christians and nonbelievers. Martin Luther who infamously penned the book beloved by the Nazi Party, “On the Jews and Their Lies,” called for Christians to:
burn down Jewish synagogues and schools and warn people against them
refuse to let Jews own houses among Christians
take away Jewish religious writings
forbid rabbis from preaching
offer no protection to Jews on highways
for usury to be prohibited and for all Jews' silver and gold to be removed, put aside for safekeeping, and given back to Jews who truly convert
to give young, strong Jews flail, axe, spade, and spindle, and let them earn their bread in the sweat of their brow
Despite these antagonisms it should be reiterated that Christians and the Jewish peoples would live beside one another with minimal conflict during lengthy periods of relative stability. With the decline of Roman hegemony Christianity and political-economic authority in general would become more decentralized and fragmented in Europe. The diaspora from Judea, while uneven and incomplete as many Jews continued to live there well into the 20th century, would destroy the protonation. The conflicts of antiquity would change their character as Jews being stateless meant they weren’t often the subject of the feuds that would define the early warring European Christian states. Jews had also become integrated in every aspect of social and economic life as they did during earlier Greek and Roman occupation. This assimilation wasn’t total or fully even, Abram Leon notes: “two contradictory tendencies which have characterized Jewish life; the tendency to integration in the surrounding society and the tendency to isolation, deriving from the socioeconomic situation of Judaism.” Many Jews retained their kinship structures, religious and cultural practices even as we became fishermen, peasants, and craftsmen in gentile societies. The small Jewish merchant class also tended to serve as a bridge between the so-called East and West, further differentiating the Jewish peoples as “foreign”. Differences between Christians and Jews certainly existed but rarely did this prevent the Jewish people from being part of normative society. But another recurrent contradiction in Jewish life is that assimilation produces a feeling of difference and hostility amongst our hosts, and this has been tied to times of conflict and war.
[People’s Crusades, Rhineland Massacre, Pogrom of 1189, 1190, Crusades, English Edict of Explusion 1290, imperialism, feudal Antisemitism, Muslim Antisemitism]
[conspiracy theories] Jews have been accused of many crimes by Christian Europe. They say we killed Christ their Messiah. They also say we’ve held secret pacts with Satan and engaged in witchcraft. Jews were accused by Christians of killing Christian children for use in blood magic, most notably for their blood to be baked into matzvah, this is otherwise known as blood libel. Other feudal myths about the Jewish people were that we poisoned wells and were responsible for the bubonic plague. Whatever misfortune that fell upon Christians was blamed on the Jewish people.
[Inquisition, racial Antisemitism]
Essay Notes, (((The Conspiracy))): A Political Economy of Antisemitism, Crisis and the Socialism of Fools:
Goals: to answer the questions of “how did nazism take hold in America?” and “how does Antisemitism function? Why is it resurging now after decades of assimilation? Aren’t Jews white? Why are they still the focus of white supremacists?”
Further research: Material, Social and Ideological Preconditions for the Nazi Genocide, Marxism and the Jewish Question
Doykeit (hereness), goyim naches (games goyim play), tikkun olam, tzedek, golem
The irrational + conspiratorial thinking as idealism, personification of abstract capital + the crisis in the class relation (Jewish capitalist/communist dialectic in antisemitic thought), biologization of class society’s contradictions, Antisemitism as related to economic crisis + socioeconomic assimilation, the figure of Jewish capital as a red herring (do the professionals, poor and peasants care about these false narratives of moneylenders when they’re being targeted and killed?), “socialism of fools” Antisemitism as both mystified anti capitalism and revolutionary anticommunism, Jews as the foreigner within vs the contested whiteness of Jews, banality of evil
Solution: an international working class antifascism, a mass movement, multiracial alliance
Historical Antisemitism: Christian origin of Antisemitism, Crusades, Inquisition, pacts with the devil, poisoning wells, murdering Christian children, blood rituals, expulsion, pogorms, Martin Luther, Protocols of Zion/world domination, Judeo-Bolshevikism, Ha Shoah, Illuminati, Reptillians, poor conditions of Holocaust survivors after liberation (by Patton, American politicians + immigration, and Nazis) and Israel (poverty, lack of medical care and housing)
