An extensive chronology of the life and activities of notorious Lithuanian-American anarchist, Emma Goldman.
The research involved in locating relatively rare source material for tracking and recording a full list of Goldman's speaking engagements (sometimes numbering over three hundred in a year), and determining which of her scheduled lectures were barred by the police, was daunting. For these, and other events in her life, the Project editors relied primarily on the sometimes flawed recollections in Goldman's autobiography, reports from Mother Earth magazine, her chronicle of her experiences in Russia, letters and government documents in the collection, and various secondary historical sources. Despite the generally inconsistent reporting in the mainstream press about controversial anarchists, newspaper accounts of Goldman's lectures were a crucial resource for the identification of dates and places of, as well as the character of the public response to, Goldman's lectures. Though inevitably incomplete, the chronology will facilitate effective use of this immense collection.
Emma Goldman born to Taube Bienowitch and Abraham Goldman in Kovno (present-day Kaunas), Lithuania, then a province of the Russian Empire. Siblings include step-sisters Helena (b. 1860) and Lena (b. 1862) Zodikow, and brothers Louis (b. 1870), Herman (b. 1872), and Morris (b. 1879, identified as "Yegor" in Goldman's autobiography, Living My Life). Goldman's girlhood and adolescence spent in Kovno, Popelan, Königsberg, and St. Petersburg.
Alexander (Sasha) Berkman born in Vilna, Russia (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania).
Czar Alexander II assassinated by Nihilists in St. Petersburg.
Goldman immigrates to the United States with her sister Helena; they settle in Rochester, N.Y., with their sister Lena.
Goldman finds employment as a garment worker.
On May 1, three hundred thousand workers throughout the country strike for the eight-hour workday. On May 4 in Chicago's Haymarket Square during a workers' protest of police violence the day before, a bomb is thrown that results in the deaths of seven police officers. Although the identity of the bomb-thrower is never determined, prominent anarchists and organizers of the event are held responsible and sentenced to death. Goldman attributes her political awakening to German socialist Johanna Greie's eloquent defense of the innocence of the Haymarket anarchists at a Rochester lecture during the Haymarket trial. During this period, Goldman begins to read anarchist literature on a regular basis, including German anarchist Johann Most's paper Die Freiheit.
The other members of Goldman's family emigrate from St. Petersburg to Rochester.
Marries fellow factory worker Jacob A. Kersner, gaining U.S. citizenship.
Execution of four Chicago anarchists found guilty in the Haymarket Square bombing elicits international outcry.
Goldman divorces Kersner and leaves Rochester. Moves to New Haven, Conn., where she works at a corset factory. Meets many Russian socialists and anarchists, including Dr. Hillel Solotaroff who, during visits from New York, lectures in New Haven.
Goldman returns to Rochester where she lives with her sister Helena's family and works in a sewing factory. Under pressure, she agrees to remarry Kersner; after a brief reconciliation, Goldman is shunned by her parents and the Jewish community of Rochester for her insistence on finalizing the divorce.
Goldman arrives in New York City on Aug. 15; meets Johann Most, editor of Die Freiheit, and Alexander Berkman; gains employment doing piece work for a silk waist factory. Goldman's political activities include support work at the office of Die Freiheit, and help with the organization of the second anniversary commemoration of the hanging of the Haymarket martyrs.
Goldman and Berkman become lovers. She shares an apartment with Berkman, his cousin Modest Stein, and their mutual friend Helen Minkin.
Berkman and Goldman contemplate returning to Russia when they hear about political repression there, but lack the necessary financial resources.
Johann Most arranges Goldman's first public lecture tour to Rochester, Buffalo, and Cleveland to speak on the limitations of the eight-hour movement. In the course of her tour, Goldman demonstrates her talents as an orator and realizes the need to articulate her political beliefs independently; her growing autonomy causes tensions with Most.
Goldman presents a series of lectures in New York City and Newark, N.J., on subjects ranging from the "Paris Commune, 1871," to "The Right To Be Lazy," and on Most's Pittsburgh Manifesto of 1883, sponsored primarily by the International Working People's Association, and delivered in German and in Yiddish.
Goldman works tirelessly to recruit women workers to join the cloakmakers strike, organized by Jewish labor leader Joseph Barondess that begins in February.
Goldman becomes ill and is forced to spend several weeks convalescing. During this period she has a brief affair with Modest Stein.
Accompanies Johann Most on his two-week lecture tour of New England.
To earn enough money to return to Russia and respond to the political repression there, Goldman moves briefly with comrades, including Berkman, to New Haven, with plans to start a dressmaking cooperative. Until they build a clientele, Goldman works temporarily at the corset factory where she had worked in 1888. Berkman gains employment in the printing trade.
Goldman helps to organize an anarchist educational and social group in New Haven that becomes a gathering place for German, Russian, and Jewish immigrants; among their invited speakers are Johann Most and Hillel Solotaroff, a leader of the anarchist group Pioneers of Liberty.
When the members of Goldman's dressmaking cooperative fall ill or move away, Goldman and Berkman move back to New York where they begin to attend meetings of the Autonomie group, led by Most's chief contender, Josef Peukert.
Goldman lectures in Elizabeth, N.J., and Baltimore. Her two talks in Baltimore are before the International Workingmen's Association and the Workingmen's Educational Society. She reaches both German and Eastern European Jewish immigrant communities, many of whom participate in a conference of Yiddish anarchist organizations in December.
Goldman scheduled to speak at the "Great Commune Celebration" sponsored by the International Worker's Association in New Haven.
Goldman marches with the Working Women's Society of the United Hebrew Trades in New York's May Day parade.
Goldman addresses a mass meeting to protest the second imprisonment of Johann Most at Blackwell's Island after the Supreme Court rejects the appeal of his 1887 conviction for illegal assembly and incitement to riot following the Haymarket executions.
Winter and Spring
In search of a financial base, Goldman moves to Massachusetts--first to Springfield to work in a photography studio with Modest Stein ("Fedya"), and then to Worcester, where, with Alexander Berkman, Stein and Goldman open their own studio. When the photography business fails, they open an ice-cream parlor with the renewed aim of returning to Russia to respond to the political repression under Czar Alexander III.
Anarchists disrupt the Central Labor Union's May Day celebration in Union Square, New York. In retaliation, the organizers of the celebration stop Goldman's speaking by hitching a horse to the open wagon she is using as a platform and pulling it away.
Goldman, Berkman, and Stein return to New York to respond to the lockout of employees of the Carnegie Steel Company in Homestead, Pa. On July 6, Pinkerton guards hired by plant manager Henry Clay Frick kill nine striking steel workers; Goldman and Berkman decide to avenge their deaths.
On July 23, Berkman attempts to assassinate Frick, but fails. Goldman is suspected of, but not charged with, complicity; police raid her apartment and seize her papers. Debate within the labor movement about the effectiveness of Berkman's action follows; Johann Most denounces Berkman and questions his motives. As public antagonism to Berkman's act mounts, Goldman temporarily goes into hiding.
Goldman chairs a meeting of over three hundred anarchists to discuss Berkman's act. Other speakers include Autonomie group leader Josef Peukert, Dyer D. Lum, editor of the Alarm, and Italian anarchist Saverio Merlino, an editor of Solidarity.
Berkman found guilty on all counts and sentenced to twenty-two years in prison; Goldman learns about his sentence while she is lecturing in Baltimore. Announcement prompts audience pandemonium, police action, and Goldman's consequent arrest.
Goldman visits Berkman at the Western State Penitentiary in Pittsburgh.
Goldman appears only occasionally in public to lecture. Speaks in Manhattan on Dec. 4, denouncing government anti-immigration legislation; other speakers at the event include anarchist journalist John Edelmann, Spanish anarchist Pedro Esteve, and Saverio Merlino.
During this period, Goldman meets German anarchist Robert Reitzel, editor of the Der arme Teufel.
Attends anarchist meetings, where, in late December, Goldman meets and falls in love with Austrian anarchist Edward Brady.
General financial panic deepens into one of the worst economic depressions in U.S. history.
Goldman returns temporarily to Rochester to recuperate from illness.
Governor John Peter Altgeld pardons three men found guilty of the Haymarket bombing.
The day after a riot of the unemployed on Aug. 17, Goldman addresses a public meeting, urging those in need to take bread if they are hungry. The next evening she helps lead a procession of several hundred anarchists to Union Square, where, among many other speakers, she addresses a crowd of the unemployed.
On Aug. 21, Goldman again leads a march of a thousand people to Union Square, where, speaking in German and English, she repeats her belief that workers have a right to take bread if they are hungry, and to demonstrate their needs "before the palaces of the rich"; about three thousand gather to listen. Goldman's speech is characterized by the press as "incendiary" and, over a week later, cited as the reason for her arrest.
Goldman lectures in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, on Aug. 23, before traveling to Philadelphia. While in Philadelphia, Goldman meets German anarchist Max Baginksi and American-born anarchist Voltairine de Cleyre for the first time.
Scheduled to speak to the unemployed, Goldman is arrested in Philadelphia on New York warrants charging her with incitement to riot for her Aug. 21 speech.
On Sept. 6, a New York Grand Jury indicts Goldman on three charges. She is returned from Philadelphia to New York on Sept. 9, where she is placed in confinement. On Sept. 11, pleads not guilty; released on bail Sept. 14. Benefit concert on Sept. 23 intended to raise money for Goldman's defense is a financial failure.
Goldman tried in court; defended by ex-mayor of New York A. Oakey Hall. Denies speaking the words attributed to her by police detectives who monitored her speech. Jury finds Goldman guilty of aiding and abetting an unlawful assemblage.
Goldman is sentenced to Blackwell's Island penitentiary for one year. Begins her term on Oct. 18.
In prison, Goldman is initially put in charge of the sewing shop, but soon trained to serve as a nurse in the prison hospital. Reads widely while in prison.
Benefit concert and ball held in New York City for Goldman and others imprisoned for speaking at the Aug. 21 demonstration. Voltairine de Cleyre delivers a speech, "In Defense of Emma Goldman and the Right of Expropriation."
Strike of the Pullman railroad car plant in Chicago begins on May 11; by July 3, federal troops are called in to quell the strike.
Goldman released from prison after serving ten months. She sells a report about her prison experience for $150 to the New York World, which publishes it the day after her release.
Large anarchist gathering in New York welcomes Goldman back. Among the speakers are Voltairine de Cleyre, English anarchist Charles Mowbray, and Italian anarchist Maria Roda.
Goldman scheduled to speak on "The Right of Free Speech" at a mass meeting called by the American Labor Union in Newark.
Meets with the American journalist and labor rights advocate John Swinton and his wife Orsena, who had both visited her at Blackwell's Island.
Goldman's interest in reaching more American-born citizens grows; resolves to conduct more propaganda in the English language.
Goldman speaks in Baltimore.
Moves into an apartment with Edward Brady.
Goldman begins a new campaign for the commutation of Berkman's prison sentence; works as a nurse.
Goldman speaks at a poorly attended commemoration of the Haymarket martyrs in New York; other speakers include Charles Mowbray, German anarchist and barkeeper Justus Schwab, Voltairine de Cleyre, Max Baginski, and John Edelmann, editor of the anarchist journal Solidarity.
Scheduled to speak with Charles Mowbray in West Hoboken, N.J., and Baltimore.
Goldman helps organize a benefit ball sponsored by the joint anarchist groups of New York.
Goldman lectures on strikes at a meeting in New York City.
Goldman and friends Claus Timmerman and Edward Brady open an ice-cream parlor in Brownsville, Brooklyn; within three months, the venture fails and the shop is closed.
Upon investigating the possibility of appealing Berkman's case before the Supreme Court, Goldman and others discover there are no grounds for an appeal, as Berkman made no formal objections to the judge's rulings during the proceedings. Goldman tries to convince Berkman to appeal to the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons to set aside or reduce his prison sentence and begins to solicit funds for that purpose.
Goldman sails to England under the name "Mrs. E. G. Brady" fearing that her real identity would limit her freedom to travel in Europe. Funds for her travel and a portion of living expenses are provided by Modest Stein.
Spends five-and-a-half weeks in Great Britain, where she finds a greater amount of political freedom than in the United States. During her three weeks in England, she addresses large crowds at open-air meetings in London, and meetings at Hyde Park, Whitechapel, Canning Town, Barking, and Stratford. Topics include "The Futility of Politics and Its Corrupting Influence."
On Sept. 13, Goldman appears among several other lecturers--including James Tochatti of the British anarchist journal Liberty and French anarchist Louise Michel--at an event in Finsbury. She lectures on "Political Justice in England and America," highlighting Berkman's case.
In England, meets anarchist theorists Peter Kropotkin and Errico Malatesta, among others.
German police authorities monitor Goldman's movements in London, prepared to arrest her if she enters Germany.
On Sept. 14 Goldman travels to Scotland; delivers successful lectures in Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Maybole.
By Oct. 1, Goldman travels to Vienna to begin formal training in nursing and midwifery at the Allgemeines Krankenhaus. Keeps a low profile in Vienna, as political persecution there is known to be harsh.
During this period she discovers and devours works by Friedrich Nietzsche, attends performances of Wagner operas, sees Eleonora Duse perform, and attends the lectures of Professor Karl Bruhl and Sigmund Freud.
Goldman completes her medical training in Austria; travels to Paris where she meets anarchist editor Augustin Hamon.
Back in New York, Goldman resides with Edward Brady in a German neighborhood on Eleventh Street; she rebels against Brady's periodic fits of jealousy. Earns a meager living as a midwife and nurse; witnesses the plight of many women suffering from unwanted pregnancies.
Persuades Berkman to appeal to the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons for his release from prison. Helps to launch a broad-based campaign for his case; solicits Voltairine de Cleyre's support.
Helps to arrange lectures for the English anarchist and labor leader John Turner, whose visit gives Goldman the opportunity to gain experience addressing English-speaking audiences. Goldman speaks at Turner's concluding lecture in New York on Apr. 30.
Begins to suffer from "nervous attacks" that are attributed to an inverted womb; Goldman unwilling to undergo surgery to resolve the problem.
At a demonstration in Union Square, Goldman helps to distribute a May Day anarchist manifesto written by her and a group of American-born comrades in New York.
Brady supports Goldman financially so that she can take a break from nursing to relax and begin preparations for an East Coast winter lecture series. In her leisure time, Brady tutors Goldman's reading of the works of the seventeenth-century French dramatists Racine, Corneille, and Moliere. Independently, she studies modern literature, including the novels of Emile Zola.
Bomb explodes in a religious procession in Barcelona, killing eleven people; Spanish authorities imprison over four hundred people, including anarchists, suspected of involvement in the bombing. The severity of the punishment sparks international protests.
Goldman is urged to support the free-silver campaign of presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan; she declines, considering the free-silver issue and the presidential campaign diversions from a radical agenda.
Johann Most, Goldman's former mentor, denounces her at an event in New York when she solicits funds for the commemoration of the execution of the Haymarket martyrs.
In Philadelphia, on Nov. 4, Goldman speaks at the Ladies' Liberal League about her "Experiences on Blackwell's Island." On Nov. 8, she delivers two lectures--before a mass meeting called by a Jewish group to honor the Haymarket martyrs and to raise money for Berkman, the second on "Woman's Cause" to the Young Men's Liberal League.
Goldman lectures in Baltimore and raises money for Berkman's appeal.
Following an appearance in Buffalo, Goldman lectures to enthusiastic audiences in Pittsburgh, primarily in German, and continues to raise money for the Berkman fund. Topics include "The Jews in America," "Anarchism in America," and "The Effect of the Recent Election on the Condition of the Workingmen." Her concluding lecture addresses the Haymarket Affair.
William McKinley inaugurated as president of the United States.
Goldman's lectures in Providence, R.I., include "What Is Anarchism?" and "Is It Possible to Realize Anarchism?" The audience at an open-air meeting is reportedly "spell-bound" by Goldman's message. When she attempts to speak at another open-air meeting, however, the police intervene on the grounds that she doesn't have a permit. Local socialists disavow any connection to Goldman.
Goldman speaks in Philadelphia; her lecture on "The Women in the Present and Future" is "loudly applauded." She is credited with the ability to relate anarchism to the working people of Philadelphia, thus helping to boost the movement there.
Returning to New York, Goldman undergoes an operation on her foot, requiring several months of recuperation.
Carl Nold and Henry Bauer, convicted and imprisoned for aiding Berkman's attempt to assassinate Frick, are released from the Western State Penitentiary in Pittsburgh.
Goldman's lecture on "Marriage" is published in the anarchist journal The Firebrand.
Anarchist Michel Angiolillo assassinates Antonio Canovas del Castillo, premier of Spain, who in May had ordered the execution of five anarchists held responsible for the bombing in Barcelona the year before. The torture and inhumane treatment of several hundred others imprisoned in connection with the bombing were widely protested throughout Europe. In New York, Goldman and others--including Italian and Spanish anarchists, and Harry Kelly, John Edelmann, Justus Schwab, and Edward Brady--had organized a demonstration in front of the Spanish consulate.
Goldman among several speakers at a meeting of one thousand people in New York celebrating Canovas's assassination.
In response to criticism from anarchists that she had glorified Canovas's murder, Goldman defends her position at a small meeting in New York.
Goldman conducts a lecture tour through eighteen cities in eastern and midwestern states to promote anarchism and Alexander Berkman's release from prison--intended topics include "Why I am an Anarchist-Communist," "Woman," "Marriage," and "Berkman's Unjust Sentence."
Lectures begin in Providence, R.I.; speaks at two open-air meetings--attended by thousands--when the mayor warns Goldman that she will be arrested if she speaks in the open-air again. Despite the prohibition, Goldman continues to lecture in Providence; addresses the assassination of the Spanish premier.
On Sept. 5, she speaks in Boston on "Must We Become Angels to Live in an Anarchist Society?" and collects money for the victims of the Spanish authorities in the aftermath of the assassination of the premier.
When she attempts to address another open-air meeting in Providence on Sept. 7, she is arrested and jailed overnight. The following day she is given twenty-four hours to leave town or face three months imprisonment.
Goldman returns to Boston on Sept. 12 where she lectures on the Sept. 10 killings of immigrant miners striking in Hazleton, Pa. Travels to New Haven and New York to speak again on the Hazleton strikers.
Beginning Sept. 15, Goldman delivers four lectures in Philadelphia before several English-speaking organizations, including the Ladies' Liberal League and the Single Tax Society. Her lectures include "Free Love." Before the largest free-thought organization of Philadelphia, the Friendship Liberal League, she critiques the freethinkers' "partial application of the principles of freedom."
Portland editor A. J. Pope arrested and jailed for sending "obscene" material in the anarchist Firebrand through the mail. Abe Isaak and Henry Addis, the other Firebrand editors, are arrested within the next few days on the same charge.
From Philadelphia, Goldman travels to Washington, D.C., where she lectures before a German free-thought society.
Goldman then travels to Pittsburgh to meet Carl Nold and Henry Bauer; they inform her that if Berkman's appeal for pardon is denied, he plans to attempt an escape from prison.
Goldman speaks before the Turnerverein in Monaca, Pa.; complies with their request not to speak on her proposed topic, "Woman, Marriage, and Prostitution."
On Sept. 27, Goldman addresses a labor congress organized by Eugene Debs in Chicago.
Goldman remains in Chicago to lecture; speaks to the Lucifer Circle on the theme of "Prostitution: Its Causes and Cure" and on "Free Love." On Oct. 13 Goldman is among several speakers-- including Max Baginski, Lucy Parsons, and Moses Harman--at a well-attended event to raise money for the imprisoned editors of the Firebrand.
In St. Louis, Goldman speaks to German- and English-speaking audiences while continuing to raise money for Berkman's prison fund.
On Oct. 19, the St. Louis House of Delegates passes a resolution supporting the mayor's prohibition of Goldman's open-air meetings. Goldman's lectures--including "Revolution" and "Why I Am an Anarchist and Communist"--are held in private halls under police surveillance.