Resurgence of Antisemitism in the 21st century - Brevik, France, Poland, Austria, Ukraine,
West German nazis in power after WWII
Antisemitism in America: General Order #1 (Civil War), Leo Frank, "The foreign born, and especially Jews, are more apt to malinger than the native-born” us army manual, Farmer-Labor Party, Hollywood: Warner-Brothers, Charles Lindbergh, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Walt Disney; Henry Ford, General Motors, Alcoa, JP Morgan, IBM, IT&T, Kodak, Coca-Cola, Associated Press, General Electric, Dow Chemical, Woolworth, Random House Publishing, Chase and Morgan, Bank for International Settlements, Union Banking Corporation, Prescott Bush, Rockefellers, Koch Brothers dad, German American Bund/American Nazi Party at Madison Square, the Red Scare and anticommunism, Execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, Richard Nixon, George HW Bush, Rev. Charles Coughlin, WWII anti Jewish pogrom in Boston(?), turning away of Jewish refugees, Operation Paper Clip, nazi spies for the CIA moving to America, John Birch Society, “Antisemitic violence in this era includes the 1977 shootings at Brith Sholom Kneseth Israel synagogue in St. Louis, Missouri, the 1984 murder of Alan Berg, the 1985 Goldmark Murders, and the 1986 Murder of Neal Rosenblum”, David Duke and others (Aryan Brotherhood, etc), The Family(?), satanic panic, Richard Spencer “heil Trump!”, Steve Bannon, Steve Miller, Aalex Jones/911 trutherism, Charlottesville, synagogue shootings, hate crimes against Jews, Rockland County Republican Party video, Atomwaffen Division, John McCain meeting Ukrainian neo nazi, Richard Halprin
Milo Yiannopolous/kapos, Jews in the Italian fascist party
Class composition of Jews in America, specific industries (media, finance, business, education, law, medicine, politics) - people’s history of Jews and Judaism
The figure of the Jewish huckster is an ideological construction mystifying the reality of class relations; Contradictions of class society resolved through pogroms, fascism as a cultural-economic reconstruction of society in the face of crisis
Biologization of the contradictions of Capital (that’s what race is) - Jews as the crisis in the class relation (presented as both the capitalist bourgeoisie and the proletarian communist)
Fascism as a return to feudalism, “blood and soil” nationalism
Antisemitism as both mystified anticapitalism and violent anticommunism
Antisemitism’s relationship to nativism/anti-immigrant sentiment (turning away of refugees, discrimination against immigrants, desire to keep land pure, scapegoated for economic crises and contradictions of capital, detainment by brown shirts, targets are largely working class, genocidal sentiment arising in America - see Sherrif Arpaio’s concentration camps “trump likes the way you think” to Sasha baron cohen ) Orientalism (Capitalist competitor/communist dialectic, biologization of capital, associations with mathematics, finance and business, assimiable immigrant group, paranoia about world dominance, Japanese and Asian American concentration camps in America, partially assimilable through economic mobility, model minority myth, pressures towards cosmetic facial reconstruction surgeries) Imperialism + settler colonialism (German concentration camps in Namibia as precursor to Ha Shoah, Nazi Germany studying colonial and imperialist genocides and ethnic cleansings including America, Manifest Destiny vs Liebenstraum, Frantz Fanon “fascism is the violence of the colonies returning to the metropole” reactionary soldiers returning from imperialist wars (like Vietnam) and bringing that racial violence with them home, war as a precursor to antisemitic politics), antiziganism, anti blackness (Fanon “The Antisemite is also a negrophobe” racial violence, ghettoization, SATs/eugenics, Black victims in the Holocaust, “protection of children”) // racial propaganda exaggerating ethnic features, History of pogorms and racial violence and exploitation, attacks on religious institutions, race science and eugenics, imperialism and war, economic expansion/crisis dialectic, linked in a grand conspiracy, scapegoating, diaspora, glorification of a mythical past/empire // disability (impurity of the body and the nation, associated with disease), homosexuality (rootless cosmopolitans, primarily urban, associated with wealth and decadence, moral degeneracy, destructive to the nuclear family, impurity of the body and nation, kept in camps after WWII, “protection of children,” accusations of pedophilia)
‘Body Politic’ under fascism as related to gender and sexuality, biological narratives
Jewish assimilation into whiteness/class as precursor to resurgence of Antisemitism (bring up Judah Benjamin and Jerry Seinfeld as a counterpoint to the idea that only ashkenazism are white), James Baldwin’s Negroes Are Antisemitic Because They’re Antiwhite, Aryan child model that was actually Jewish and the Nazis didn’t know
The role of debt?
The relationship between Israel and modern Antisemitism - Transfer Agreement, the Revisionists and Mussolini, Netanyahu’s relationship to Poland, Ukraine, the Philippines, fascist support for Zionism (e.g. Richard Spencer), Yair Netanyahu sharing Soros meme, Christian Zionism
The banality of evil
Conspiracies have been very prevalent in American culture for decades. Much of the population is superstitious and engage both playfully and seriously with the irrational or the supernatural. Many had already believed in grand narratives of shadowy forces pulling the strings behind the scenes. American culture across normative political divides glorifies a mythical past in service of a corrupt present. Large sections of the population was already hostile to labor and immigrants. Terror was always the cross generational experience of America’s conquered and formerly enslaved peoples. The longest running concentration camps in the world can be found within our borders. They’re commonly referred to as reservations. Antisemitism is not an unusual feature of American life.
For other essay, will rewrite: the society which continues to do these things is a dying society, a species which continues to do these things is a dying species. The prehistory of this extinction first begins with mass industrial production, and its development can be found even earlier in the first slave and feudal societies. But the future is not set in stone. This is not destiny. The unification of man is possible.
The problem: Resurgence of Antisemitism in 21st Century
What is the state of Antisemitism today?
Why has Antisemitism been experiencing a resurgence?
Clarifying and historicizing Antisemitism - the necessity of a left wing critique
Right wing dominance over the definition of Antisemitism, the problem with idealism
Jews are not one people but many (judaisms) - very, very brief history of the Jewish people, Jews as a people-class
Antisemitism hasn’t always existed it is a historical phenomenon arising from the conditions of feudal Europe, crisis
The Conspiracy, Assimilation, the socialism of fools, War and Empire
The four features of genocide and ethnic cleansing (blood and soil Ben Kieran) + relationship to fascist ideology
International political dominance by fascist parties and paramilitaries
Repression of dissent, labor and civil and human rights organizations
Worsening social and economic conditions for the wretched of the earth
Waves of pogroms, Genocide and ethnic cleansing on an unimaginable historical scale
Roman occupation of Judea, 38 pogorm
Christian, feudalist development of antisemitism, Martin Luther
Killing of Christ, Pacts with the Devil, witchcraft, blood libel + accusations of murder of Christians especially children, vampire myth?
Poisoning wells, spreading disease
Expulsion, confiscation of property, fines, forced conversions, exclusion from normative economy and pogroms
Crusades and the Inquisition
Scientific Racism, Kevin MacDonald (evolutionary psychology)
Orientalisation of Jews
Jews as an enemy race
American eugenics and nazi race ideology
Evolutionary psychology affirming Kevin MacDonald’s “evolutionary” hypothesis
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Illuminati, Reptilians, dual loyalty, holocaust denial, double holocaust theory
Judeo-Bolshevikism, Cultural Marxism, Rothschilds and Soros, contradiction in the class relation (use antisemitic Bakunin quote to make this point clear)
French Revolution Antisemitism, Dreyfus affair
Ha Shoah (mention mizrahi, Black, Romani, disabled, gay, communist victims), German Nazis in power in West Germany after WWII, Alternative for Deutschland, Halle synagogue shooting, double holocaust theory and holocaust denial in nazi collaborationist states, COVID-19
Hate crimes and neo nazi organizations in Europe, class composition and demographics of Jews in Europe
Black and Arab Antisemitism, why white supremacist Antisemitism is more significant
Marcus Garvey, Nation of Islam collaborating with nazis, refuting the Jewish financed slavery myth but affirming that yes some Jews did own slaves, agreeing with James Baldwin’s essay and how to overthrow the Illuminati, why Black Antisemitism is insignificant compared to white Antisemitism, Black Antisemitism has never resulted in a holocaust but Jewish community police officers kill Black people in New York and Israel, Black Antisemitism is misplaced class rage
Arab Antisemitism arises as a result of WWII nationalism in response to Zionism, nazi collaborationism, pogroms, arab antisemitism has a political dimension but like other forms of antisemitism targets the masses and not the actual power, Arab Antisemitism has never resulted in a holocaust but Israel has concentration camps of Arabs
The Doctor’s Plot, trying the Jewish Antifascist League
The conspiracy, antisemitism appearing during times of war and crisis
Antisemitism has increased after the fall of communism in former communist states
Fascism, assimilation, crisis, socialism of fools, banality of evil
Jewish assimilation (which includes poverty) as precursor to fascist ideology, note the fact that Jews were largely migrants during the time of the Nazis