Traveling for hours by train and wagon to learn about the plight of farmers, Goldman speaks to well-attended meetings in Caplinger Mills, Mo., home of rural anarchist Kate Austin. Her lecture topics include "The Aim of Humanity," "Religion," "Anarchy," and "Free Love."
Goldman scheduled to lecture in Kansas City and Topeka, Kans.
On Nov. 11 in Chicago, Goldman addresses an assembly in German to commemorate the Haymarket martyrs.
Goldman lectures four times in Detroit, aided by Robert Reitzel and his paper, Der arme Teufel. On Nov. 19, Goldman speaks at the People's Tabernacle despite opposition from the congregation; the event is sensationalized in the press. In response to Goldman's talk, the deacons and members of the church request the pastor's resignation.
Goldman lectures in Cleveland before several liberal societies, including the Franklin Club. On Nov. 21 she lectures on "What Anarchy Means" and collects donations for the Firebrand editors.
Goldman delivers several successful lectures in Buffalo--where she speaks at the Trade and Labor Council Hall, the Spiritualist Temple, and before German anarchists--and Rochester, where she visits her family for the first time since 1894. Considers her meetings in Rochester, Buffalo, and Detroit to be the best of her 1897 tour.
Berkman's appeal before the Pennsylvania Board of Pardons is postponed.
By mid-December, Goldman returns to New York.
Goldman announces her lecture topics for the year: "Charity," "Patriotism," "Authority," "Majority Rule," "The New Woman," "The Woman Question," and "The Inquisition of Our Postal Service."
Goldman's youngest brother, Morris, moves into the apartment she shares with Brady in New York City.
During this period, Goldman is in contact with Filipino rebels and helps to support their attempts to gain independence from Spain.
Goldman scheduled to speak on "The New Woman" (in German) to the Social Science Club in Brooklyn.
Lectures on anarchism in English and Yiddish in Providence without interference from the mayor or police; Goldman assisted by John H. Cook, former president of the Central Labor Union.
To help cover traveling expenses, Goldman earns a percentage on sales she makes for Brady's stationery business while on tour.
Lectures on "Authority" to economics students in Boston.
Goldman scheduled to speak to the Philosophical Society in Brooklyn.
Twelve-state lecture tour: Goldman addresses sixty-six meetings and participates in one debate. Several reporters note Goldman's improvement as a public speaker as she develops her command of the English language.
The U.S.S. Maine explodes in Havana harbor, killing 2 officers and 258 crew members, which becomes the spark for the Spanish-American War.
Goldman's tour begins in Philadelphia where she lectures before several well-attended gatherings sponsored by the Ladies' Liberal League, the Single Tax Society, the Society of Ethical Research, and the German Anarchist Society. Notes an increasing interest in anarchism among younger members of the Friendship Liberal League, to which she lectures twice. Topics include "The Absurdity of Non-resistance to Evil," "The Basis of Morality," and "Freedom."
February 23-March 12
After scheduled visits to Baltimore and Washington, D.C., Goldman is invited to Pittsburgh and coal mining towns in western Pennsylvania by anarchists Carl Nold and Henry Bauer in association with the International Workingmen's Association. Though the Pittsburgh region is heavily populated by Germans, most of Goldman's speaking engagements are purposely conducted in English.
Talks include "Patriotism," with specific reference to the miners shot by the police at Hazleton, Pa., in September, and the possibility of war between Spain and the United States. She addresses the Monaca, Pa., local of the Glass Blowers' Union, one of the most conservative unions in the country. Lectures in western coal mining towns include McKeesport, Roscoe, West Newton, and Homestead; Goldman also scheduled to speak in Beaver Falls, Carnegie, Duquesne, Charleroi, and Tarentum. Goldman's engagement in Allegheny is canceled when the owners of the liberal Northside Turner Hall refuse to let her speak.
Goldman suffers several "nervous attacks" from the strain of continuous lecturing.
Goldman among several speakers at an international celebration of the twenty-seventh anniversary of the Paris Commune in Pittsburgh attended by three hundred people.
Goldman delivers three lectures in Cleveland, including a well-attended meeting of the Franklin Club.
Just weeks before his death on Mar. 31, Goldman visits the ailing Robert Reitzel in Detroit.
In Chicago, Goldman is aided by Josef Peukert, who secures for her several speaking engagements before labor unions. Addresses the Economic Educational Club (a primarily American-born audience), the Brewers and Malters Union, the Painters and Decorators Union, the Co-operative College of Citizenship, the Turn-Verein Vorwärts Society, the German group of the International Workingmen's Association, and the Bakers' and Confectioners' Union. Lectures include "Trades Unionism," "Passive Resistance" (both in German), and "The New Woman."
While in Chicago, she visits Max Baginski at the Arbeiter Zeitung office. Fearing that Baginski had disapproved of Berkman's attempt to kill Frick, she had avoided seeing him; she finds, however, that they share many similar viewpoints. She also meets Moses Harman, the editor of Lucifer, with whom she discusses women's emancipation.
Visits Michael Schwab, who served more than six years in prison for charges relating to the Haymarket affair before he was pardoned. Hospitalized with tuberculosis, Schwab dies a few months later, on June 29.
Goldman lectures in Cincinnati to a large meeting of the Ohio Liberal Society.
Brady complains about their separation; she responds by asserting her need for freedom.
March 29-April 2
Goldman returns to Chicago for additional lectures; speaks before the gymnastic society Gut Heil in a Chicago suburb and to residents of a Jewish neighborhood in Chicago.
On Mar. 31, Goldman lectures on "The Inquisition of Our Postal Service" to the Progressive Bohemian Labor Organization, addressing recent censorship cases, including the conviction of the Firebrand editors. The organization votes unanimously to adopt a resolution protesting postal censorship.
On Apr. 2, Goldman honored at a farewell meeting held by the Committee on Agitation of the Progressive Labor Organizations of Chicago.
Goldman scheduled to speak in Milwaukee.
"Patriotism" is among the five lectures Goldman presents in St. Louis; encounters no interference by the mayor or police. Local comrades note an increase of young women in attendance.
Goldman makes her first visit to Denver, where she is hosted by a small group of American anarchists. Her five lectures are met with surprising enthusiasm--"The Basis of Morality" noted as her best. Sponsors include the Denver Educational Club, a largely Jewish group.
Goldman visits Salt Lake City.
Spanish-American War begins.
Goldman in San Francisco; opens her engagements with a lecture on "Patriotism," which, following the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, becomes her most important and successful lecture. Her other speeches--at least four, including a talk at a May Day celebration--are well attended and receive fair press coverage. Goldman also debates the German socialist Emil Lies, editor of the Tageblatt. Goldman especially impressed with Abe Isaak, former editor of the Firebrand and current editor of Free Society, who had recently settled in San Francisco with his family. Goldman's San Francisco activities supported in part by local single-taxers.
While in San Francisco, Goldman meets the young socialist Anna Strunsky, who will become a lifelong friend and associate, and through Strunsky, the writer Jack London.
In San Jose, her lecture on "Patriotism" is so controversial that she has difficulty maintaining control of the platform. From San Jose, she travels for the first time to Los Angeles, sponsored by a wealthy acquaintance from New Mexico. Lectures to several large audiences. Goldman severs her relationship with her sponsor when he proposes marriage; she continues lecturing among Jewish sympathizers and organizes a group to conduct ongoing anarchist activities. Goldman denounced in the Freiheit for having alienated workers from anarchism when, under the direction of her wealthy manager, she lectured and resided in expensive halls and hotels.
Following Los Angeles, she returns to San Francisco for additional lectures.
Goldman delivers three lectures in Portland, Oreg. Logistical problems cause the cancellation of scheduled events in Tacoma and Seattle.
In Chicago, Goldman attends the first convention of Eugene Debs's Social Democracy movement; in her view it is a "fiasco." When she is at first prevented from speaking at the event, Debs personally invites Goldman to address the convention.
Pleased with the success of her lecture tour, Goldman returns to New York. In association with Salvatore Palavicini and other Italian anarchists, helps to support local labor struggles.
Empress Elizabeth of Austria is stabbed by anarchist Luigi Leccheni. Goldman considers the act a "folly" but refuses to condemn it; her activities are subsequently monitored by the police and scorned by the press.
Goldman supports efforts of Berkman's defense committee to seek a pardon. With Justus Schwab and Brady, she reluctantly follows the recommendation of defense attorneys to seek Andrew Carnegie's influence in granting a pardon. They approach Benjamin Tucker, editor of Liberty, to meet with Carnegie, but reject his suggestion that Berkman be presented as a "penitent sinner." All plans to meet with Carnegie are eventually abandoned.
International Anti-Anarchist Conference, prompted by the assassination of the Empress of Austria, is convened by Italian government officials in Rome; attended by fifty-four delegates representing twenty-one countries, including police chiefs from several European countries and major cities. Conference marks the development of strategic international surveillance of and exchange of information about anarchist activities.
Goldman ends her relationship with Edward Brady.
Goldman speaks at a large meeting at Cooper Union to protest the International Anti-Anarchist Conference in Rome.
Goldman conducts a nine-month lecture tour of eleven states, beginning in Barre, Vt., where she is hosted by Salvatore Palavicini. She delivers several lectures in Barre, including "The New Woman" and "The Corrupting Influence of Politics on Man"--the first anarchist lectures in English ever presented there.
When she is prevented from delivering her last lecture, "Authority versus Liberty," on Jan. 31, Goldman's comrades print and distribute five thousand copies of a manifesto containing the text of Goldman's barred speech.
While in Barre, Goldman meets Luigi Galleani, editor of the anarchist journal Cronaca Sovversiva.
President William McKinley signs peace treaty with Spain. United States acquires Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines; Spain relinquishes its claim to Cuba.
Insurgent forces begin rebellion against U.S. rule in the Philippines.
Goldman delivers ten lectures, in German and English, in Philadelphia; speaks before the Friendship Liberal League, Ladies' Liberal League, the Fellowship for Ethical Research, the Knights of Liberty, and the Arbeiter Bund.
Goldman helps organize a regional committee of anarchists from Philadelphia and surrounding areas.
Goldman addresses two large meetings in Cleveland.
Goldman's lectures in Detroit include "The Power of the Idea" and "A Criticism of Ethics." Goldman is offered financial support for her future medical studies by Herman Miller, a friend of Robert Reitzel and president of the Cleveland Brewing Company.
Invited by the Ohio Liberal Society to lecture on trade unionism, Goldman addresses three meetings in Cincinnati. From Cincinnati, Goldman travels to St. Louis where she delivers ten lectures, including one before the conservative Bricklayers' Union.
Close by, she speaks before two large gatherings in the mining town of Mount Olive. Her lecture on "The Eight-Hour Struggle and the Condition of the Miners of the Whole World" is especially well received.
Goldman spends over a month in Chicago, delivering about twenty-five lectures. Her efforts to speak before a wide variety of trade unions, philosophical and social societies, and women's clubs are aided by Max Baginski and other German comrades; the International Workingmen's Association helps her organize English lectures.
Goldman lectures on "Trades-Unionism and What It Should Be" and other issues in German and English before the International Workingmen's Association and trade unions including the Brewers and Malters Union, the Painters and Decorators Union, and the Journeymen Tailors Union. Goldman's presentation to the conservative Amalgamated Wood Workers Union is the first to take place by an anarchist.
Additional lectures--including "Religion," "Women's Emancipation," "Politics and Its Corrupting Influence on Man," "The Origin of Evil," and "The Basis of Morality"--are delivered to the Friesinuge Gemeinde, several chapters of the Turner Society, the Freethought Society, and the Women's Sick Benefit Society. Her lecture on "Sex Problems" is debated by many of the Chicago comrades who feel the subject matter is inappropriate for public discussion.
Before leaving Chicago, Goldman organizes a social science club so that the local comrades will continue to organize in her absence.
Goldman spends a few days visiting miners in Spring Valley, Ill. By May 20, she arrives in Tacoma, Wash., where she participates in a debate on "Socialism versus Anarchism." A group of spiritualists lend her use of their temple free of charge for a series of lectures, but when she proposes to lecture on "Free Love," they deny her the use of the hall.
Goldman delivers two well-attended lectures in Seattle.
Goldman visits an anarchist colony at Lakebay, Wash. By June 10, she is scheduled to hold a series of meetings in Portland, Oreg., followed by lectures in the farming community of Scio, Oreg., where use of the city hall is donated to Goldman by the marshal of Scio.
Goldman arrives in San Francisco on June 22, where she begins a seven-week series of lectures in San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, and Stockton. "Why I Am an Anarchist Communist," "The Aim of Humanity," "The Development of Trades-Unionism," and "Charity" number among her lectures. Socialists antagonistic to her on several occasions. Her lecture on "Sex Problems" continues to stir debate; some applaud her courage to speak about this taboo issue.
Goldman delivers three lectures in Ouray, Colo., followed by several lectures in Denver, including "The Power of an Idea," "Education" before the Smeltermen's Union, and an open-air meeting on "Patriotism."
At the invitation of Kate Austin, Goldman travels to the farming community of Caplinger Mills, Mo., where she delivers three lectures, including "Patriotism."
In the mining town of Spring Valley, Ill., Goldman heads a Labor Day procession, which ends with a meeting in the central market place, a direct violation of the mayor's denial of authorization to do so.
September 23-October 10
Goldman addresses thirteen meetings in Pittsburgh and surrounding cities, including West Newton, McDonald, and Roscoe, Pa.
Goldman arranges for their trusted comrade Eric B. Morton to begin to dig a tunnel for Berkman's escape.
Goldman's lecture tour complete, she returns to New York City. Under the guise of pursuing a new legal action in Berkman's case, with Saul Yanofsky of the Freie Arbeiter Stimme, Goldman raises money to support the cost of digging Berkman's prison escape tunnel. If successful, Berkman intends to meet Goldman in Europe.
Goldman embarks for Europe to attend the 1900 International Anti-Parliamentary Congress in Paris and with the intention of studying medicine in Zurich, Switzerland.
November 13-December 9
Goldman arrives in London where she stays with Harry Kelly and his family and lectures in English and German. Among her proposed topics are "America: The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave," "Strikes and Their Effect on the American Worker," and "Marriage." While visiting Peter Kropotkin at his home in Bromley, she meets the Russian populist Nicholas Chaikovsky, whom Goldman greatly admires. She argues heatedly with Kropotkin about the political significance of "the sex problem."
Following one of her German lectures, she meets the Czechoslovakian refugee Hippolyte Havel, with whom she later falls in love.
Goldman appears in London among a cast of international speakers, including Louise Michel and Kropotkin, at a "Grand Meeting and Concert for the Benefit of the Agitation in Favour of the Political Victims in Italy."
Goldman travels to Leeds and Bradford for several lectures.
Goldman returns to London.
Goldman attends a Russian New Year party in London where she meets notable Russian revolutionary exiles, including L. B. Goldenberg and V. N. Cherkezov.
Goldman travels to Glasgow, Dundee, and Edinburgh, Scotland to lecture. On Jan. 21 in Dundee she lectures on "Authority versus Liberty" and "The Aim of Humanity." In Edinburgh, she meets anarchist Thomas Bell.
Goldman spends the month in London before traveling to Paris. On Feb. 20, Goldman speaks out against the Anglo-Boer War at a meeting of the Freedom Discussion Group; lectures on "The Effect of War on the Workers." Her activities are credited for providing impetus to the London anarchist movement.
On Feb. 25, Goldman scheduled to deliver her lecture "The Basis of Morality" in German. On Feb. 26, she is honored at a farewell concert and ball where she speaks about the striking Bohemian miners; other speakers include Peter Kropotkin and Louise Michel.
Goldman begins debate in the anarchist press about the importance of developing consistent propaganda and supporting individual lecturers financially.
Accompanied by Hippolyte Havel, Goldman visits Paris in preparation for the September International Anti-Parliamentary Congress in Paris. While immersing herself in French culture, Goldman becomes acquainted with the leading figures of the French anarchist movement and other progressive circles, including Augustin Hamon and Victor Dave. Decides against pursuing further medical studies so that she can concentrate on political activities.
Goldman delivers a statement to the organizing committee of the Paris congress about her most recent lecture tour in the United States, the necessity of organizing American-born citizens into the anarchist movement, and the reluctance of some anarchists to participate in the Paris congress.
U.S. anarchists debate the importance of selecting American-born delegates to represent their movement at the Paris congress; it is eventually decided that Goldman, although an immigrant, will be a suitable representative. Other representatives also selected. Goldman asked by several American comrades, including Lizzie and William Holmes, Abe Isaak, and Susan Patton, to present papers at the congress.
Goldman meets up with some Italian comrades from the United States, including Salvatore Palavicini. Reunites with Max Baginski when he arrives in Paris.
French intelligence notes presence of Goldman and Havel at a women's congress in Paris.
The tunnel being dug for Berkman's escape is discovered. Although prison officials cannot verify who is responsible, Berkman is placed in solitary confinement. Eric B. Morton, sick from the physical hardship of digging the tunnel, sails to France where he is nursed back to health by Goldman.
King Umberto of Italy is killed by Gaetano Bresci, an Italian anarchist Goldman had met in Paterson, N.J.
Meets Oscar Panizza, whose writings she had read in the Der arme Teufel. Discusses issues of sexuality, including homosexuality, with Dr. Eugene Schmidt.
The International Anti-Parliamentary Congress, scheduled to begin the following day, is prohibited by the French Council of Ministers. Protest meeting called for that evening is prevented by the police. Though some of the scheduled meetings are canceled, others take place in secret locations.
Goldman's "The Sex Question" is one of eight anarchist lectures scheduled to be presented on Sept. 21--although some French comrades were opposed to this topic being addressed in public for fear that it would lead to further misconceptions of anarchism.
During this period, Goldman also attends the Neo-Malthusian Congress in Paris, which holds its meetings in secret because of a French law prohibiting organized attempts to limit offspring. Goldman obtains birth control literature and contraceptives to take back to the United States.
Following the Paris congress, Goldman earns her living as a boarding room cook and as an American tour guide at the Paris Exposition.
Goldman returns to New York with Hippolyte Havel and Eric B. Morton. Newspaper reports claim that Goldman had, under an assumed name, rented a hall on Dec. 11 for a mass meeting of the Social Science Club. Goldman the principal speaker; statement favoring the assassination of King Umberto attributed to her.
Goldman scheduled to speak to the Italian group of New London, Conn., on Dec. 23.
Goldman supports herself by working as a nurse in New York City; helps to arrange a U.S. tour for Peter Kropotkin in March and April.
Goldman reestablishes friendship with her former lover Edward Brady.
Goldman lecture tour begins with a free-speech battle in Philadelphia when she is prevented from speaking before the Shirt Makers Union. Goldman and the organizations that sponsor her talks, including the Single Tax Society, defy police orders; Goldman speaks in public on at least two occasions. On April 14 she speaks at an event sponsored by the Social Science Club; other speakers include Voltairine de Cleyre. Despite the Social Science Club's opposition to Goldman's anarchist views, it passes a resolution protesting the violation of her right to free speech.
Speaks in Lynn, Mass., Boston, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, St. Louis, Chicago, and Spring Valley, Ill., on such topics as "Anarchism and Trade Unionism," "The Causes of Vice," and "Cooperation a Factor in the Industrial Struggle."
July 15-August 15
Goldman spends a month with her sister Helena, in Rochester, N.Y., traveling briefly to Niagara Falls and to Buffalo, N.Y., to visit the Pan-American Exposition.
Goldman visits Alexander Berkman at the penitentiary in Allegheny, Pa., the first time she has seen him in nine years.
President William McKinley shot by self-proclaimed anarchist Leon Czolgosz in Buffalo, N.Y., at the Pan-American Exposition. Police claim that Czolgosz was inspired by one of Goldman's lectures. She is in St. Louis when she learns about the assassination and recollects that she first met Czolgosz at her May 5 lecture on "The Modern Phase of Anarchy" before the Franklin Liberal Club in Cleveland.
Goldman leaves St. Louis for Chicago.
In an atmosphere of intense anti-anarchist hysteria, Goldman goes into temporary hiding at the home of American-born anarchist sympathizers. On Sept. 10, she is arrested by Chicago police and subjected to intensive interrogation. Though initially denied, bail is set at $20,000.
President McKinley dies on Sept. 14.
Goldman released; case dropped for lack of evidence.
Goldman expresses her sympathy for Leon Czolgosz in an article, "The Tragedy at Buffalo," published in Free Society (Chicago), prompting many of her close anarchist associates to distance themselves from her.
Finding much difficulty in securing an apartment and job, Goldman adopts the pseudonym "E. G. Smith."
Czolgosz executed on Oct. 29.
Goldman avoids public appearances.
Criminal Anarchy Act passed in New York State.
Goldman continues to conceal her real identity, at times to no avail. Chased from her apartment on First Street, Goldman moves to a crowded Lower East Side tenement building on Market Street. She finds work as a night-shift nurse for poor immigrants living on the Lower East Side.
Increased repression in Russia and a strike of Pennsylvania coal miners propel Goldman to resume her political work.
Conducts lecture tour to raise funds for the students and peasants under attack in Russia and for the striking coal miners. Her activities are closely monitored by police detectives; many of her lectures are outlawed, especially in coal-mining cities like Wilkes-Barre and McKeesport, Pa. Despite police harassment, Goldman holds successful lectures in Chicago; scheduled to speak in Milwaukee and Cleveland.
Police arrest Goldman and Max Baginski in New York City for being "suspicious persons"; released after questioning.
Anti-anarchist immigration act passed by Congress.
Edward Brady, former lover of Goldman, dies.
Alarmed by the threat to civil liberties posed by the anti-anarchist immigration law and the public hysteria of the moment, prominent American liberals, including Theodore Schroeder, rally to her support.
First attempt to test anti-anarchist immigration act: At an event at Murray Hill Lyceum, where Goldman is scheduled to speak, English anarchist John Turner is arrested and charged with promoting anarchism and violating alien labor laws. Turner detained on Ellis Island until his deportation.
In an effort to mobilize broad support from American citizens for John Turner, Goldman acts under the pseudonym E. G. Smith to form a permanent Free Speech League in New York City.
Cooper Union mass meeting protests anti-anarchist proceedings against John Turner, still awaiting deportation.
Goldman, on behalf of the Free Speech League, undertakes a brief lecture tour to gain support for John Turner; speaks before garment workers in Rochester and miners in Pennsylvania.
Russo-Japanese War begins.
Goldman seeks to extend her influence beyond the immigrant community by exposing a broader American audience to anarchism. Travels to Philadelphia to lecture on "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation." Her first attempts to deliver lecture stalled by police. Public support for free speech gains her eventual success in delivering the lecture.
Supreme Court rules on the John Turner case (Turner v. Williams, 194 U.S. 279) that Congress has unlimited power to exclude aliens and deport those who have entered in violation of the laws, including philosophical anarchists.
Goldman hosts two members of the Russian Social Revolutionary party seeking to organize support for political freedom in Russia. With the assistance of the American Friends of Russian Freedom, Goldman manages a successful tour of Catherine Breshkovskaya (the "Grandmother of the Russian Revolution"), recently freed from Siberian exile.
Goldman among a cast of speakers at one of the largest reported New York City anarchist meetings in support of the Russian anarchist movement.
Exhausted by nursing, Goldman opens her own business as a "Vienna scalp and face specialist" in New York City.
January 9 (22)
"Bloody Sunday" in St. Petersburg, Russia. Goldman continues to lecture and raise funds to gain support for political freedom in Russia.
Goldman speaks at memorial meeting for Louise Michel.
Ricardo Flores Magon moves to St. Louis where his friendship with Goldman begins.
Catherine Breshkovskaya returns to Europe.
Goldman meets Russian actor Paul Orleneff; assists him in the management of the Orleneff troupe's theater engagements in New York City.
The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) established in Chicago.
Russia and Japan sign peace treaty at Portsmouth, N.H.
October 17 (30)
Czar Nicholas II signs manifesto guaranteeing civil liberties in Russia.
Renewed pogroms of Jews in Russia. Orleneff troupe arranges benefit performances on behalf of Jewish victims.
Goldman accompanies Orleneff troupe on tour to Boston.
Russian revolution crushed.
Goldman, in Chicago with the Orleneff troupe, identifies herself without a pseudonym at lectures to local anarchists.
First issue of Mother Earth published; first run numbers three thousand.
Goldman begins national lecture tour with associate editor Max Baginski; speaking engagements scheduled in Cleveland, Toronto, Rochester, Syracuse, and Utica. Encounters interference in Buffalo when the police mandate that their lectures be presented in English, preventing Baginski from addressing the audience.
Death of Johann Most.
Goldman discontinues her scalp and facial massage business; devotes full attention to the publication of Mother Earth.
Goldman speaks at an anarchist gathering at Grand Central Palace in New York City to commemorate the life of Johann Most.
Alexander Berkman released from prison; Goldman and Berkman unite in Detroit.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Chicago, where they are followed by the press. Newspaper falsely reports that Goldman and Berkman have married.
Goldman scheduled to speak in Yiddish and English in Pittsburgh on the following topics: "The Constitution," "The Idaho Outrage" (addressing the arrests of Bill Haywood, Charles Moyer, and George A. Pettibone of the Western Federation of Miners), "The General Strike," and "The False and True Conception of Anarchism."
Goldman and others address a crowd of two thousand people who had gathered to greet Alexander Berkman in New York City.
Goldman vacations at farm in Ossining with Berkman and Baginski.
Goldman devotes October issue of Mother Earth to the commemoration of the fifth anniversary of Leon Czolgosz's death, despite the objection of many of her political associates.
Scheduled to speak at a meeting to protest the Oct. 27 arrests of several anarchists for debating whether Czolgosz was an anarchist, Goldman is arrested for articles published in Mother Earth and for inciting to riot. Nine others also arrested.
Goldman released on $1,000 bail.
Goldman pleads not guilty to criminal anarchy charges before the New York City magistrate.
Goldman scheduled to speak at the nineteenth anniversary commemoration of the Chicago martyrs, organized by the Freiheit Publishing Association.
Mother Earth Masquerade Ball at Webster Hall in New York City disrupted by police; owner is forced to close the hall.
Goldman lectures on "False and True Conceptions of Anarchism" before the Brooklyn Philosophical Association.
Goldman arrested by the New York City Anarchist Police Squad while delivering the same lecture she had successfully presented the previous month; charged with publicly expressing "incendiary sentiments." Berkman and two others also arrested.
Case against Goldman from Oct. 30, 1906, arrest dismissed by the New York City grand jury.
Police evidence from Goldman's Jan. 6 arrest presented before the New York City magistrate's court; case later dismissed.
New York City police suppress meeting where Goldman is scheduled to speak.
Berkman attempts to run a small printing business.
Goldman speaks in Boston, Lynn, and Chelsea, Mass.
Goldman shares platform with Luigi Galleani at the Barre, Vt., opera house.
Late February, Early March
Russian exile Grigory Gershuni, recently escaped from Siberia, visits Goldman to encourage her work on behalf of Russian freedom.
Goldman leaves New York City for national lecture tour; asks Berkman to take charge as editor of Mother Earth in her absence.
All lecture halls in Columbus, Ohio, are closed to Goldman.
Mayor Brand Whitlock of Toledo, Ohio does not allow Goldman to speak until Kate Sherwood, a respected political activist and community leader, convinces him of Goldman's right to speak.
Goldman's scheduled Detroit lectures stopped by the local police.
Successful lecture series in Chicago before audiences of many nationalities, including Jewish, Danish, and German. Her topics include the Paris Commune, the trial of Moyer and Haywood, and the "Revolutionary Spirit of the Modern Drama."
Speaking on such subjects as "Education of Children" and "Direct Action versus Legislation," Goldman continues lecture tour in Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and Minneapolis.
Goldman makes her first visit to Winnipeg, Canada; lectures in German and English on topics including "Crimes of Parents and Education" and "The Position of Jews in Russia."
Goldman expected to lecture in St. Louis; lectures in Denver.
Addressing audiences in German and English, Goldman speaks in San Francisco and San Jose on such issues as "The Corrupting Influence of Religion" and character building.
Hundreds of people turn out on successive nights in Los Angeles to hear Goldman speak, and, on one occasion, debate socialist Claude Riddle. Organizes a Social Science Club with fifty-five charter members to study social issues, literature, and art. goldman declares her intent to start a movement on behalf of Mexico among U.S. radicals.
Buoyed by the success of her speaking engagements--"the first tour of any consequence I have made since 1898"--Goldman travels to Portland, Tacoma, Home Colony, Wa., Seattle, and Calgary, Canada.
Goldman back in New York City in time to celebrate her thirty-eighth birthday.
Goldman's essay, "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation" translated and published by German and Japanese anarchists.
Goldman selected to act as an American representative at the International Anarchist Congress in Amsterdam.
Haywood acquitted; Goldman and associates send telegram to President Theodore Roosevelt to express their joy.
Goldman and other anarchists speak about the Boise trials (of Haywood et al.) at the Manhattan Lyceum in New York City.
Goldman travels with Baginski to Amsterdam.
International Anarchist Congress takes place in Amsterdam, attended by three hundred delegates.
After attending anti-militarist congress organized by Dutch pacifist anarchists, Goldman tours major European cities. In Paris, Goldman visits Peter Kropotkin and Max Nettlau; visits Sébastien Faure's experimental school for poor and orphaned children, and studies syndicalism at the Confédération Générale du Travail.
U.S. Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization, anticipating Goldman's return from Europe, directs the East Coast commissioners of immigration to fully verify Goldman's U.S. citizenship before allowing her to cross the border.
Goldman speaks in London, England, on "The Labor Struggle in America"; is trailed by Scotland Yard detectives.
Goldman evades U.S. immigration authorities by entering New York via Montreal.
Finding Mother Earth in terrible financial shape upon her return from Europe, Goldman conducts lecture tour in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Goldman lectures in German, English, and Yiddish on "Trade Unionism," "The Woman in the Future," and "The Child and its Enemies," among other topics, in cities throughout New York State.
Large crowd turns out to hear Goldman in Baltimore.
Police prevent Goldman from delivering her lecture on "The Revolutionary Spirit in Modern Drama" in Washington, D.C.
Lectures in Pittsburgh.
Goldman heads out for a tour of the western states via Montreal, London, Ont., Toronto, and Cleveland; scheduled to speak in English and German on "The [Economic] Crisis: Its Cause and Remedy," "The Relation of Anarchism to Trade Unionism," "Syndicalism a New Phase of the Labor Struggle," and "Woman Under Anarchism."
Giuseppe Guarnacoto, reported to be a former resident of Paterson and a follower of Goldman, assassinates Father Leo Henrichs at the altar of a Catholic church in Denver.
Goldman delivers several lectures in St. Louis, despite word from Chicago authorities who, in coordination with Washington D.C. officials, threaten to deport Goldman under the immigration law.
Chicago Chief of Police George Shippy attacked by alleged anarchist Lazarus Averbuch; Shippy's son shot. Goldman implicated in incident, which prompts new legislation to coordinate efforts of city, state, and federal authorities to stamp out all anarchist agitation.
In Chicago, Goldman is barred by police from addressing any meetings in a public hall. Goldman meets with the press, vowing that she will seek an opportunity to lecture in Chicago no matter what the authorities do to prevent her.
Goldman repeatedly barred from speaking at public lecture halls in Chicago; meets Ben Reitman, a physician specializing in gynecology and venereal disease, who offers to arrange a speaking engagement for Goldman at a storeroom on Dearborn Street, the meeting place of his Brotherhood Welfare Association, otherwise known as the Hobo College.
Despite an indication from Chicago authorities that Goldman will be allowed to speak if she makes no incendiary remarks against the police or the government, Goldman is prevented from speaking at Ben Reitman's hall.
Chicago newspapers report a budding romance between Goldman and Reitman.
Police forcibly remove Goldman from Workingmen's Hall in Chicago, where she is scheduled to speak on "Anarchy as It Really Is," an event organized by the newly created Freedom of Speech Society.
Goldman unable to secure a hall in Chicago.
Temporarily abandoning attempts to speak in Chicago, Goldman meets success in Milwaukee, where large crowds, including Milwaukee socialist Victor Berger, come to hear her.
Lecturing in Minneapolis, Goldman denies knowledge of those involved in a bomb explosion at a New York City demonstration of the unemployed in Union Square. News reports claim that Selig Silverstein, the bomb-thrower, was a member of Goldman's Anarchistic Federation.
March 31-April 5
Goldman delivers several lectures in Winnipeg, including discussions encouraging street railway employees to strike for an eight-hour workday.
President Theodore Roosevelt investigates legality of not only barring anarchist propaganda that advocates political violence, but also prosecuting those who produce the material.
Goldman leaves Winnipeg; temporarily detained and interrogated at the border by U.S. immigration officials.
Goldman enters the United States; itinerary includes lectures in Minneapolis, Salt Lake City, and Sacramento.
Accompanied by Ben Reitman, Goldman arrives in San Francisco, where the police notify her that anarchist propaganda cannot be circulated.
Objecting to the notoriety caused by Goldman's presence, the management of the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco forces Goldman to leave; encounters an escalated level of surveillance.
Despite warnings, police do not interfere with Goldman's lecture at Walton's Pavilion in San Francisco, which is attended by five thousand people.
Goldman ends her San Francisco lecture series with a speech on patriotism. In attendance is U.S. soldier William Buwalda, stationed at the Presidio, who is witnessed shaking hands with Goldman following her speech. Buwalda is subsequently court-martialed for this action.
April 28-May 2
Goldman lectures in Los Angeles; debates socialist Kaspar Bauer on the question of "Socialism versus Anarchism." While in Los Angeles, Goldman visits George A. Pettibone.
Goldman delivers five lectures in Portland--including "Why Emancipation Has Failed to Free Women" and "Direct Action a Logical Method of Anarchism"--following initial free-speech battle. Goldman's success attributed in part to support received from Charles Erskine Scott Wood, Portland attorney and writer.
Local Portland anarchists organize protest against the court-martial and imprisonment of William Buwalda.
Goldman presents two lectures in Spokane: "What Anarchism Really Stands For" and "The Menace of Patriotism."
Marking the last leg of her tour, Goldman travels to Montana; despite police harassment and lack of press coverage, Goldman speaks in Butte and Helena.
Goldman vacations in Ossining, N.Y.
Goldman captivated by J. W. Fleming's invitation to make a two-year tour of Australia; tentatively plans to travel to Australia in February.
New York World publishes Goldman's article, "What I Believe."
Ben Reitman delivers speech on the meaning of Labor Day at Cooper Union. When the audience learns that the speech was written by Goldman, there is a tremendous uproar; Berkman and young anarchist Becky Edelsohn arrested.
Goldman begins five-week Sunday afternoon Yiddish lecture series under the sponsorship of the Free Worker Group in New York City; talks include "Love and Marriage," "The Revolutionary Spirit in the Modern Drama," and "The Political Circus."
Goldman tormented by revelation of Reitman's infidelity.
On the eve of her departure for her next lecture tour, Goldman delivers a farewell lecture in New York City on "The Exoneration of the Devil" (based on a popular play at the time).
Goldman begins national lecture tour while the country is immersed in presidential campaigning; hopes to wind up her tour on the West Coast and depart for Australia in the new year. Lecture topics include "The Political Circus and Its Clowns," "Puritanism, the Great Obstacle to Liberty," and "Life versus Morality."
Large audiences attend Goldman's lectures in Pittsburgh and Cleveland.
Goldman prevented from speaking in Indianapolis.
October 30-November 1
Goldman lectures in St. Louis; meets William Marion Reedy, editor of the St. Louis Mirror, whose article "The Daughter of the Dream," published later that week, praises her.
Goldman lectures in cities throughout Missouri: Springfield, Liberal, and Kansas City.
Omaha chief of police prevents Goldman from lecturing in the hall of her choice; crowds gather to hear Goldman at other sites in the city.
Goldman's lectures in Des Moines, Iowa, are successful.
Lectures in Minneapolis and St. Paul poorly attended.
Goldman in Winnipeg for lectures and a debate with socialist J. D. Houston.
Goldman scheduled to lecture in Fargo, N.Dak., Butte, and Spokane.
Seattle police take Goldman into custody after the lock on a closed hall is broken to allow Goldman entry to speak; released when she promises to leave the city.
Goldman protests actions of the police authorities in Everett, Wash., who prevent her from speaking on the claim that vigilantes will harm her.
Goldman and Reitman arrested in Bellingham, Wash., in anticipation of Goldman's scheduled lecture.
Goldman released from jail; placed on board a train bound for Canada.
Following lectures in Vancouver, Goldman lectures in Portland and conducts two debates--one with Democrat John Barnhill, the other with socialist Walter Thomas Mills.
Goldman lectures in Los Angeles, San Diego, and Pasadena on such topics as "The Psychology of Violence" and "Puritanism, the Greatest Obstacle to Liberty." Some of Los Angeles's leading drama critics attend her lecture "The Drama, the Most Forcible Disseminator of Radicalism."
Goldman lectures on "The Dissolution of Our Institutions" in San Francisco, followed by a statement by William Buwalda, the soldier court-martialed the previous year and recently pardoned by President Roosevelt. Event takes place without police interference.
Goldman and Reitman arrested on charges of conspiracy against the government; both held on bail. Buwalda arrested for disturbing the peace. Supporters of Goldman and Reitman rally to protest the arrests on Jan. 15; police forcibly end gatherings.
In jail, Goldman learns about her father's death.
Goldman released Jan. 18; participates in a public debate on "Anarchism versus Socialism." Case dropped Jan. 28.
Goldman's anticipated departure for Australia is postponed.
Goldman speaks to a crowd of over two thousand people in San Francisco on "Why I Am an Anarchist."
Goldman stays in San Francisco with hopes of delivering the lectures she was prevented from giving during the week of her arrest and imprisonment.
Delivers two lectures and participates in one debate in Los Angeles.
Goldman lectures in El Paso, Tex.; prevented by city authorities from holding meeting in Spanish.
Goldman attempts to lecture in San Antonio; unable to secure a hall.
Goldman speaks on the outskirts of Houston in a hall owned by the Single Taxers; remarks that this event is "the most inspiring meeting of my entire tour."
Tour ends with two meetings in Forth Worth.
Goldman in Rochester, N.Y.
Goldman conducts Sunday lecture series in Yiddish and English in New York City; topics include "The Psychology of Violence," "Minorities versus Majorities," and the modern drama.
U.S. Court in Buffalo invalidates the citizenship of Jacob A. Kersner, Goldman's legal husband; threatens Goldman's claim to U.S. citizenship and results in cancellation of Goldman's trip to Australia.
Goldman's essay "A Woman Without a Country," responding to the threat of deportation, published in Mother Earth.
With increased public attention on her citizenship status, Goldman is stopped repeatedly by the police.
Scheduled to speak at a Mother Earth May Day concert and dance in New York City.
Goldman speaks at a convention of the National Committee for the Relief of the Unemployed in New York City, encouraging the unemployed to organize.
May 10 and 13
Goldman scheduled to speak in New York on "Direct Action as a Logical Tactic of Anarchists" and "How Parents Should Raise Children" (in Yiddish).
Goldman scheduled to speak in New Haven on "Anarchy: What It Stands For"; police admit her into the lecture hall, but prevent entry to thousands of people waiting outside.
Goldman and Berkman invited by civil libertarian Alden Freeman to lunch at the elite New Jersey Society of Mayflower Descendants; subsequent scandal threatens Freeman's membership in the club.
Police break up Goldman's Sunday lecture series, claiming that she did not follow the subject of her lecture on "Henrik Ibsen as the Pioneer of Modern Drama"; two arrests made.