Colonization (Namibia, concentration camps) and imperialist war (World War I) as precursor to fascist ideology in Germany, liebenstraum
Economic crisis as precursor to fascist ideology in Germany, socialism of fools
Conspiracies about Jews
Blood and soil nationalism, Biologization of the contradictions of class society
Christian basis in nazi ideology: Martin Luther
Initial pogroms and discriminatory laws, detention and forced labor long before death camps
Political economy of nazi Germany (privatization), including the concentration camps, the role of business, finance, the media and the petite bourgeoisie
Concentration camps as counterinsurgency, targeted communists (“First they came”) and other liberationists
4 features of ethnic cleansing and genocide (Ben Kiernan Blood and Soil)
“Good Germans”, Banality of evil
Fascist ideology / practice (the study and science of ethnic cleansing)
Fascism is a counter revolution against liberal capitalist democracy and communization
Death cult (mystical, fantastical, irrational, fight between good and evil)
Fascism emerges from certain conditions (crisis, war, genocide, race science), progresses towards but doesn’t begin with extermination
Fascism is a reconstitution of the economic base and superstructure, therefore is a process that develops over time instead of an event
Antisemitism in the United States
Civil War General Order #1
Exclusion from education
American Nazi Collaborators
American Nazis during/after WWII
German American Bund, Rev. Charles Coughlin
George Rockwell/American Nazi Party
James Mason “siege”
David Duke and the KKK
Richard Spencer, Matthew Heimbach, Proud Boys, Patriot Front, American Identity Movement, Steve Bannon, Steve Miller, Gorka
Atomwaffen Division, The Base
Boston pogrom during WWII
America knew about the Holocaust, FDR didn’t save the Jews, mistreatment of Holocaust survivors by Patton, Operation Paperclip, George HW Bush + Richard Nixon Antisemitism
Red Scare Antisemitism, John Birch Society
Satanic Panic, 9/11 Conspiracies, Rockland County Republican Party video
Militia movement Antisemitism, Charlottesville, COVID-19, Hate crimes and neo nazi organizations in America (incl. Leo Frank, Richard Halprin), Modern Neo nazi collaborationism, class composition and demographics of Jews in America
Fascism, assimilation, crisis, socialism of fools, banality of evil, surplus populations
This is Not Surprising: America is conspiratorial, skeptical of science and formal institutions, very Christian, very patriarchal, blood and soil nationalism, history of eugenics and race science, slavery, genocide and nativism, Jews have largely assimilated, a settler colony, imperialist, has a large immigrant population, experiencing a crisis, experiencing a resurgence of radical left politics, wave of pogroms, “good Americans”, herrenvolk democracy, the Nazis learned from America
4 features of ethnic cleansing and genocide (Ben Kiernan Blood and Soil)
The Relationship of Zionism and Israel to Antisemitism
Belfour, Churchill, United States
Revisionists and Mussolini, Kahanists
Poverty of Holocaust survivors in israel
Netanyahu and the world (Ukraine, Poland, the Philippines, etc), Yair’s Soros meme/“BLM is a bigger threat to Jews than white supremacists”
Negation of the Diaspora
4 features of ethnic cleansing and genocide (Ben Kiernan Blood and Soil)
Zionism is in alliance with the enemies of the Jewish masses
The Relationship Between Antisemitism and Other Oppressions
The so-called uniqueness of Antisemitism
Perception of Jewish power
Not unique: biologization of the class relations of Capital, racial division of labor, biologization of the crisis in the class relation, people-class
Jewish Racism and Assimilation
American Jewish racism towards Black people
American Jewish racism towards Arab people
Israeli colonization of Palestine
4 features of ethnic cleansing and genocide (Ben Kiernan Blood and Soil)
Israeli racism towards African immigrants
Israeli racism towards mizrahim and other ethnic Jews
Turning Away of Refugees
Containment / concentration camps
Associations with disease and vermin in popular discourse
Blood and soil nationalism
Relationship between nativism and orientalism, orientalism and imperialism
Edward Said “orientalism is like Antisemitism”
Capitalist competitor/wrecker dialectic expressed in racial terms
Paranoia about world dominance
Model minority myth, assimilable immigrant group
Imperialism and Settler Colonialism
Frantz Fanon “fascism is the violence of the colonies returning to the metropole” reactionary soldiers returning from imperialist wars (like Vietnam) and bringing that racial violence with them home
John Toland, Pulitzer Prize winning author, in his book Adolf Hitler (pg. 202) wrote: “Hitler’s concept of concentration camps as well as the practicality of genocide owed much, so he claimed, to his studies of English and United States history. He admired the camps for Boer prisoners in South Africa and for the Indians in the wild west; and often praised to his inner circle the efficiency of America’s extermination—by starvation and uneven combat—of the red savages who could not be tamed by captivity.”