Goldman speaks at the Sunrise Club in New York City on "The Hypocrisy of Puritanism," sharply criticizing Anthony Comstock, anti-vice crusader.
Brooklyn chief of police orders cancellation of a Goldman lecture.
"A Demand for Free Speech" manifesto signed and circulated by prominent individuals to protest the recent suppression of Goldman's rights. Free Speech Society is formed.
Free-speech conference to take place in New York City.
Goldman scheduled to speak in East Orange, N.J., at a meeting organized by Alden Freeman to commemorate the hundredth anniversary of Thomas Paine's death; police prevent her from entering the lecture hall. Crowd relocates to Freeman's barn, where Goldman delivers lecture suppressed by police on May 23.
Large meeting organized by the Free Speech Society takes place at Cooper Union to protest harassment of Goldman and to win back the right of free speech. Speakers include former congressman Robert Baker, Alden Freeman, Voltairine de Cleyre, James P. Morton, and Harry Kelly. Telegrams from Eugene Debs and others read.
Goldman tests her free-speech rights by delivering a lecture before the Harlem Liberal Alliance; standoff with police, but no interference.
Goldman prevented from speaking in New York City at a meeting sponsored by Mother Earth to celebrate the antiwar uprising in Spain. Other speakers include Voltairine de Cleyre, Harry Kelly, and Max Baginski.
Reitman secures a lecture hall in Boston despite police intimidation of hall owners.
Goldman, accompanied by Reitman, conducts a short lecture tour of Massachusetts, Vermont, and Rhode Island.
While in Worcester, Goldman attends lecture by Sigmund Freud at Clark University.
Mayor of Burlington, Vt., prevents Goldman from speaking anywhere in his city.
Unable to secure a lecture hall in Worcester, Goldman is invited to speak on the private property of Rev. Eliot White.
September 24-October 21
Goldman engaged in free-speech battle in Philadelphia. Police chief will let Goldman speak on the condition that he review her speech prior to the engagement; Free Speech Association deems proposed review an infringement on Goldman's free-speech rights and Goldman refuses to comply.
When Goldman is prevented from entering lecture hall, Voltairine de Cleyre reads Goldman's lecture to the audience.
Goldman appeals for injunction to restrain the Philadelphia police from further intimidation; testifies before the Philadelphia courts.
Philadelphia judge denies injunction, claiming that the police had the right to prevent both citizens and aliens from speaking if their words were deemed likely to cause a public disturbance; in addition, claims that Goldman is not a citizen and therefore is not guaranteed constitutional right to free speech.
Goldman is chief speaker at a New York City mass meeting called to protest the Oct. 13 execution of Francisco Ferrer, founder of the modern school movement, in Spain.
Goldman marches in a parade of six hundred anarchists and socialists in New York City to protest Ferrer's execution.
Prevented from speaking in a Brooklyn lecture hall, Goldman addresses a crowd of three thousand in an open-air meeting; Reitman arrested for failing to obtain a permit.
Goldman speaks on "Will the Vote Free Woman: Woman Suffrage" to an audience of three hundred women, many of whom are suffragists. A collection is taken for Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, recently sentenced to a three-month prison term resulting from her arrest during a free-speech battle in Spokane.
Goldman scheduled to deliver her last lecture, "White Slave Traffic," in New York City before embarking on her western tour.
Goldman delivers a total of 120 lectures before forty thousand people in thirty-seven cities in twenty-five states; credits her success to the organizing skills of Ben Reitman.
Her tour begins with free-speech battles that thwart her from speaking in Detroit, Columbus, and Buffalo.
January issue of Mother Earth held by the U.S. Postmaster on Anthony Comstock's objection to the publication of Goldman's essay "White Slave Traffic." Released on Jan. 29 when officials decide there is nothing legally objectionable in the magazine.
Large audiences attend Goldman's lectures in Cleveland.
Goldman holds a successful meeting in Toledo.
In Chicago, Goldman conducts six lectures in English and three in Yiddish.
Goldman holds three successful meetings in Milwaukee.
Goldman's speaking engagements in Madison, Wis., set off a storm of protest from state and university officials who deny any formal endorsement of Goldman.
Press attributes Goldman's unsuccessful meeting in Hannibal, Mo., to the intimidation posed by police when they record the names of everyone who stepped inside the lecture hall.
Goldman's lectures in St. Louis include "Ferrer and the Modern School," "Leo Tolstoy, the Last Great Christian, His Life and His Work," and "Art in Relation to Life."
Police chief of Springfield, Ill., attempts to stop Goldman from lecturing.
Goldman attracts sizable crowds in Detroit.
Goldman hissed by her Ann Arbor audiences.
Goldman speaks in Buffalo, despite residues of Czolgosz-inspired apprehension and disapproval of anarchism.
Holds three meetings in Rochester.
Goldman speaks on "The General Strike [of Philadelphia]" in Pittsburgh. Press does not announce her talks in fear that she will prompt a riot.
A celebration of the fifth anniversary of Mother Earth takes place in New York City.
Despite an absence of press coverage, Goldman conducts four lectures in Minneapolis.
Goldman lectures for the first time in Sioux City, Iowa.
Organized on short notice, Goldman's lecture in Omaha is well received.
Amendment to the Immigration Act of 1907 is passed, forbidding entrance to the United States of criminals, paupers, anarchists, and persons carrying diseases.
Goldman's lectures in Denver well attended.
Goldman and Reitman arrested in Cheyenne, Wyo., while conducting an open-air meeting. Arrests spur further interest in Goldman.
Goldman lectures in San Francisco and debates a socialist on "whether collective regulation or free love will guarantee a healthy race."
Goldman visits Jack London and his wife Charmian at their ranch at Glen Ellen, Calif.
Goldman lectures on anarchism and "Marriage and Love" in Reno.
Goldman pleased by the overwhelmingly positive reception to her lectures and debate in Los Angeles; claims to have delivered that city's first-ever Yiddish lecture.
Goldman lectures in San Diego, Portland, Seattle, and Spokane.
Car in which Goldman and Reitman are riding is struck by a freight train in Spokane. Goldman thrown from car and badly bruised.
Goldman speaks in Butte, Bismarck, and Fargo; travels through Milwaukee and Chicago.
The Mann Act, popularly known as the "white slave traffic act," passed by Congress, prohibiting interstate or international transport of women for "immoral purposes."
Summer and Fall
Goldman divides her time between New York City and the Ossining farm where she prepares Anarchism and Other Essays for publication; Berkman begins writing Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist.
Canadian subscribers denied receipt of Mother Earth books on orders of Canadian authorities because of their "treasonable nature."
Bombing of the Los Angeles Times building by James and John McNamara kills twenty people; anarchist involvement immediately suspected.
At a public meeting in New York City, Goldman and Reitman question Anthony Comstock about his promotion of laws denying the use of mails for "obscene" materials.
Goldman sets out to organize public protest in response to the pending execution of Japanese anarchist Kotoku Shusui (Denjiro), his common-law wife, Kanno Sugako, and twenty-four others.
Goldman scheduled to lecture on "The Danger of the Growing Power of the Church" in New York City.
Police authorities deny Goldman the right to speak in Washington, D.C., and Indianapolis. Escapes police interference in Baltimore where she presents five lectures.
Anarchism and Other Essays published.
Goldman begins Sunday lecture series in New York City on anarchism, the drama, "Tolstoy, the Rebel," and "The Parody of Philanthropy."
Anarchist ball sponsored by Mother Earth in New York City.
Mother Earth office moved from 210 East Thirteenth Street to 55 West 28th Street, New York City.
Goldman speaks at the inauguration of the new Ferrer School in New York City.
Goldman begins her annual "pilgrimage" with a lecture in Rochester. Over the next six months she will travel to fifty cities in eighteen states, delivering 150 lectures and debates.
Goldman's lectures in Buffalo and Pittsburgh poorly attended.
Successful events in Cleveland, especially the Jewish meeting.
Goldman has mixed results in Columbus; denied opportunity to speak on several occasions. Goldman receives support from many members of the United Mine Workers, although the leaders of the UMW vote against inviting Goldman to speak at their convention.
Goldman holds small meetings in Elyria and Dayton, Ohio.
Speaks in Cincinnati.
Execution of twelve anarchists in Japan.
After free-speech battle in Indianapolis, Goldman is offered use of the Pentecost Tabernacle by a preacher; the next day she speaks at the Universalist Church.
Goldman holds two meetings in Toledo.
January 31-February 5
Lectures in Detroit disappointing.
Goldman's lectures in Ann Arbor received more favorably than previous year.
Speaking engagement in Grand Rapids hosted by William Buwalda.
Goldman lectures in Chicago.
February 26-March 3
With the help of William Marion Reedy, Goldman's lectures are widely attended in St. Louis. Meets political artist Robert Minor. Roger Baldwin arranges two speaking engagements for Goldman at the exclusive Wednesday Ladies' Club. Lecture topics include "The Eternal Spirit of Revolution," "The Social Importance of Ferrer's Modern School," "Tolstoy--Artist and Rebel," and "Galsworthy's Justice."
Goldman encounters police interference in Staunton, Ill., but manages to speak before members of this mining town despite arrest of one comrade.
Goldman lectures in Belleville, Ill., Milwaukee, and Madison.
Ricardo Flores Magón appeals to Goldman for support of the revolutionary movement in Mexico.
Scheduling problems for Goldman's lecture series in St. Paul-- holds only one meeting.
Fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City kills 146 people, mostly young women.
Goldman delivers six lectures in Minneapolis and three lectures in Omaha.
Goldman speaks to law students in Lincoln, Nebr., and Lawrence, Kans.
Scheduled to participate in a debate and speak before a Jewish audience in Chicago.
Goldman scheduled to speak in Kansas City, Mo.
Free Speech League incorporated in Albany, N.Y., by Leonard D. Abbott, president, and Brand Whitlock, vice president.
Goldman's lecture on "Victims of Morality" among the most well attended in Denver.
Goldman speaks in Salt Lake City.
Climax of land revolt in Baja California led by the Partido Liberal Mexicano; Porfirio Diaz signs a peace treaty with Francisco Madero in Mexico.
April 30-May 7
Goldman immensely pleased with success of her tour in Los Angeles; holds eleven meetings and raises financial support for the Mexican cause, and likens the uprising to the Paris Commune.
Goldman holds two meetings in San Diego.
Goldman accused of being an agent provocateur by the editors of Justice, a publication of the Social-Democratic Party in London, England. Accusation prompts anarchists and liberal journalists and lawyers to rally to Goldman's defense; statement protesting charges made by Justice is circulated.
Goldman lectures twice in Fresno, Calif.
Eight lectures and a debate in San Francisco.
Late May-early June
Goldman lectures in Portland and Seattle.
Six-month tour concluded with lectures in Spokane, Colville, Wash., Boise, and Denver. Collections made for Mexican comrades.
Goldman spends time with Alexander Berkman at their Ossining summer retreat while Berkman completes Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist.
Goldman rallies support for the Mexican Revolution at a mass meeting at Union Square in New York City. Other speakers include Elizabeth Gurley Flynn and Max Baginski.
Unable to secure a mainstream publisher for Berkman's book, Goldman seeks financial support from attorney Gilbert Roe and journalist Lincoln Steffens for its publication by the Mother Earth Publishing Association.
Goldman speaks out about "The Growing Religious Superstition" at a mass meeting in New York City.
Goldman among speakers at a New York City commemoration of the second anniversary of the death of Francisco Ferrer. Other speakers include Leonard Abbott, James P. Morton, and Harry Kelly. Bayard Boyesen, professor at Columbia University and a teacher at the Ferrer School, is later fired by university administrators for having shared the platform with Goldman at this event.
October 15-December 10
Series of Sunday afternoon and evening lectures in Yiddish and English to residents of New York City's Lower East Side. Lecture topics include "Marriage and the Lot of Children among the Poor," "Government by Spies: The McNamara Case and Burns," "Art and Revolution," "Communism, the Most Practical Basis for Society," "Mary Wollstonecraft, the Pioneer of Modern Womanhood," and "Socialism Caught in Its Political Trap."
Mother Earth concert and ball to take place in New York City.
John and James McNamara plead guilty to bombing the Los Angeles Times building; admission of guilt creates controversy among their supporters who believed them to be innocent. Goldman defends their action in Mother Earth editorial.
Goldman scheduled to present a farewell lecture on "Sex, the Element of Creative Work," in New York City, before departing for annual lecture tour with Ben Reitman.
Paul Orleneff returns to the United States for a brief series of dramatic performances.
Lawrence, Mass., textile strike begins.
Goldman debates socialist Sol Fieldman twice in New York on "Direct versus Political Action." Bill Haywood and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn take collections for the striking textile workers.
Mother Earth alerts its readers to a major free-speech fight in San Diego.
Goldman a scheduled speaker at a meeting organized by the Italian Socialist Federation in Union Square to raise support for the Lawrence strikers.
Goldman's annual lecture tour begins in Ohio; speaks in Cleveland, Lorain, Elyria, Columbus, and Dayton; topics include "Anarchism, the Moving Spirit in the Labor Struggle" and "Maternity," a Drama by Eugene Brieux (Why the Poor Should Not Have Children)."
Lectures in Indianapolis and St. Louis.
Aroused by the experience of hearing her lecture, Almeda Sperry begins a passionate correspondence with Goldman.
Goldman continues lectures in Chicago; topics include "The Failure of Christianity" and "Edmond Rostand's Chantecler." Debates Dr. Denslow Lewis on "Resolved, that the institution of marriage is detrimental to the best interests of society."
Meets Russian revolutionary Vladimir Bourtzeff.
March 10-April 13
Speaking engagements in Grand Rapids, Detroit, Ann Arbor, Milwaukee, Madison, Minneapolis, Omaha, Kansas City, and Lawrence, Kans.
Goldman's lectures in Denver positively received; lecture topics include "Woman's Inhumanity to Man" and "The Failure of Charity." Denver Post features interviews with and articles by Goldman.
Extends stay in Denver to teach a course on the modern drama.
Goldman in Salt Lake City.
Continuation of lecture tour in Los Angeles; Goldman responds to growing intensity of free-speech battle in San Diego. On May 13, she speaks at the Los Angeles funeral of IWW agitator Joseph Mikolasek, killed by the San Diego police on May 7.
Mob of vigilantes waits for Goldman's arrival at the San Diego train station; follows her to the Grant Hotel in an attempt to run her out of town. Reitman is kidnapped, tarred, and sage-brushed, his buttocks singed by cigar with the letters "I.W.W." Goldman flees from San Diego to Los Angeles.
U.S. grand jury initiated to investigate the IWW as "an organization operating contrary to the laws of the United States." Proceedings terminated before Goldman formally called to testify.
Goldman and Reitman among speakers at two large protest meetings held in Los Angeles.
Goldman and Reitman in San Francisco; lectures on anarchism and the San Diego free-speech battle are widely attended despite condemnation of Goldman in the press.
Socialists deny Goldman use of their Oakland auditorium.
Reitman and Goldman speak in Sacramento about their recent experience in San Diego.
Goldman continues lecture tour in Portland.
Goldman's lecture series in Seattle threatened by U.S. military veterans who protest her right to speak. Mayor orders a large contingent of police to monitor, rather than bar, her lectures. Goldman speaks in public in defiance of anonymous death threat; no attempts made on her life.
Goldman travels to Spokane, Colville, Wash., and Butte to lecture.
Following a long illness, Voltairine de Cleyre dies at the age of forty-five.
June 26-July 13
Goldman returns to Denver intending to teach classes on eugenics and on modern drama; eugenics class canceled for lack of interest. Public lecture topics include "Patriotism--a Menace to Liberty" and "Vice, Its Cause and Cure."
Her lecture circuit completed, Goldman stops at the Waldheim cemetery in Chicago to visit Voltairine de Cleyre's grave.
Goldman pleased to return to a well-organized _Mother Earth_ office in New York.
Summer and Fall
Goldman vacations and writes at the Ossining farm; grows impatient with Berkman's difficulties with revision of Prison Memoirs.
Goldman impressed by African-American political theorist W. E. B. Du Bois lecture at the Sunrise Club in New York.
October 6-December 22
Goldman holds a Yiddish and English Sunday lecture series in New York City; topics include "The Psychology of Anarchism," "The Dupes of Politics," "Sex Sterilization of Criminals," "The Resurrection of Alexander Berkman: Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist," "The Failure of Democracy," "Economic Efficiency--the Modern Menace," and Damaged Goods by Eugène Brieux (A Powerful Drama, Dealing with the Curse of Venereal Disease).
Woodrow Wilson elected president; Socialist candidate Eugene Debs receives over 900,000 votes.
Goldman participates in major commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Haymarket martyrs in New York, sponsored by more than a dozen anarchist and labor organizations.
Goldman scheduled to speak at a meeting organized by Almeda Sperry in New Kensington, Pa., followed by meetings in Pittsburgh, New Castle, and McKees Rocks.
Goldman scheduled to lecture on syndicalism in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn.
Gala celebration of Peter Kropotkin's seventieth birthday in New York City cosponsored by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme and Mother Earth; Goldman a featured speaker.
Berkman and Goldman speak at the Chicago celebration of Kropotkin's birthday.
Goldman scheduled to lecture on Leonid Andreyev's King Hunger in Brownsville.
Mother Earth Grand Ball and Reunion in New York.
January 12-February 16
Goldman delivers six Sunday lectures in New York City on the modern drama, discussing the plays of Scandinavian, German, Austrian, French, English, and Russian dramatists including August Strindberg, Gerhart Hauptmann, Arthur Schnitzler, Frank Wedekind, Maurice Maeterlinck, Edmond Rostand, Octave Mirbeau, Eugène Brieux, George Bernard Shaw, Arthur Pinero, John Galsworthy, Charles Rann Kennedy, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, Maxim Gorki, and Leonid Andreyev.
Lecture in Hartford, Conn.
Lecture in Newark, N.J.
The International Exhibition of Modern Art--the Armory Show--opens at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City.
Benefit event for Mother Earth's eighth anniversary and for Goldman on the eve of her departure for her annual lecture tour.
February 22-April 22
Goldman describes her engagements in Cleveland, Toledo, Detroit, Ann Arbor, Indianapolis, St. Louis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Mo., Coffeyville, Lawrence, and Topeka, Kans., as "dreadfully uneventful and dull." Lecture topics include "Sex Sterilization of Criminals," "The Psychology of Anarchism," "Woman's Inhumanity to Man," "Syndicalism--the Modern Menace to Capitalism," "Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist," "Syndicalism, the Strongest Weapon of Labor--a Discussion of Direct Action, Sabotage and the General Strike," and the modern drama.
Paterson, N.J., silk strike begins.
Goldman opens series of lectures on Nietzsche at the Woman's Club in Denver.
Goldman lectures on the modern drama in Denver, which "brought larger and more representative audiences than we have ever had in Denver."
Goldman delivers thirteen lectures in Los Angeles.
Goldman accompanies Reitman, obsessed with returning to San Diego, to the place of his abduction by vigilantes the previous year.
Goldman and Reitman arrested on arrival in San Diego; vigilantes surround the police station. Police order Goldman and Reitman to board the afternoon train back to Los Angeles.
In Los Angeles, Goldman and others speak out against continued vigilante intimidation in San Diego.
May 25-June 8
Goldman delivers a series of anarchist propaganda lectures in San Francisco, followed by several talks on the modern drama, including Stanley Houghton's Hindel Wakes, John Galsworthy's The Wheels of Justice Crush All, and Charles Rann Kennedy's The Dignity of Labor.
Arahata Kanson translates Goldman's essay "The Tragedy of Woman's Emancipation" into Japanese.
June 16-July 9
Goldman lectures on anarchism and the modern drama in Los Angeles. General lecture topics include "Friedrich Nietzsche, the Anti-Governmentalist," "The Social Evil," and "The Child and Its Enemies: The Revolutionary Developments in Modern Education." Dramatists discussed include Henrik Ibsen, Hermann Sudermann, Otto Hartleben, J. M. Synge, William Butler Yeats, Lady Isabella Gregory, Lennox Robinson, Thomas C. Murray, and E. N. Chirikov.
Paterson silk strike ends in failure.
Due to her popular success the previous month, Goldman is welcomed back to San Francisco to continue her lecture series. Debates socialist Maynard Shipley, and, in addition to a series on the modern drama, delivers several talks on general topics including "The Relation of the Individual to Society" and, in Yiddish, "Should the Poor Have Many Children." Goldman notes that her lecture on "The Social Evil" attracted the biggest and most diverse audience.
In Portland, Goldman delivers lectures on the modern drama, including the works of playwrights Ludwig Thoma, Stanley Houghton, and Katherine Githa Sowerby. Other public speaking engagements include a debate with socialist W. F. Ries and a lecture on the sterilization laws adopted by the state of Oregon.
In Seattle, while distributing advance lecture bills for Goldman, Reitman and another publicist are arrested on the charge of "peddling bills without a license," and released on five dollars bail.
The Seattle Free Speech League protests the actions of the president of the University of Washington, who disallowed the scheduling of Goldman's lectures at campus facilities.
Goldman delivers several lectures in Seattle, including three in the IWW meeting hall; describes them as "the most wonderful I have addressed in many years."
Canadian immigration authorities prevent Goldman from entering the country.
Goldman participates in debate on "Anarchism versus Socialism," and speaks on "Marriage and Love" in Everett, Wash., despite the mayor's intention to bar her public talks.
Goldman delivers three lectures in Spokane, including "The Social and Revolutionary Significance of the Modern Drama."
"The Growing Danger of the Power of the Church" is the most popular of two lectures delivered by Goldman in Butte, Mont.
Back in New York City, Goldman engages in a search for a large apartment to combine the Mother Earth office with a household comprised of Reitman and his mother, Berkman, Mother Earth secretary M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, and French housekeeper Rhoda Smith. By the end of the month, she moves from 210 East 13th Street, where she has lived since 1903, to 74 West 119th Street.
Settled in her new home, Goldman prepares her modern drama manuscript for publication.
Goldman organizes political support for IWW members arrested in connection with strike of Canadian miners, and for Jesus Rangel, Charles Kline and twelve members of the Partido Liberal Mexicano charged with murdering a deputy sheriff in San Antonio, Tex.
Goldman among speakers at a Francisco Ferrer memorial meeting in New York City.
Annual Mother Earth reunion concert and ball takes place in New York.
Goldman delivers two lectures in Trenton, N.J.
November 2-December 28
Goldman conducts Sunday evening lectures series in New York City; topics include "Our Moral Censors," "The Place of Anarchism in Modern Thought," "The Strike of Mothers," "The Intellectual Proletarians," and "Why Strikes Are Lost."
Goldman hosts a social gathering for British syndicalist Tom Mann.
Despite warnings by the Paterson, N.J., police forbidding Goldman from speaking, she addresses members of the IWW on "The Spirit of Anarchism in the Labor Struggle." Goldman is forced off the platform; audience members engage in battle with the police to release her.
Annual "Christmas Gathering of the Mother EarthFamily" in New York City.
Goldman's Mother Earth essay "Self-Defense for Labor" responds to a series of violent labor violations; in the absence of legal protection against the danger of exercising their right to organize, Goldman calls on workers to arm themselves for self-defense.
Joe Hill arrested in Utah; charged with murder despite lack of evidence.
Goldman's household arrangement with Reitman and his mother fails. Goldman's relationship with him becomes "unbearable"; Reitman moves back to Chicago.
Goldman continues to work on the manuscript of Social Significance of the Modern Drama.
Philadelphia police expel audience and lock the hall where Goldman is scheduled to lecture on "The Awakening of Labor"; event moved to another location where the lecture proceeds without interruption.
Under the auspices of the Free Speech League, Goldman addresses large meeting in Paterson, N.J., to protest recent violations of free speech; other speakers include single-taxer Bolton Hall, Leonard Abbott, and Lincoln Steffens.
January 11-March 8
Goldman delivers extensive lecture series in New York City on the modern drama; expands her repertoire to discuss the works of British poet and dramatist John Masefield, and American playwrights Mark E. Swan, William J. Hurlbut, Joshua Rosett, and Edwin Davies Schoonmaker. Responding to the massive unemployment of the time, Goldman requests contributions for the jobless at each lecture.
Goldman offered high-paying speaking engagements in vaudeville; after brief contemplation of proposition based on desperate financial need, she turns down offer.
Lecture in Newark, N.J.
Goldman delivers lecture in Philadelphia; notes free-speech victory with complete retreat of police authorities.
Goldman, in Yiddish, among speakers at an afternoon celebration of the ninth anniversary of the publication of Mother Earth and a commemoration of the Paris Commune; other speakers include Berkman, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Harry Kelly.
Goldman delivers farewell lecture in New York City. American playwright George Middleton and actresses Fola La Follette and Mary Shaw speak on "What Drama Means to Me."
Goldman addresses demonstration of unemployed workers at Union Square in New York City; rally is followed by march along Fifth Avenue. Event launches city-wide campaign of the unemployed, in which Berkman takes an active role.
The Social Significance of the Modern Drama published.
Reunited, Goldman and Reitman open their seventh annual tour in Chicago with "splendid" Jewish meetings.
Goldman lectures on "The Conflict of the Sexes" in Chicago; attended by at least one thousand people.
Goldman presents expanded afternoon lecture series on the modern drama in Chicago. Playwrights analyzed include British dramatist St. John Hankin, Welsh author John O. Francis, and American dramatists Eugene Walter and George Middleton.
Other lectures presented in Chicago during this period include "Our Moral Censors," "The Individual and Society," "The Hypocrisy of Charity," "Beyond Good and Evil," "Anarchism and Labor" (in German), and "The Mother Strike."
In Chicago, Goldman befriends Margaret Anderson, editor of the literary magazine Little Review.
Goldman lectures in Madison, Minneapolis, and Des Moines.
Massacre of striking coal miners in Ludlow, Colo., by armed company guards from John D. Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel & Iron Co.; eleven children and two women among those killed.
April 28-May 9
Goldman delivers seven propaganda lectures and eleven modern drama talks in Denver.
On May 3, Goldman addresses large meeting organized by the Anti-Militarist League of Denver to protest the use of federal troops in the Colorado mining strike and the war with Mexico.
Goldman attributes Denver IWW free-speech victory in part to the efforts of Reitman, who helped secure the release of twenty-seven IWW members from the county jail.
Goldman makes brief appearance in Salt Lake City.
May 15-June 11
In Los Angeles, Goldman continues delivering propaganda and modern drama lectures, which includes discussion of Irish playwright Seamus O'Kelly. Her propaganda lectures include "Revolution and Reform--Which?" and "The Place of the Church in the Labor Struggle." Goldman reports to birth-control advocate Margaret Sanger that "Not one of my lectures brings out such a crowd as the one on the birth strike and it is the same with the W[oman] R[ebel]. It sells better than anything we have" (May 26, 1914).
June 14-July 10
Goldman reception in San Francisco disappointing compared to her experience in Los Angeles. Lectures include "The Intellectual Proletarians," "The Superman in Relation to the Social Revolution," "The Mothers' Strike," and "Anti-Militarism: The Reply to War."
Accidental bomb explosion at Lexington Avenue in New York City kills four people, including Arthur Caron, Carl Hansen, and Charles Berg, anarchists who knew Berkman from the protests at John D. Rockefeller's estate in Tarrytown, N.Y.
Goldman travels to Eureka and Arcata, lumber towns in Humboldt County, Calif.; delivers first-known anarchist lectures there to enthusiastic audiences.
On July 11 in New York City, a rally and public funeral of six thousand people mourn the deaths of those killed in the Lexington Avenue explosion. Berkman, a key organizer of event, speaks at rally despite heavy police surveillance. Goldman furious when she receives the July issue of Mother Earth, which, unbeknownst to her, has been filled with "harangues...of a most violent character.... [including] prattle about force and dynamite."
Goldman lectures in Portland, much aided by C. E. S. Wood. Among the most notable and well attended of her lectures is "Intellectual Proletarians" at the Portland Public Library. Other talks presented include "The Immorality of Prohibition and Continence," about the prohibition campaign of Portland, which Goldman later described as "one of the most exciting evenings in my public career." The focus of her drama criticism expands during this tour to include the work of Norwegian playwright Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.
July 26-August 3
Goldman reports that her lectures in Seattle are "flat and uninteresting."
Outbreak of World War I in Europe.
Goldman speaks at a hastily organized event in Tacoma, Wash., on "The Birth Strike--Why and How the Poor Should Not Have Children." Following Tacoma, she travels to Home Colony.
Goldman returns to Portland to deliver a series of free lectures.
Goldman delivers five lectures in Butte, of which the most popular are her antiwar and birth control talks.
Goldman makes brief stop in Chicago before returning to New York City, where she finds Mother Earth in disastrous financial condition as a result of Berkman's poor management.
Margaret Sanger indicted for obscenity in connection with her journal The Woman Rebel. A few months later, Sanger flees the country until Oct. 1915.
To decrease financial burden, Goldman relocates her residence and the _Mother Earth_ office from West 119th Street to smaller quarters located at 20 East 125th Street.
Goldman encourages Berkman to embark on an independent lecture tour; places Max Baginski and her nephew Saxe Commins in charge of editorial work of Mother Earth.
Part one of Peter Kropotkin's 1913 essay, "Wars and Capitalism," reprinted in Mother Earth, in an effort to refute Kropotkin's stance in favor of the war.
October 23-November 15
Goldman returns to Chicago for series of propaganda and modern drama lectures, delivered in both English and Yiddish. General lecture topics include "War and the Sacred Right of Property," "The Betrayal of the International," "The False Pretenses of Culture," "The Psychology of War," "The Tsar and 'My' Jews," "The War and 'Our Lord'," "The Misconceptions of Free Love," and "Woman and War."
Her English series on the drama, titled "The Modern Drama as a Mirror of Individual, Class and Social Rebellion Against the Tyranny of the Past," takes place in Chicago's elegant Fine Arts Building, made possible by the financial backing of a wealthy supporter. Goldman's usual focus on European dramatists is expanded to include for the first time Swedish dramatist Hjalmar Bergman; French playwrights Paul Hervieu, (Félix) Henry Bataille, and Henri Becque; Italian dramatists Gabriele D'Annunzio and Giuseppe Giacosa; Spanish playwright José Echegaray; Yiddish dramatists Jacob Gordin, Sholem Asch, David Pinski, and Max Nordau; and American playwright Butler Davenport.
Goldman describes the audience of her Chicago Press Club luncheon lecture on "The Relationship of Anarchism to Literature" as "five hundred hard-faced men."
In Chicago, Goldman participates in event to commemorate the twenty-seventh anniversary of the death of the Haymarket martyrs.
Goldman delivers lectures in Detroit and Ann Arbor.
Goldman delighted with the success of her meetings, including lecture on "The War and 'Our Lord,'" in Grand Rapids, Mich., organized by William Buwalda of the Analyser Club.
November 29-December 6
In St. Louis, Goldman delivers eight English and two Yiddish lectures to receptive audiences.
Lectures in Indianapolis and Cincinnati; interaction with Indianapolis audience at her lecture on "Free Love" described as "both interesting and funny."
Goldman presents two English and two Yiddish lectures in Cleveland, and delivers an address before the Council of Economics.
In Pittsburgh, Goldman holds a meeting organized by lawyer Jacob Margolis.
Goldman delivers lecture on the war to an audience of eighteen hundred people at an event organized by her niece Miriam Cominsky in Rochester. Days later, Goldman speaks on "The Birth Strike."
Goldman hosts New Year's eve party at her apartment on East 125th Street; Mabel Dodge among those invited.
Goldman helps organize defense of Matthew Schmidt and David Caplan, arrested for complicity in the 1910 bombing of the Los Angeles Times building.
Goldman delivers series of lectures on the war and on sexuality in New York City, Albany, Schenectady, and Boston. Topics include "Anarchism and Literature," "Feminism--A Criticism of Woman's Struggle for the Vote and 'Freedom'," "Nietzsche, The Intellectual Storm-Center of the Great War," "The Intermediate Sex (A Study of Homosexuality)," and "Man--Monogamist or Varietist?"
At the end of 1915, Reitman reports that Goldman has delivered a total of 321 lectures that year.
Goldman attends concert of her nephew David Hochstein, a violinist with exceptional talent.
William Sanger arrested for circulating a copy of Margaret Sanger's pamphlet Family Limitation.
Goldman lectures on "Limitation of Offspring" to six hundred people, one of the liberal New York Sunrise Club's largest audiences. Although she details explicit information about birth control methods, Goldman is not arrested.
Mother Earth "Red Revel" Ball takes place in New York City; attended by close to eight hundred people of many nationalities.
Goldman helps raise money for the defense fund of Frank Abarno and Carmine Carbone, members of the Italian anarchist Gruppo Gaetano Bresci, arrested on March 2 for conspiracy to bomb St. Patrick's Cathedral. On April 9, Abarno and Carbone are convicted and sentenced to six to twelve years in prison.
Goldman disappointed by the poor attendance at the tenth anniversary of Mother Earth in New York.
Goldman shares the platform with Harry Kelly, Italian anarchist Carlo Tresca, Pedro Esteve, Russian anarchist William Shatoff, and physician and anarchist Michael Cohn for an international celebration of the anniversary of the Paris Commune. Goldman attributes poor turnout to the divided stance among radicals on the war.
Goldman lectures again on "Limitation of Offspring--Why and How Small Families are Preferable" in New York. Although explicit information is repeated and detectives are present, no arrests are made.
Goldman invited by the students of the Union Theological Seminary in New York to speak on "The Message of Anarchism," but administration cancels the engagement.
Writing from exile in Europe, Margaret Sanger criticizes Goldman for failing to provide adequate support and coverage of Sanger's legal battles. Goldman calls her charge "very unfair" and assures her that Mother Earth will stand by her.
The Organizing Junta of the Partido Liberal Mexicano, including the Magón bothers, appeals to the readers of Mother Earth for solidarity with the Mexican revolutionary movement.
Goldman poses for a portrait by artist Robert Henri.
Goldman debates economist Isaac Hourwich on "Social Revolution versus Social Reform" in New York City in a benefit for the Ferrer School; attended by nearly two thousand people.
Goldman speaks on "The Failure of Christianity" and the Billy Sunday movement in Paterson, N.J., after attending one of Sunday's revival meetings.
Motivated primarily by need to pay off debts of Mother Earth, Goldman embarks on a lecture tour. One of her first engagements, in Philadelphia, is delivering "The Limitation of Offspring" in Yiddish before an audience of twelve hundred.
International Anarchist Manifesto on the War issued from London; Goldman among over thirty anarchist signatories from the United States, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Russia.
Goldman lectures on the war, drama, birth control, and sexuality in Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago, Milwaukee, Madison, Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Denver. topics include "Jealousy, Its Cause and Possible Cure," the Modern School, and feminism. Finds that audiences are most receptive to her lectures on war and on birth control, although Catholic socialists harass her in Washington, D.C.
Goldman continues her lecture tour in Los Angeles and San Diego, raising support for the Caplan-Schmidt defense fund.
While in Los Angeles, Goldman presents her critique of feminism to a hostile group of five hundred members of the Woman's City Club, who, according to Goldman, denounce her as "an enemy of woman's freedom."
Goldman delivers twenty-four lectures in San Francisco; topics include "The Psychology of War," "The Follies of Feminism (A criticism of the Modern Woman's Movement)," "Religion and the War," and "The Right of the Child Not to Be Born." According to Reitman, Goldman presents "an inspired address" on "The Philosophy of Atheism" before the Congress of Religious Philosophy at the Civic Auditorium.
Lectures continue in Portland; on Aug. 6, while beginning a speech on "Birth Control," Goldman and Reitman are arrested for distributing birth control literature. Goldman released on $500 bail provided by C. E. S. Wood.
Goldman and Reitman are fined $100. Despite proclamation by the chief of police that Goldman will not be allowed to speak again in Portland, she presents "The Intermediate Sex" later that night, and two lectures the following day.
Goldman speaks on "The Sham of Culture" at the Portland Public Library to overflowing crowd.
Goldman's case dismissed by Portland Circuit Judge Gatens who concludes, "There is too much tendency to prudery nowadays."
Goldman lectures in Seattle where she has difficulty securing halls.
Goldman returns to New York.
William Sanger convicted for illegal distribution of birth control literature; Sanger serves thirty-day jail sentence in lieu of paying $150 fine.
Goldman scheduled to speak at meeting to rally support for David Caplan and Matthew Schmidt prior to the opening of their trials. (During the course of Schmidt's trial, it is revealed that Donald Vose, the son of an anarchist friend of Goldman's, had been employed since May 1914 by detective William J. Burns to spy on Goldman in order to locate Schmidt. Vose resided at Goldman's apartment and at her farm in Ossining the previous year, and witnessed Schmidt visiting Goldman. Schmidt was later arrested.)
Reitman, in Chicago, begins work on a book about venereal disease; Goldman reviews the first chapter.
Goldman delivers five lectures--including "Preparedness, the Road to Universal Slaughter" in Philadelphia. Scott Nearing of the University of Pennsylvania attends one of her lectures.
Goldman lectures in Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Ann Arbor, Detroit, Akron, and Youngstown. On Nov. 11, the anniversary of the Haymarket martyrs, Goldman delivers her "Preparedness" lecture to three thousand employees of a Westinghouse defense plant at a street lecture in East Pittsburgh.
IWW member and songwriter Joe Hill (Joseph Hillstrom) executed in Utah.
November 19-December 5
Goldman presents sixteen lectures in Chicago, including six in Yiddish; "Sex, the Great Element of Creative Art" and "The Right of the Child Not to be Born" among the topics addressed.
Goldman lectures in St. Louis, Indianapolis, Columbus, Akron, Cleveland, and Youngstown. Goldman remarks that the Akron newspaper reports on her birth control lectures were among the most intelligent she had ever seen.
Goldman returns to New York ill and exhausted; seeks better accommodations at the Theresa Hotel in New York, as the Mother Earth office has no bath. Hotel management refuses to grant her residence. Attorney Harry Weinberger protests on Goldman's behalf.
Goldman lectures in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh, on sexuality, modern drama, and the war, including "Preparedness: A Conspiracy between the Munitions Manufacturers and Washington." Also lectures before enthusiastic members of a prominent women's club in Brooklyn.
Matthew Schmidt convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Berkman announces publication of the first issue of his San Francisco-based journal The Blast.
Goldman continues her lectures--including "The Ego and His Own, a review of Max Stirner's book," "The Family, the Great Obstacle to Development," and "Nietzsche and the German Kaiser"--in New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and Pittsburgh. Her lectures on modern drama include Irish playwrights Synge, Yeats, Thomas Cornelius Murray, Rutherford Mayne, and Lennox Robinson.
Goldman arrested in New York City for her birth control lecture the previous week; released on $500 bail. Preliminary hearing takes place Feb. 28; case postponed for Special Sessions April 5. Goldman appeals for support.
Ricardo and Enrique Flores Magón, editors of the Mexican anarchist periodical Regeneración, arrested and jailed on charges of "having used the mails to incite murder, arson, and treason." Months later, they are both convicted and given prison sentences and fines.
Celebration in New York City for Margaret Sanger following the dismissal of all charges against her; Robert Minor's motion for Goldman to speak at the meeting is not supported.
Mass meeting held in San Francisco to protest Goldman's Feb. 11 arrest.
Goldman prepares for her birth control trial and continues to lecture in New York; drama critique includes discussion of British playwright Harley Granville-Barker.
Goldman chairs public meeting in New York to protest imprisonment of Matthew Schmidt.
Goldman's courtroom hearing on her birth control violation takes place amid ruckus between police and her supporters.
Benefit banquet for Goldman at the Hotel Brevoort is attended by notable artists, writers, socialists, and doctors, including John Cowper Powys, Alexander Harvey, Robert Henri, George Bellows, Robert Minor, Boardman Robinson, and Rose Pastor Stokes.