“The United States policy of westward expansion,” as Norman Rich forcefully concludes, for example, “in the course of which the white men ruthlessly thrust aside the ‘inferior’ indigenous populations, served as the model for Hitler’s entire conception of Lebensraum.”
War and empire as precursor to Antisemitism
In America (Israel, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, etc) the metropole and the colony is the same
German concentration camps in Namibia (settler colonialism, genocide), World War I (imperialism) as precursor to Ha Shoah vs Concentration camps in United States (settler colonialism, genocide), Numerous wars (imperialism)
Nazis studied American and European imperialism and settler colonialism
Manifest Destiny vs Liebenstraum
Fanon “The Antisemite is also a negrophobe”
Pogroms, The so-called protection of women and children in racial violence
Ghettoization, Containment / concentration camps, Prison camp slave labor
Black people in the Holocaust
Police sympathy for fascists
WEB Du Bois’s Warsaw Ghetto essay
The foreigner within, diasporic
Associations with thievery, “jewed” vs “gyped”
Roma in the Holocaust
Modern anti Roma politics
Pogroms, racial violence and discrimination
Attacks on religious institutions
Eugenics, purity of the body and of the nation
Associations with disease and the health of the nation-state
Disabled people in the holocaust
Repression of Magnus Hirschfeld’s research
LGBT people in nazi concentration camps
LGBT people associated with wealth and decadence, moral degeneracy, primarily urban and rootless cosmopolitans
Abuse of women
Nazism and the family, lgbt people as destructive to the family, Jews as queerly gendered, so-called protection of children
Homophobia, misogyny and transmisogyny in white nationalist ideology
Purity of the body and the nation, eugenics
LGBT people kept in camps after WWII
Repression of Labor
Antipeople politics and fascism
Night of the Long Knives, “left wing” elements suppressed from the Nazi party
Labor and communists and socialists in the Holocaust
Anticommunism and Antisemitism
Linked in a grand conspiracy
People-class. Herrenvolk democracy, racial/etc division of labor
The Question/Final Solution
4 features of ethnic cleansing and genocide (Blood and Soil Ben Kiernan)
The role of discriminatory laws, racial propaganda, paramilitary-state relations, conspiracy theories, the media and communication technologies, the military and police (America is an internally militarized state, imperialism, returning soldiers), class collaborationism
Fascism, assimilation, crisis, socialism of fools, banality of evil, surplus populations, when the many contradictions of a society converge into a massive crisis the most reactionary forces of that society intensify in strength. While this trend did not begin with capitalism it is undeniably tied to its decay
The stakes / The problem: increased hate crimes, fascism is popular again, genocide is imminent/convergent conditions of crisis, herrenvolk democracy, liberal capitalism and class society has doomed Jews towards repeated cycles of near extinctions, the inherent contradictions of the capitalist mode of production necessarily leads to periods of inevitable crisis and therefore a resurgence in antisemitic attitudes and fascist genocidal fervor, the European settler colony of Israel is aligned with the enemies of the Jewish masses + can’t trust them or the other nation-states to protect us, our fate is intertwined with everyone else’s, this time we might not survive
The solution: an international working class mass movement against fascism, capitalism, settler colonialism and imperialism, a unification of the Jewish masses against racial supremacy and class exploitation, people’s mutual self-defense, dual power/networks of mutual aid that can sustain a prolonged general strike by the masses, solidarity with all the oppressed against the mutual forces which exploit and terrorize us, doikayt (Yiddish for “hereness,” opposed to nationalist conceptions of Jewishness), Proudly disloyal to every political party and every nation. This Jew is only loyal to the people of the world.
Ideology (belief) / Politics (action, interaction) / Organization (the form)
Them: Ideology (fascism, capitalism, semi-feudalism - fascism is the alliance of the petite bourgeoisie, finance and monopoly capital, business, the military-police state, compradors led by professional agitators, a reactionary vanguard) / Politics (genocide, enslavement, militarism, repression of labor) / Organization (parliamentary, paramilitary, lone attackers, online affinity groups): Antisemitism
Us: Ideology (antifascism, anti imperialism, communism) / Politics (mutual self defense / Organization (mass movement, people’s army): resistance to Antisemitism
antagonisms: assimilation, war, crisis
imperialism -> diaspora -> antisemitism-> assimilation -> imperialism -> crisis -> diaspora -> antisemitism -> assimilation -> crisis