Goldman defends herself in birth control trial. She is convicted, and, in lieu of paying $100 fine, serves fifteen days in the Queens County Penitentiary; released May 4.
Reitman arrested in New York for distributing pamphlets on birth control.
Large gathering at Carnegie Hall to celebrate Goldman's release from jail. Program includes speeches by Masses editor Max Eastman, Harry Weinberger, Arturo Giovannitti, and socialist Rose Pastor Stokes. At the close of the meeting, Rose Pastor Stokes hands out one hundred typewritten notices including outlawed information about birth control.
Reitman convicted and sentenced to sixty days in Queens County Jail.
Goldman speaks from the back of a car at an open-air demonstration in Union Square to protest Reitman's imprisonment for distributing birth control. Ida Rauh Eastman, Bolton Hall, and Jessie Ashley are arrested later and charged with illegally distributing birth control information at the meeting.
Goldman conducts lecture tour in Philadelphia, Cleveland, Denver, Los Angeles, and San Francisco; topics include "Free or Forced Motherhood," "Anarchism and Human Nature--Do They Harmonize?," "The Family--Its Enslaving Effect upon Parents and Children," "Art and Revolution: The Irish Uprising," in addition to lectures on the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman.
Goldman plans meeting with Giovannitti and others to begin work on an anti-militarist manifesto.
During strike of thirty thousand iron-ore miners of the Mesabi range in northern Minnesota, Carlo Tresca and other IWW strike leaders are arrested on charge of inciting the murder of a deputy.
Social dance and benefit for the defense funds of David Caplan and Enrique and Ricardo Flores Magón takes place in Los Angeles. Goldman and Berkman celebrate their success in raising the $10,000 bail necessary to secure the release of the Magon brothers.
A bomb is thrown into the crowd at a Preparedness Day parade in San Francisco, killing ten and wounding forty people. On the same day, Goldman proceeds as planned with her scheduled talk on "Preparedness, the Road to Universal Slaughter."
The authorities immediately suspect anarchist involvement in the bombing. A few days later, they search and seize material located at the offices of The Blast, and threaten to arrest Berkman and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald. Later that week, Warren Billings, Israel Weinberg, Edward Nolan, Thomas Mooney, and Rena Mooney are arrested. Goldman and Berkman begin to organize support for their defense.
Goldman lectures in Portland, Seattle, and Denver; Goldman's lecture "The Gary System" addresses the topic of public school education. In Denver, Goldman's lectures include "The Educational and Sexual Dwarfing of the Child," and a course on "Russian Literature--The Voice of Revolt."
Trial of Warren Billings begins in San Francisco.
Goldman's lecture tour concluded, she takes a brief vacation in Provincetown with her niece Stella. Following the conviction and sentencing of Warren Billings to life imprisonment, Goldman resumes work with Berkman in New York in support of the Mooney case.
Appearing in court to testify on behalf of Bolton Hall, Goldman is arrested for having distributed birth control information on May 20. (Hall is later acquitted of the charge.) Goldman released on $500 bond; Harry Weinberger serves as her attorney.
Margaret Sanger is arrested for distributing birth control information.
Protesting violations of free speech and vigilante intimidation, five members of the IWW are killed and thirty-one wounded by vigilantes in Everett, Wash.; seventy-four IWW members are later tried for the murder of a deputy and a lumber company official.
Goldman lectures in Chicago, Milwaukee, Ann Arbor, Detroit, Cleveland, and Rochester on education, Russian literature, birth control, sexuality, and anarchism.
Bill Haywood, Lucy Parsons, and Goldman speak at a large memorial meeting in Chicago for the Haymarket martyrs. Collections are made for, in Goldman's words, "the living victims in the social war," including Mooney, Tresca, Caplan, Schmidt, and the IWW members arrested in Everett.
Goldman speaks at a large meeting in Carnegie Hall called by the United Hebrew Trades to protest the arrests and trials of those accused of throwing a bomb at the San Francisco Preparedness Day parade. Other speakers include lawyer Frank Walsh, Max Eastman, United Hebrew Trades leader Max Pine, Giovannitti, and Berkman.
Reitman arrested in Cleveland for organizing volunteers to distribute birth control information at Goldman's lecture "Is Birth Control Harmful--a Discussion of the Limitation of Offspring."
At one of Goldman's lectures in Rochester, Reitman is again arrested for distributing illegal birth control literature.
Goldman lectures before Yiddish- and English-speaking audiences in New York, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Passaic, N.J., Boston, Springfield, and Brockton, Mass.; topics include "Obedience, A Social Vice," "Celibacy or Sex Expression," "Vice and Censorship, Twin Sisters--How Vice is Not Suppressed," "Michael Bakunin, His Life and Work," "Walt Whitman, the Liberator of Sex," "The Speculators in War and Starvation," "American Democracy in Relation to the Russian Revolution," and a course on Russian literature.
Goldman preoccupied with threat of Berkman's extradition to California in connection with the Mooney case.
Following the February Revolution in Russia, Goldman supports William Shatoff's return to Russia with a contingent of Russian exiles and refugees. Goldman and Berkman entrust Louise Berger with the delivery of a manifesto they have written to the people of Russia to protest the imprisonment of Mooney and Billings. Goldman and Berkman attend Leon Trotsky's farewell lecture in New York City. They contemplate visiting Russia, but decide to postpone plans when they learn that the British government has held up the return of several Russian revolutionaries.
Goldman acquitted by a New York court on charge of circulating birth control information at the May 20, 1916, Union Square open-air meeting. Goldman credits especially Ida Rauh Eastman, who risks self-incrimination in order to disprove Goldman's involvement in distributing literature.
Reitman is convicted on charges resulting from his arrest of Dec. 12, 1916, and sentenced to serve six months in jail and to pay a fine of $1,000 in addition to court costs. Goldman angry that Margaret Sanger, in Cleveland at the time, failed to help rally support for Reitman.
Alien Immigration Act passed; allows deportation of undesirable aliens "any time after their entry."
In Cleveland, Goldman speaks on "The Message of Anarchism" before a full assembly of the North Congregational Church. The following day she addresses a free-speech meeting; Goldman dismayed that other speakers have refused to attend event if birth control included among issues addressed.
Mooney convicted and sentenced to hang on May 17. Goldman intensifies organizing efforts to prevent his execution.
Following large rally in support of Reitman the prior evening, Reitman is acquitted on charges from his Dec. 15, 1916 birth control arrest in Rochester.
Mooney's defense attorney W. Bourke Cockran speaks at mass meeting at Carnegie Hall organized by Goldman and Berkman.
Goldman speaks at several meetings chaired by John Sloan of the New York Art Students League.
The United States enters World War I.
Political Prisoners Ball, which Goldman has helped organize, benefits the San Francisco Labor Defense for Mooney and Billings; features "cell-booth bazaar and prison garb and military costumes." Goldman counts forty-five hundred people in attendance.
Goldman lectures in New York, Springfield, Mass., and Philadelphia; topics include "Billy Sunday (Charlatan and Vulgarian)," "The State and its Powerful Opponents: Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Stirner, Ralph Waldo Emerson, David Thoreau, and Others," "Woman's Inhumanity to Man," and Russian literature.
Conference to organize a No-Conscription League held at the Mother Earth office; away lecturing, Goldman claims that she sent a message that, as a woman, she felt she could not claim a position on whether or not the League should urge men against registering for the military.
Mooney's scheduled date of execution is stayed while case is appealed.
On the same day that the Selective Service Act is passed authorizing federal conscription for the armed forces and requiring the registration of all men between the ages of twenty-one and thirty, Goldman addresses an anti-conscription gathering of close to ten thousand people chaired by Leonard Abbott in New York City. Other speakers include Berkman and Harry Weinberger. No arrests made, but many detectives present.
Goldman speaks before a Jewish audience in Philadelphia on "Victims of Morality," addressing morality as it relates to private ownership, government and laws, and women. The police warn her against addressing conscription when she begins to urge mothers to prevent their sons from fighting in the war. Event inspires the formation of a No-Conscription League in Philadelphia.
On an order from Washington, D.C., New York postal authorities hold up June issue of Mother Earth.
Kropotkin returns to Russia.
At a peace meeting in Madison Square Garden, Morris Becker, Louis Kramer, and two others are arrested for circulating leaflets advertising a June 4 mass meeting of the No-Conscription League. Although Goldman and Berkman attempt to claim full responsibility for the event, Becker and Kramer are later found guilty of conspiracy to advise people against military registration.
On the eve of the official military registration day, Goldman, among others, addresses a mass meeting organized by the No-Conscription League; attended by ten thousand people. Goldman stops the meeting when a conflict with uniformed soldiers and sailors breaks out.
Ignoring rumors of a death threat, Goldman speaks at an anti-conscription meeting chaired by Berkman. Officers arrest all men of draft age who cannot show proof of registration.
Goldman and Berkman arrested by U.S. Marshal Thomas McCarthy; later indicted on charge of conspiracy to violate the Draft Act.
President Wilson signs the Espionage Act, which sets penalties of up to twenty years imprisonment and fines of up to $10,000 for persons aiding the enemy, interfering with the draft, or encouraging disloyalty of military members; also declares nonmailable all written material advocating treason, insurrection, or forcible resistance to the law.
Goldman and Berkman plead not guilty on conspiracy charges; bail set at $25,000 each.
Goldman disappointed by Reitman's failure to return to New York to support their pending trial.
Goldman freed on $25,000 bail; the press spreads charges that Goldman's bail was provided by the German Kaiser. Berkman released on bail June 25.
Goldman consults with some of her closest associates--including writer and editor Frank Harris, journalist and socialist John Reed, Max Eastman, and Gilbert Roe--about her disbelief in courtroom justice and her decision to participate minimally in her pending trial.
First U.S. troops arrive in France.
June 27-July 9
Goldman and Berkman act as independent counsel in their conspiracy trial; Goldman denies charge that she stated, "We believe in violence and we will use violence" at the May 18 meeting. After a brief jury deliberation, they are both found guilty and given the maximum sentence--two years in prison and $10,000 fine. Judge Julius Mayer recommends their deportation as undesirable aliens. Goldman's plea to have sentencing deferred is denied; Goldman taken to Jefferson City, Mo., and Berkman to Atlanta, Ga., to begin their sentences.
Federal authorities demand removal of Mother Earth office from its location at 20 East 125th Street; M. Eleanor Fitzgerald relocates office to 226 Lafayette Street.
Vigilantes forcibly gather and ship over twelve hundred striking members of the IWW in cattle cars from Jerome and Bisbee, Arizona, to California and New Mexico, where they are guarded by federal military authorities.
Berkman indicted in absentia in San Francisco for complicity in three murders stemming from the bombing at the 1916 Preparedness Day parade.
Goldman released from Jefferson City, Mo., prison to New York's Tombs prison; later released on $25,000 bail pending the appeal of her case before the U.S. Supreme Court. Berkman not released on bail until Sept. 10.
This month's issue of Mother Earth is held up by Post Office authorities (it proves to be the final issue published).
Goldman steps up efforts to prevent Berkman's extradition to California--solicits support from the United Hebrew Trades, the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, the Freie Arbeiter Stimme, the Forward, prominent individuals including Max Eastman, social worker and nurse Lillian Wald, Bolton Hall, publisher Benjamin Huebsch, and Sholem Asch, and many other unions and organizations.
In Butte, Mont., while assisting striking miners, IWW General Executive Board member Frank Little is brutally murdered.
Accompanied by Reitman, Goldman speaks about the status of her case, Berkman's threatened extradition, and conscription at several meetings in Chicago.
Mother Earth denied second-class mailing privileges by Post Office authorities.
The People's Council in Minneapolis convenes; although elected by various anarchist groups to serve as a delegate, Goldman refuses, objecting to its implicit prowar stance.
In response to growing IWW opposition to the war, federal authorities raid IWW headquarters in twenty-four cities. Raids precede arrests later that month of over one hundred IWW members, including Bill Haywood, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Arturo Giovannitti, and Carlo Tresca.
Anarchist Antonio Fornasier is killed by Milwaukee police after heckling a priest. His comrade Augusta Marinelli, wounded on the same occasion, dies five days later. Ten men and a woman are arrested for inciting the riot; later linked to Nov. 24 bomb explosion that occurred while they were still imprisoned; each found guilty and sentenced to between eleven and twenty-five years imprisonment. Goldman will later protest the injustice of their case, claiming a frame-up.
Upon Berkman's release from prison on $25,000 bail, he is arrested for murder in connection with the Preparedness Day bombing in San Francisco. Prompted by demonstrations in Russia, President Wilson later orders a federal investigation of the case.
Police authorities prevent Goldman from speaking publicly at a meeting at the Kessler Theater in New York; to protest and dramatize police suppression of her address, she nonetheless appears on stage, a gag over her mouth.
Labor delegation organized by Goldman calls on New York Governor Whitman to protest Berkman's threatened extradition to California.
Goldman, her niece Stella, and M. Eleanor Fitzgerald begin publication of Mother Earth Bulletin. Reitman returns to Chicago, in sharp disagreement with Goldman over the direction of the Bulletin.
Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Goldman defends Bolshevism against attacks by the American press and liberals.
Federal agents begin to investigate Goldman for her suspected role in "the Guillotine Plot"; implicated in masterminding the organization of "Committees of Five" to assassinate simultaneously the president and other state officials. Investigation continued through early 1918, when inconclusive evidence forces its abandonment.
California District Attorney Charles Fickert temporarily withdraws demand for Berkman's extradition. Berkman released from prison the following day.
Goldman speaks at New York's Hunt's Point Palace on "The Russian Revolution: Its Promise and Fulfillment" before two thousand people; describes it as a "most inspiring event."
Goldman meets Helen Keller at a benefit ball for The Masses.
Anarchist and feminist poet Louise Olivereau convicted for antiwar activities; sentenced to ten years in Colorado prison.
Weinberger presents Goldman's and Berkman's appeals before the U.S. Supreme Court; argues that the Draft Act is unconstitutional.
Police authorities prevent Goldman and Berkman from speaking at a meeting at the Harlem River Casino in New York organized by labor for the San Francisco defense.
Prior to imprisonment, Goldman delivers her last public lectures in Chicago, Detroit, and Rochester (in Yiddish and English); topics include "The Bolsheviki--Their True Nature and Aim," "The Russian Revolution and its Forerunners," "Maxim Gorki," "Leonid Andreyeff," "America and the Russian Revolution," "The Spiritual and Intellectual Development of Russia," "The Spiritual Awakening of Russia," and "Women Martyrs of Russia."
The mayor of Ann Arbor, responding to pressure from the Daughters of the American Revolution, cancels Goldman's public engagements. Plans to speak in St. Louis, Minneapolis, Denver, Kansas City, and Cleveland are abandoned in light of difficulty securing halls and her pending imprisonment.
U.S. Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of the selective service law; on Jan. 14, affirms all criminal charges arising from non-compliance with the draft.
President Wilson presents his Fourteen Points peace program to Congress.
Supreme Court mandates return of Goldman and Berkman to begin their prison sentences.
From Petrograd, the U.S. ambassador notifies the State Department of the Russian anarchists' threat to hold him personally responsible for Goldman's and Berkman's safety in prison.
Goldman's niece Stella Ballantine establishes the Mother Earth Book Shop in Greenwich Village.
Goldman and Berkman are honored in New York at the first United Russian Convention in America, attended by over 160 delegates from Russian organizations in the United States.
Prior to surrendering to federal authorities, Goldman meets with representatives of the newly formed League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners, including the chairman, educator Prince Hopkins, treasurer Leonard Abbott, and secretary M. Eleanor Fitzgerald.
Goldman held in the Tombs prison in New York until Feb. 4, when she is transported to the federal penitentiary in Jefferson City, Mo.
Goldman begins serving her prison sentence in Jefferson City, Mo., one of about ninety women federal prisoners. She is assigned the task of sewing jackets and other items for the state of Missouri, which in turn sells the clothing to private firms throughout the United States. Her prescribed daily quota causes intense strain and contributes to her ongoing physical decline.
Goldman is initially allowed to write only one two-page letter every week; soon granted the right to send an additional weekly letter to her attorney, Harry Weinberger. Allowed one monthly visit, with some exceptions. Goldman denied outside recreation on Sunday afternoons when she refuses to attend morning church services. Throughout Goldman's incarceration, she receives weekly deliveries of fresh groceries from St. Louis anarchists.
Birth Brutus, Ben Reitman's son with Anna Martindale.
Newspapers report on government charges that Goldman and Berkman had worked with German spies in foreign countries, an allegation based on correspondence from Indian nationalist Har Dayal to Berkman found among the papers seized from the Mother Earth office.
Goldman receives visit from Prince Hopkins, who reports on the activities of the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners.
Germany and its allies sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Soviet Republic.
The Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice orders copies of all correspondence to and from Goldman sent to its office in Washington, D.C.
Harry Weinberger submits motion to the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York, that the bail money provided for Goldman and Berkman should not be used to pay their fines. Motion granted by Judge Augustus N. Hand on Mar. 11.
Reitman begins his six-month prison sentence in Cleveland for his Jan. 1917 conviction for distributing birth control information.
Ricardo Flores Magón arrested in Los Angeles, placed under $25,000 bail. Later convicted under the Espionage Act for obstructing the war effort; sentenced to twenty years imprisonment.
Final issue of Mother Earth Bulletin produced; future publication made impossible by ongoing government seizures.
Ferrer Center in New York closes.
In reaction to growing protests of Russian anarchists to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Cheka--the Soviet secret police--raids anarchist centers in Moscow. Approximately forty anarchists are killed or wounded, more than five hundred taken prisoners.
Weinberger meets with the assistant superintendent of prisons in Washington, D.C., to complain about government tampering and confiscation of Goldman's mail.
Prince Hopkins arrested, indicted by federal grand jury in Los Angeles for violating the Espionage Act; released on $25,000 bail. On Aug. 30, he pleads guilty, fined $27,000.
The Sedition Act is passed, penalizing anyone judged to be hindering the war effort by making false statements, obstructing enlistment, or speaking against production of war materials, the American government, its constitution, or flag. Signed into law by President Wilson on May 21.
Goldman granted permission to write two letters every week, in addition to her letters to Weinberger.
Contemplates writing about the situation of women in prison. Receives news that William Marion Reedy and attorney Clarence Darrow are interested in the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners, but believe that nothing can be done until after the war. Anticipating orders for her deportation, Goldman begins to investigate her citizenship status.
Following suspension of the Mother Earth Bulletin, Stella Ballantine publishes a mimeographed newsletter, Instead of a Magazine.
Goldman spends her birthday in agonizing pain, induced by strain from her prison work.
Federal agents raid the apartment of Goldman's associate M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, seizing mailing lists and other relevant material. Goldman's associates Carl Newlander and William Bales arrested for draft evasion following the raid of their apartment.
U.S. intelligence agencies begin to circulate the names and addresses of over eight thousand Mother Earth subscribers, targeting them for investigation.
Goldman reluctantly concurs with Stella Ballantine's decision to close the Mother Earth Bookshop.
Roger Baldwin visits Goldman in prison.
National Mooney Day; Governor Stephens grants Mooney a reprieve until December.
Goldman is disturbed by Catherine Breshkovskaya's condemnation of the Bolsheviks.
Reitman is released from prison.
Goldman impressed by Eugene Debs's courageous stand during his trial and conviction for violation of the Espionage Act.
U.S. Committee on Public Information promotes widespread publication of alleged Russian documents that prove Bolshevik leaders are German agents.
With the spread of a deathly strain of influenza, a quarantine is established at the penitentiary in Jefferson City, Mo., where Goldman is imprisoned; all outside visits are suspended.
Goldman congratulates her lawyer Harry Weinberger for his brave defense in the Abrams case. Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman, and Hyman Lachowsky are convicted on charges of violating the Espionage Act and sentenced to twenty years in federal prison; Mollie Steimer sentenced to fifteen years.
Roger Baldwin tried before U.S. District Judge Julius Mayer for failure to register for the draft; sentenced to a year in prison.
Goldman's nephew, the talented violinist David Hochstein, dies in battle; news about his death does not reach family members until Jan. 1919.
Anti-Anarchist Act passed by Congress, granting the government authority to deport aliens living in the United States.
Mooney's death sentence commuted to life imprisonment.
Gabriella Segata Antolini, a nineteen-year-old anarchist arrested and convicted for transporting dynamite in Chicago, is imprisoned in the Jefferson City, Mo., penitentiary; she and Goldman become good friends.
End of World War I.
Goldman granted the privilege of writing three letters each week in addition to her weekly communication with Harry Weinberger.
Prison quarantine lifted; influenza outbreak under control. Goldman visited by M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, who brings her a smuggled communication from Berkman.
Goldman reads and responds to Louise Bryant's book Six Red Months in Russia: An Observer's Account of Russia before and during the Proletarian Dictatorship; Goldman is critical of Bryant's portrayal of the Russian anarchists.
Revolutionaries Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht arrested and murdered in Berlin.
New York City Police Inspector Thomas J. Tunney testifies before a Senate subcommittee chaired by Senator Overman investigating links between German agents and the U.S. Brewers' Association and allied liquor interests; recounts his investigation of Goldman and Berkman in connection with the Hindu revolutionary Har Dayal. Claims that Goldman and Berkman are close associates of Leon Trotsky. Describes Goldman as "a very able and intelligent woman and a very fine speaker."
Goldman receives a brief visit from Kate Richards O'Hare, who is anticipating her incarceration for violation of the Espionage Act.
Goldman notes that her mail is being monitored by federal authorities.
Suffering from intense pain from the physical hardship of her prison work, Goldman resorts to paying her fellow inmates to help her reach the daily quota.
Catherine Breshkovskaya testifies before the Overman Subcommittee on Bolshevik propaganda. Louise Bryant testifies on Feb. 20: states her belief that Breshkovskaya is being manipulated by Russian counter-revolutionists; remarks on Goldman's imprisonment.
Harry Weinberger appeals to the U.S. assistant superintendent of prisons in Washington, D.C., to assign Goldman to less physically demanding work. Prison authorities agree to investigate the conditions.
Goldman responds to an anonymous editorial published in the Liberator attacking the Russian anarchists.
Goldman urges Harry Weinberger to embark on a national speaking tour to promote amnesty for all political prisoners; Weinberger feels unable to comply because of lack of financial and human resources.
Goldman interviewed by Winthrop Lane for an independent investigation of federal prisons slated for publication in the research magazine Survey.
Eugene Debs incarcerated.
Immigration officer interrogates Goldman in prison. Following visit, the Bureau of Immigration privately concludes that there are no legal barriers to Goldman's deportation. Anthony Caminetti, Commissioner General of the Bureau of Immigration, pursues policy for allowing her deportation.
Socialist Kate Richards O'Hare joins Goldman in prison at the Jefferson City, Mo., penitentiary.
Benefit concert at Carnegie Hall for the League for the Amnesty of Political Prisoners organized by M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, Stella Ballantine, and Harry Weinberger.
German anarchist Gustav Landauer killed following his arrest by a unit of the anti-revolutionary Freikorps.
Goldman emphatically rejects Reitman's request to visit her in prison.
Socialist Ella Reeve Bloor visits Goldman in prison.
Mail bombs purportedly sent to Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer and other prominent officials gain media attention. Government agents wrongly implicate Goldman and Berkman in the conspiracy.
Goldman laments that "nothing vital" is being done to promote amnesty.
Goldman notes Kate Richard O'Hare's ability to influence much-needed prison reforms at the Jefferson City penitentiary.
Goldman and other prisoners allowed for the first time weekend picnics in the city park.
Frank Harris assists Goldman with planning a public celebration to welcome her home.
Goldman celebrates her fiftieth birthday in prison. Especially touched that William Shatoff sends her a bouquet of flowers from Russia.
Much to Goldman's disappointment, an amnesty conference scheduled to take place in Chicago July 2-4 is canceled.
Kate Richards O'Hare begins to type Goldman's weekly dictated letters.
Goldman's prison sentence for her primary conviction ends; one-month sentence in lieu of paying her fine begins.
Still in prison, Goldman is served a warrant for her arrest and deportation; bond set at $15,000.
Underground anarchists bomb Communist headquarters in Moscow.
Goldman's term of imprisonment at Jefferson City penitentiary expires; released on bail with orders for deportation pending. Greeted in Jefferson City by mobs of reporters, friends, and niece Stella Ballantine, who accompanies her to Rochester. Berkman released from Atlanta penitentiary on Oct. 1.
Stops in Chicago to visit Reitman; meets his wife and child.
General strike called to demand Mooney's release and amnesty for all political prisoners.
Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover, in New York to review evidence collected for Goldman's deportation, monitors protest rally that night. In search of further evidence, Hoover personally inspects storage room leased by M. Eleanor Fitzgerald and Reitman.
Goldman and Berkman spend a few days in the country to recuperate from harsh prison conditions before they begin work to oppose their deportations.
Goldman appears before immigration authorities at Ellis Island to appeal her deportation order.
Dinner in honor of Goldman and Berkman is sponsored by the Ferrer School and a committee of supporters at the Hotel Brevoort in New York City. Margaret Scully, who will hold a job as Goldman's secretary for a week, acts as a spy for the Lusk Committee, submitting her first report detailing events at the Hotel Brevoort celebration.
Immigration officials question Goldman to determine her citizenship status; Goldman claims U.S. citizenship from her marriage to Jacob A. Kersner.
Benefit theater performance in New York City raises $500 for Goldman and Berkman's deportation fight.
Violent raids of the homes of hundreds of suspected radicals take place in New York City.
Goldman and Berkman send out a three-thousand-piece solicitation to raise support for political prisoners, the fight against deportation of aliens, and to announce their proposed lecture tour scheduled to begin at the end of the month.
Goldman speaks at a New York dinner organized by friends of Kate Richards O'Hare.
Goldman and Berkman begin a short lecture tour in Detroit; Nov. 23 event attended by fifteen hundred people; Goldman claims that two thousand people had to be turned away for lack of space. Large Jewish audience attends a meeting on Nov. 25.
Department of Labor orders Berkman's deportation to Russia. Goldman's deportation order follows on Nov. 29.
Weinberger meets in Washington, D.C., with immigration officials, including Anthony Caminetti and Assistant Secretary of Labor Louis F. Post.
Goldman and Berkman address an audience of forty-five hundred people in Chicago about their prison experiences. The following day they address another large crowd. Large benefit banquet takes place at the Hotel Morrison in Chicago on Dec. 1. Goldman describes the Detroit and Chicago meetings as "among the most inspiring in our public career."
Goldman and Berkman detained at Ellis Island.
Goldman and Berkman appear in federal court before Judge Julius M. Mayer, who declares that as aliens, they have no constitutional rights. They remain in detention at Ellis Island.
Goldman and Berkman send a mass appeal for political and financial support.
U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis declines to overrule the lower court's decision in Goldman and Berkman's case.
Soviet representative Ludwig C. A. K. Martens writes to Goldman and Berkman at Ellis Island, assuring them of their right to travel and speak freely in Russia.
Goldman and Berkman send a farewell letter to their supporters.
At dawn, Goldman, Berkman, and 247 radical aliens set sail on the S.S. Buford, bound for Russia.
January 2 and 6
U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, in coordination with Justice Department agent J. Edgar Hoover and immigration commissioner Anthony Caminetti, orders the arrest of approximately ten thousand alien radicals.
S.S. Buford lands at Hangö, Finland. On Jan. 19 the deportees are met at the Russo-Finnish border by Russian representatives and received warmly at a mass meeting of soldiers and peasants in Belo-Ostrov.
Goldman and Berkman settle in Petrograd where they renew their friendships with William Shatoff, now working as Commissar of Railroads, and John Reed. Meet with Grigory Zinoviev, director of the Soviet Executive Committee, and briefly with Maxim Gorki at his home in Petrograd.
Attend a conference of anarchists, including Baltic factory workers and Kronstadt sailors, who echo criticisms of the Bolsheviks voiced by Left Social Revolutionaries and others who have paid visits to Goldman and Berkman in this period.
Death of Goldman's sister Helena Zodikow Hochstein.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Moscow where they meet with Bolshevik leaders, including Alexandra Kollontai, Commissar for Public Welfare; Anatoly Lunacharsky, Commissar for Education; Angelica Balabanoff, Secretary of the Third International; and Grigory Chicherin, Assistant Commissar for Foreign Affairs.
After attending a conference of Moscow anarchists, Goldman and Berkman are granted a meeting with Lenin on March 8 where they express concern about the suppression of dissent and the lack of press freedom and propose the establishment of a Russian society for American freedom independent of the Third International. Protests of the arrest and Trotsky's threatened execution of anarchist V. M. Eikhenbaum (Volin) lead to his transfer to Butyrki prison in Moscow and later his release.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Dmitrov to meet with Peter Kropotkin.
Goldman and Berkman return to Petrograd to secure work in support of the revolution.
Ninth Congress of the All-Russian Communist party is held in Moscow; militarization of labor stirs much debate.
Goldman and Berkman, frustrated with the Bolshevik leaders' pettiness and gross mismanagement, express dissatisfaction with their work assignments.
Goldman tours Soviet factories in Petrograd with journalist John Clayton of the Chicago Tribune, who previously interviewed her upon her arrival in Finland. Learns firsthand of the poor conditions and dissatisfaction among the workers.
Goldman and Berkman meet with members of the first British Labor Mission; dine with British philosopher Bertrand Russell, an unofficial member of the delegation. Through Russell, they meet American journalist Henry Alsberg.
Two Ukrainian anarchists, recently released from a Bolshevik prison, meet with Goldman and Berkman to inform them about the persecution of the revolutionary peasants movement led by anarchist Nestor Makhno.
As she learns more about Bolshevik misdeeds, Goldman becomes reluctant to obtain a position directly accountable to the Bolshevik regime. She and Berkman finally agree to work for the Petrograd Museum of the Revolution because the extensive traveling will give them an opportunity to study Russian conditions with the least interference from the Bolsheviks.
Goldman protests the unjust imprisonment of two teenage anarchist girls to the chief of the Petrograd Cheka.
Following a period of unsuccessful peace negotiations with Russia and buoyed by support from France and the United States, the Polish army occupies Kiev, eliciting a military response from the Soviets through June and July.
Italian anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are arrested in Brockton, Mass., in connection with a payroll robbery and the murder of two payroll employees.
U.S. immigration act passed, authorizing the deportation of all radical aliens convicted under the war statutes and certified as "undesirable residents."
Goldman nurses John Reed, in poor health following his release from a two-month prison term in Finland for unauthorized travel.
Goldman tours two legendary Czarist prisons; shocked to discover that many members of the intelligentsia had been routinely executed following the October Revolution.
John Clayton's interview with Goldman is published in several American newspapers, attributing to her a blunt criticism of the Bolshevik regime and a longing to return to the United States. To refute the claim that Goldman and Berkman oppose the Soviet government, Stella Ballantine releases a letter written by Goldman the previous month to demonstrate their support for the Bolsheviks.
Goldman and Berkman travel to Moscow to collect permits necessary for their museum expedition through Russia to gather historical material.
Goldman and Berkman meet with many foreign delegates, including European and Scandinavian anarcho-syndicalists, in Moscow for the Second Congress of the Third International; they inform the delegates about Bolshevik imprisonment of anarchists and other revolutionaries.
Meet Maria Spiridonova, leader of the Left Social Revolutionaries and former political prisoner under the Czar. They find Spiridonova, critical of the Bolshevik regime, living in disguise to avoid further imprisonment.
Meet again with Kropotkin.
July 15-August 6
Eight-member museum expedition, including Henry Alsberg, travels through the Ukraine. Goldman given responsibility for collecting materials from education, health, social welfare, and labor bureaus. Though they discover alarming poverty and overt criticism of the Bolshevik regime, they are hesitant to condemn publicly the Soviet experiment until they have the opportunity to gather more evidence.
Travel to Kursk, a large industrial center. In Kharkov they meet a number of anarchists they had worked with in the United States, including Aaron and Fanya Baron, Mark Mratchny, and Senya Fleshin. Tour factories, a concentration camp, and a prison, where they meet an anarchist political prisoner. Receive plea to aid Nestor Makhno's movement, but are reluctant to discontinue their work with the museum.
In Poltava they meet with the leader of the Revkom, a non-soviet ruling body. Meet the Russian writer Vladimir Korolenko who speaks to them about his disenchantment with the Bolsheviks. Also meet with local Zionists who, although critical of anti-Semitism of the Bolsheviks, report no evidence of Bolshevik pogroms against the Jews.
In Fastov they collect historical materials on pogroms, including the Sept. 1919 pogroms led by General Denikin of the White Army.
During this period the Polish army gains strength, beginning a counteroffensive against the Bolsheviks.
Visit Kiev, where the majority of the population is Jewish. Find valuable material on the Denikin pogroms; interview local Jews whose views on Bolshevik anti-Semitism differ.
Goldman tours local health facilities, including the Jewish hospital and the hospital for disabled children; also visits the local anarchist center.
With other members of the museum expedition, Goldman attends lavish functions held in honor of a visiting Italian and French delegation; meets two French anarcho-syndicalists one of whom is preparing a manuscript exposing Bolshevik wrongdoings. Later they are reported to have drowned off the coast of Finland; manuscript never published.
Goldman and Berkman visited by two women representing Makhno, who requests again that they aid him by circulating his call to the international community. They determine it is too risky to meet with him in person as he has proposed.
Henry Alsberg is arrested traveling from Kiev to Odessa with the museum expedition; authorities claim he is traveling without permission. Goldman and Berkman protest the arrest by immediately sending telegrams to Lenin and Chicherin; no response received. Alsberg is temporarily detained while the expedition travels on.
Expedition stops in Odessa; advancement of Polish troops prevents them from traveling further.
In Odessa, Goldman meets with local officials and again polls members of the Jewish community about their experience with and views about anti-Semitism. Meets the famous Jewish poet Hayyim Nahman Bialik.
Attends a gathering of anarchists in Odessa.
On the way to Kiev, Berkman is robbed of a large amount of his and Goldman's savings.
Expedition spends a few days in panic-stricken Kiev as residents brace for a potential attack by Polish forces.
Reports in the United States and Europe continue to attribute to Goldman a negative view of the Bolsheviks; though she privately acknowledges Bolshevik wrongdoings, she denies all published accounts and refuses to grant any interviews.
Makhno's defeat of Baron Peter Wrangel, the last of the White Army generals, wins him temporary good favor from the Bolsheviks.
Russia's armistice with Poland concedes substantial territory to Poland.
Kropotkin and Gorki protest Soviet plan to halt all private publishing establishments.
Maria Spiridonova arrested.
Death of John Reed.
When Goldman arrives in Moscow a few days later, she consoles Reed's wife, Louise Bryant. Goldman postpones her return trip to Petrograd to attend Reed's funeral in Moscow on Oct. 23.
Goldman returns to Petrograd with museum expedition to deposit the historical material they collected.
Following the Red Army's killing of Makhno's commanders in the Crimea, Trotsky orders an attack on Makhno's headquarters; Makhno manages to escape, eventually reaching Paris where he lives in exile. Trotsky orders the arrest and imprisonment of Russian anarchist Volin.
Goldman attends the third anniversary of the October Revolution in Petrograd, in her estimation "more like the funeral than the birth of the Revolution."
Goldman travels north with Berkman and another member of the museum expedition to Archangel.
The San Francisco Examiner publishes an unauthorized account of Goldman's experience in Russia, quoting from a series of letters it claims were written by Goldman to John Reed; the letters were in actuality written by Goldman to her niece Stella Ballantine.
In Archangel the expedition collects leftist and anarchist underground publications produced during the rule of the Czar. Also obtains letters written by Nicholas Chaikovsky from the period of his provisional government leadership.
Goldman favorably impressed with the efficiency and integrity of Bolshevik operations in Archangel.
Museum expedition returns to Petrograd.
Goldman and Berkman leave Petrograd for Moscow to prepare for second journey with the museum expedition; they stay with Angelica Balabanoff, head of the Russo-Italian bureau. Goldman offers to nurse Peter Kropotkin when she learns he is very ill.
During an especially harsh winter, workers from several Petrograd factories strike to protest unbearable shortages of food, fuel, and clothing; Soviet authorities suppress street demonstrations.
Ludwig C. A. K. Martens, the Soviet government's representative in the United States, is deported; Goldman expresses no interest in seeing him in Russia.
Goldman returns to Petrograd. When alerted to Kropotkin's deteriorating condition, she promptly returns to Moscow.
Goldman arrives in Dmitrov shortly after Kropotkin's death.
On Feb. 13, Goldman, among others, delivers a public remembrance at Kropotkin's funeral in Moscow. Soviet leaders release only a handful of anarchist political prisoners following an appeal to allow all incarcerated anarchists to attend the ceremony.
Later, Goldman and Berkman decide to discontinue their work with the Petrograd Museum of the Revolution in order to accept an invitation to participate in the organizing committee of a museum honoring Kropotkin, independent of Soviet financing and oversight.
Goldman receives permission to visit anarchist prisoners at Butyrki prison; among others, sees Fanya and Aaron Baron and Volin.
Goldman and Berkman return to Petrograd.
Goldman prepares articles about Kropotkin's death for the Nation and the Manchester Guardian; rejects offer to write about Soviet Russia for the New York World.
Krondstadt uprising in support of striking Petrograd factory workers; sailors demand democratic election of Soviet representatives. Goldman attends March 4 meeting of the Petrograd Soviet, which votes to accept Zinoviev's proposal to force the surrender of Krondstadt sailors upon penalty of death.
Goldman, Berkman, and several others send a letter of protest to Zinoviev, proposing a commission to settle the dispute with the Krondstadt sailors peacefully; no response received.
Trotsky orders the artillery bombardment of Krondstadt.
Feeling that their last tie to the Bolsheviks has been broken, Goldman and Berkman decide to leave Russia and alert the world to what they have witnessed.
Goldman and Berkman return to Moscow determined to cut off all relations with the Bolshevik government. Plan to request permission to leave the country; prepared to exit secretly if necessary.
Agree to appeal to anarchists in the United States for funds to support the Kropotkin Museum.
Goldman accompanies Louise Bryant to meet Stanislavsky, "the father of the modern Russian theater."
New York Times publishes excerpts from a letter from Goldman to her niece Stella Ballantine disclaiming Dec. 1920 reports by American businessman Washington B. Vanderlip that Goldman had requested he use his influence to gain her return to the United States.
Goldman and Berkman alerted about the April 25 Soviet night raid of the Butyrki prison intended to break prisoner solidarity; Fanya Baron is among those relocated. Soviets attempt to repress all political protests of the raid. Goldman helps collect food provisions for the starving anarchist prisoners.
In light of Soviet constraints on independent political expression, Goldman and Berkman postpone efforts to organize support for the Kropotkin Museum.
Goldman and Berkman begin to receive visits from many foreign delegates in Russia for the International Congress of the Third International; visitors include Americans Bill Haywood, Agnes Smedley, Bob Robins, Mary Heaton Vorse, Ella Reeve Bloor, William Z. Foster, and Robert Minor. Goldman disparaging of Haywood's flight from the United States; compares his action to a "captain leaving the ship," abandoning fellow IWW members who remain imprisoned.
Berkman sustains a foot injury, delaying their departure from Russia.
Goldman and Berkman meet regularly with the European and Scandinavian anarcho- syndicalists, delegates to the international congresses.
The Cheka raids Goldman's Moscow apartment.
Goldman and Berkman renew their friendship with Vera Figner, a leader of the Narodnaya Volya ("People's Will") movement.
Goldman and Berkman persuade some of the foreign delegates, including Tom Mann, to protest the imprisonment of Volin, G. P. Maksimov, and other anarchists who have begun a hunger strike. A delegation meets with Lenin on July 9; Lenin is only willing to deport the anarchists, upon penalty of death if they return to Russia. Offer is accepted and hunger strike is terminated on July 13. Goldman notes that the American Communists remain silent on the issue and distance themselves from association with the anarchists.
Goldman attempts also to convince delegates to pressure the Soviet authorities to allow Maria Spiridonova to obtain medical treatment overseas. Meets with German socialist Clara Zetkin. Spiridonova is eventually released from prison.
Lenin's New Economic Policy begins, a pragmatic retreat from communist economic principles in favor of market mechanisms.
Goldman visits briefly with the "millionaire American hobo" James Eads How, who, she believes, does not have the ability to make a worthwhile assessment of the situation in Russia. Goldman disappointed by most published accounts of events in Russia, including reports by Louise Bryant.
Fanya Baron and nine other anarchist prisoners, including the poet Lev Tcherny, are shot to death by the Cheka.
Isadora Duncan, sympathetic to the Soviets, attempts to meet with Goldman.
Under the pretext of representing the Kropotkin Museum at an anarchist conference in Berlin, Goldman, Berkman, and Alexander Schapiro are authorized to leave Russia.
Goldman and Berkman settle in Riga, Latvia. Write to Harry Weinberger about chances of getting back into the United States. Allowed only a temporary visa in Latvia, they seek entry to either Germany or Sweden.
Goldman distressed that she and Berkman depart Russia just days before the arrival of Mollie Steimer, Jacob Abrams, Samuel Lipman, and Hyman Lachowsky, deported from the United States on Nov. 24.
Goldman and Berkman granted Swedish visas.
On the train to Reval, Estonia, Goldman and Berkman are arrested by the Latvian secret service; accused of being Bolshevik agents. Detained for several days, preventing them from attending the anarchist congress in Berlin.
Goldman, Berkman, and Alexander Schapiro arrive in Stockholm, Sweden, and are met by birth-control advocates Albert and Elise Jensen; Goldman becomes lover with thirty-year-old Swedish anarchist Arthur Svensson shortly after arrival.
Volin, Maksimov, and other hunger strikers are deported from Russia; resettle in Berlin.
Goldman and Svensson fail in their attempt to surreptitiously enter Denmark.
March 26-April 4
The New York World publishes a series of controversial articles by Goldman exposing the harsh political and economic conditions in Russia.
Finally obtaining temporary German visas, Goldman and Berkman travel to Berlin.
Arthur Svensson joins Goldman and Berkman in Berlin. Later, her niece Stella Ballantine visits with six-year-old son Ian.
Develops friendship with anarchist theorist Rudolf Rocker and his wife, Milly, with whom she had begun to correspond while in Russia.
Goldman begins work on book-length manuscript with the intended title My Two Years in Russia.
Goldman completes her manuscript and sells the rights to her book to Clinton P. Brainard; receives $1750 in advance against royalties and 50 percent for serial rights.
Ends relationship with Arthur Svensson.
Ricardo Flores Magón dies in Leavenworth Penitentiary.
Visits Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld at the Institute for Sex Psychology in Berlin.
Goldman travels to cities throughout Germany, including Stuttgart, Frankfurt, and Bremerhaven.
Anti-German sentiment in the United States makes it difficult for Goldman to earn a living writing topical articles for the American press.
Travels to Bad Leibenstein in Thüringen for niece Stella Ballantine's eye treatment with Dr. Graf M. Wiser; Goldman writes an article about the doctor's unorthodox therapy, which is later published in a Calcutta magazine.
Goldman notified that her manuscript on Russia has been sold to Doubleday, Page and Company.
Receives visits from many American friends, including M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, Ellen Kennan, Michael Cohn, Henry Alsberg, and Agnes Smedley.
Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin are arrested in Russia for propagating anarchism; released soon after they begin a hunger strike.
Goldman's mother, Taube, dies in Rochester, N.Y.
Goldman and her niece Stella are arrested by the Bavarian police following their arrival in Munich. Police allege that Goldman conducted a secret mission in 1893 (during the period when she was imprisoned at Blackwell's Island). Both are ordered to leave Bavaria. Stella later returns to the United States.
Following their deportation from Russia, Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin join Goldman and Berkman in Berlin.
Goldman's manuscript published under the title My Disillusionment in Russia; the last twelve chapters have been cut without her permission. Weinberger negotiates the dispute on Goldman's behalf; wins agreement from publisher to print the remaining chapters in a separate volume with the stipulation that Goldman pay for the printing costs, for which she secures a loan from Michael Cohn.
Goldman travels to Hamburg.
Goldman travels to Dresden before returning to Berlin.
Goldman is unable to solicit writing contracts with European and American magazines; finds that mainstream magazines are interested only in her experience in Russia, thus thwarting her attempts to earn a living.
Goldman howled down during a meeting of five thousand workers in Berlin when she criticizes the Soviet government. Goldman warned about the consequences of expressing further criticism of the Soviet Republic.
Following her expulsion from Moscow, Angelica Balabanoff initiates correspondence with Goldman.
Leaving Berkman in Berlin, Goldman travels to the Netherlands; speaks at the celebration organized by Dutch anti-militarist Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis for the twentieth anniversary of the International Anti-Militarist Association.
Enters France from Germany under the name E. G. Kersner; visits a number of friends in Paris, including Harry Weinberger and Frank and Nellie Harris. Meets Arthur Leonard Ross who she later hires as her attorney. Meets Ernest Hemingway at a party given by English novelist Ford Madox Ford.
Leaves Paris for London where she hopes to find it easier to earn a living. Resides at the home of Doris Zhook.
Goldman's closest associates in London include John Turner, Thomas H. Keell, and William C. Owen.
Meets with British author Rebecca West.
The twelve chapters omitted from Goldman's book on Russia are published separately with a new preface as My Further Disillusionment in Russia.
Among Goldman's speaking engagements is a talk before the American Students Club at Oxford University.
In London, a reception for Goldman is sponsored by Bertrand Russell, Rebecca West, and socialist and sexual theorist Edward Carpenter; presided over by Col. Josiah Wedgewood, M.P. Her views on Russia are met with vocal protests.
Writes an article on Russia for the New York Herald-New York Tribune Sunday edition.
In London, Goldman continues her efforts to expose the Bolsheviks as betrayers of the revolution and violators of civil liberties, a task made more difficult and more urgent by the return of a British trade union delegation that reports favorably on conditions in the Soviet Union.
Goldman lectures on "The Bolshevik Myth and the Condition of the Political Prisoners" at South Place Institute, London, her first public meeting in England at which she denounces the Bolsheviks, prompting vocal protests from some members of the audience.
Goldman and her political associates organize the British Committee for the Defence of Political Prisoners in Russia. The committee solicits support from celebrities and organizes a conference of trade union branch secretaries to discuss conditions in the Soviet Union. Many political figures and intellectuals are alienated by Goldman's stand, though novelist Rebecca West and publisher C. W. Daniel remain her stalwart supporters.
Goldman lectures on the Soviet Union at a meeting in the East End of London on Feb. 26.
Goldman's lectures on conditions in the Soviet Union include two in London--in Islington on March 6 and the East End on March 17--and one at Northampton Town Hall.
At the end of the month she gives three lectures on "Heroic Women of the Russian Revolution," and "The Bolshevik Myth" in the Amman Valley, a series organized by the South Wales Freedom Group.
Goldman convenes an informal meeting in London of branch secretaries of trade unions to discuss conditions in Russia.
Boni and Liveright publishes Berkman's The Bolshevik Myth in New York.
In an attempt to refute the report of the British trade union delegation, Goldman and her comrades--as the British Committee for the Defence of Political Prisoners in Russia--publish a pamphlet, Russia and the British Labour Delegation's Report: A Reply.
Goldman continues speaking on conditions in the Soviet Union with a lecture at South Place Institute on April 16, "An Exposure of the Trade Union Delegation's Report on Russia"; she delivers a second lecture in London on April 27.
Goldman fills speaking engagements in Norwich, Leeds, and Manchester with lectures on Soviet Russia.
In Bristol, Goldman lectures on "Labour under the Dictatorship in Russia" at the YMCA on May 1, and on "Heroic Women of the Russian Revolution" at the Folk House on May 4.
At the end of the month she meets with Edward Carpenter and Havelock Ellis in the same week, two writers she admires for their pioneering work on sexuality.
Time and Tide (London) publishes her article, "Women of the Russian Revolution."
Discouraged by the public response to her lectures on Russia and with little enthusiasm left among the active members of the committee, Goldman focuses on her own precarious financial situation. During the summer she writes lectures on drama, hoping to reach British drama societies, and, at the same time, tries to interest London producers in American plays.
On her birthday, Goldman marries James Colton, an elderly anarchist friend and trade unionist from Wales, in order to obtain British citizenship and the right to travel and speak more widely.
Time and Tide publishes Goldman's article, "The Tragedy of the Russian Intelligentsia."
Goldman spends two weeks vacationing in Bristol, where friends propose that she deliver a series of lectures on Russian drama in the fall and offer to raise the initial expenses.
Goldman spends most of the month in the British Museum reading Russian dramatists in preparation for her upcoming lectures.
M. Eleanor Fitzgerald, Goldman's close associate from New York, visits at the end of the month and through her Goldman meets African-American singer and actor Paul Robeson, who is starring in Eugene O'Neill's The Emperor Jones in London.
Prompted by a publisher's fleeting interest in a book of reminiscences, Goldman begins asking her correspondents to send her the letters she had written them over the years.
The one-volume English edition of My Disillusionment in Russia, with an introduction by Rebecca West, is published by C. W. Daniel of London; Goldman has borrowed $250 from Michael Cohn to underwrite its publication.
Through the British Drama League Goldman solicits lecture dates from 250 affiliated local playgoers societies.
Continues her reading of Russian dramatists in the British Museum.
In the middle of the month Goldman travels to Bristol for a lecture series; she also delivers individual lectures, including one at exiled American pastor Gustav Beck's church on "Trends in Modern Education."
October 19-November 5
Goldman teaches a six-lecture course on Russian drama at Oakfield Road Church, Bristol.
Attends British Drama League conference in Birmingham.
Goldman lectures on drama in Birmingham, Bath, and Birkenhead, and in Manchester delivers her first lecture on Eugene O'Neill.
November 12-December 17
Goldman repeats her lecture series on Russian drama at Keats House, Hampstead, London; despite excellent publicity, her lectures draw only a small audience and receipts barely cover her expenses. Publisher C. W. Daniel, however, considers issuing a book of her lectures on Russian dramatists and supplies a stenographer to record them.
In East London, Goldman repeats the lecture series on Russian drama in Yiddish.
Goldman speaks twice--once on birth control--under the auspices of the Trades and Labour Council in Neath, South Wales.
After the lecture series ends, Goldman leaves for France where she spends the holidays in Nice at the home of Frank and Nellie Harris.
Goldman remains in Nice for most of the month, finishing a prospectus for "Foremost Russian Dramatists," a book based on her lectures, for which she hopes to receive an advance from Doubleday, Page and Company. Berkman is also in Nice, helping Isadora Duncan edit her autobiography.
Goldman leaves for Paris Jan. 25.
Goldman works at the Bibliothèque Nationale researching lectures on Ibsen; at the same time she writes a character sketch of Johann Most for the June issue of American Mercury. She returns to England Feb. 27.
Berkman receives temporary permission to stay in France.
After returning to England, Goldman delivers a number of lectures in Bristol on drama, especially Ibsen's plays; she also travels to Liverpool in mid-March to lecture on drama.
March 25-April 29
Goldman returns to London for a series of six lectures on dramatists, including O'Neill, Ibsen, Susan Glaspell, and the German expressionists; she also delivers the same lectures in Yiddish as well as lecturing on Yiddish drama, and on political topics, such as "The Menace of Dictatorship: Bolshevist or Fascist," with British feminist Sylvia Pankhurst and William C. Owen at Essex Hall on April 14.
Goldman continues her work for political prisoners in Russia, focusing her efforts on imprisoned women; enlists the support of influential women politicians like Lady Astor.
Ben Reitman and his family visit Goldman in London.
Goldman lectures in Norwich on April 8.
The British general strike is called off by the Trades Union Congress after nine days, though the coal miners remain out through the summer.
Goldman returns to France and with Berkman rents a cottage in St. Tropez, where she finishes her manuscript on "Foremost Russian Dramatists" and writes a sketch of Voltairine de Cleyre.
Friends and political associates in the United States raise money for Goldman to visit Canada to lecture.
During the summer American visitors, including authors Howard Young and Theodore Dreiser and philanthropist Peggy Guggenheim, encourage Goldman to write her autobiography.
Goldman sails for Canada, where she arrives Oct. 15, to lecture; proximity rekindles her hope for readmission to the United States.
Shortly after Goldman's arrival, Leon Malmed, her longtime friend from Albany, N.Y., visits and they become lovers.
Eugene Debs dies.
Goldman gives her first lecture in Montreal before an audience of seven hundred at His Majesty's Theatre on "The Present Crisis in Russia."
Most of the remaining lectures in Montreal are in Yiddish; Goldman focuses on raising funds for political prisoners in Russia, an impassioned appeal at one banquet yields $300.
Travels to Toronto on Nov. 26, where she finds the anarchists more numerous and better organized than in Montreal.
Goldman lectures on Ibsen to an audience of five hundred at Hygeia Hall; the interest shown persuades her to initiate a series on drama.
Goldman's lectures on Russian drama this month cover Griboyedev, Gogol, and Ostrovsky, though the attendance is disappointing.
More successful are her three lectures to the Arbeiter Ring: six hundred attend her Dec. 12 lecture in Yiddish on Gorki. In addition, she lectures twice at Hygeia Hall, on modern education on Dec. 3 and on the dictatorships of Bolshevik Russia and Fascist Italy on Dec. 5.
Among her visitors are her brother Morris, her sister Lena, and Lena's children, Saxe Commins and Stella Ballantine.
Goldman concludes her lecture series in Toronto on Russian dramatists with talks on Turgenev, Tolstoy, Chekhov, and Andreyev; she also goes to London, Ontario, to lecture on Communist and Fascist dictatorships on Jan. 7. After Leon Malmed visits briefly, at the end of the month she travels to Winnipeg to lecture.
Goldman's first two lectures in Winnipeg draw large audiences: a Yiddish lecture attracts four hundred, and a thousand attend an English lecture on "The Labor Situation in Europe."
Goldman discovers that Communist influence is stronger and opposition to her is more organized in Winnipeg than in other cities. Nonetheless, she speaks nearly twenty times to large and varied audiences during her month in the city, including Yiddish groups, a group of college women, even the local Kiwanis Club (on "Ideals in Life"); among her topics are drama, anarchism, birth control, and women and the Russian revolution.
In Edmonton, where Goldman expects to give just two lectures, she addresses fifteen meetings in a week, speaking on trends in modern education, Ibsen, birth control, women's emancipation (to the Women's Press Club); she speaks to factory girls during their lunch hour and to large Jewish audiences under the auspices of the Jewish Council of Women, the Arbeiter Ring, Hadassah, and Poale Zion, as well as to professors at the University of Alberta and a Sunday audience of fifteen hundred.
Goldman returns to Toronto.
March 24-April 26
Goldman's English-language lecture series in Toronto covers social topics as well as drama, including plays of Susan Glaspell, Eugene O'Neill, and Russian drama. She also researches a new lecture on "The Awakening in China," which draws eight hundred people. After protests from the Catholic community, Goldman delivers the final lecture of the series, on birth control, to a packed hall.
She also lectures in Yiddish on the history of anarchism and on art and revolution.
Goldman gives a May Day lecture in Toronto on "The Spirit of Destruction and Construction."
Her drama lecture course this month covers Russian theater, Strindberg, and the German expressionists.
Also lectures on China in London, Ontario.
Leon Malmed's wife discovers his correspondence with Goldman, revealing their relationship, and the intensity of Goldman's tie to him wanes.
A fund is established to support Goldman while she writes her autobiography; Peggy Guggenheim and Howard Young are among the first contributors, and W. S. Van Valkenburgh coordinates an appeal to raise funds.
Goldman spends much of the summer researching and writing new lectures for her fall series. She is greatly distracted, however, by the impending execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. She addresses a meeting on the case in Toronto on Aug. 18, a few days before their execution on Aug. 23. Goldman speaks at a memorial meeting on Sept. 1.
October 11-December 8
Goldman's ambitious lecture series at Hygeia Hall, Toronto, consists of eighteen lectures and covers drama as well as social and literary topics, including the plays of Shaw, Galsworthy, and Ibsen, Walt Whitman, "Crime and Punishment," "The Menace of Military Preparedness," "Evolution versus Religious Bigotry," "The Child and Its Enemies," "Sex--A Dominant Element in Life and Art," and "Has Feminism Achieved Its Aim?"
The audiences for her lectures are disappointing, and Goldman determines to return to Europe in the new year and begin writing her autobiography.
Family members visit Canada from the United States to see Goldman before she departs for France; a farewell banquet is held in her honor on Jan. 29.
As she anticipates writing the autobiography, Goldman asks a wider circle of friends to loan her her past correspondence to refresh her memory.
On Feb. 7, in her final appearance in Toronto, Goldman lectures on two books by Judge Ben Lindsey, The Revolt of Youth and Companionate Marriage.
On Feb. 9 Goldman travels to Montreal, where she gives two lectures in Yiddish--on birth control and on art and revolution--and one on Walt Whitman delivered in a private home. She leaves Montreal on Feb. 18 for Halifax, Nova Scotia, where she embarks for France on Feb. 20.
In Paris, Goldman is reunited with old friends and comrades, including Berkman, Mollie Steimer, and Senya Fleshin. She arranges to rent the same cottage in St. Tropez that she had in the summer of 1926, and makes a brief excursion to London in May to pick up material she had left two years earlier.
Goldman tries to organize a small gathering of anarchist writers and theoreticians in Paris in May to discuss the future of anarchism and especially its propaganda, circulating an agenda and soliciting comments. Though the meeting does not occur as planned, Goldman is gratified that the effort generates ideas and discussion.
Goldman settles in St. Tropez to write her autobiography; a young American writer Emily Holmes Coleman, "Demi," acts as her secretary.
Rudolf and Milly Rocker spend much of the summer with Goldman in St. Tropez.
By October she has written 100,000 words.
Goldman, accompanied by Henry Alsberg and Otto Kleinberg, vacations in Spain; in Barcelona, she meets anarchist intellectuals Federico Urales and Soledad Gustavo, and their daughter Federica Montseny.
After two weeks in Paris, Goldman returns to St. Tropez, where she learns that friends, principally Peggy Guggenheim and Mark Dix, have contributed enough money to help her purchase the cottage and ensure her a place to live and write.
Goldman returns to working full-time on her autobiography, interrupted only by the visit in February of her nephew Saxe Commins and his wife Dorothy.
Goldman is completely absorbed in writing her book, though the departure in May of Emily Holmes Coleman, whose assistance and companionship have been invaluable, is disruptive; eventually her friend's daughter Miriam Lerner serves as secretary through the summer.
Goldman takes time out of her busy writing schedule to celebrate her sixtieth birthday on June 27 with Berkman and visiting American friends Ben and Ida Capes.
American publishers express interest in Goldman's autobiography; eight of them make offers.
Lawyer Arthur Leonard Ross and Saxe Commins act as Goldman's representatives in New York, negotiating the terms of the book contract with publisher Alfred A. Knopf.
As Goldman writes, she continues to ask friends to corroborate her memory of events and furnish details of personalities; some of her former acquaintances, however, request to be omitted from her book.
Goldman's representatives sign a book contract with Knopf; she receives an advance of $7,000.
A slow decline in stock prices accelerates dramatically; on Oct. 29--Black Tuesday--the stock market crashes, precipitating the Great Depression.
By mid-month Goldman has reached 1915 in the narrative of her life.
At the end of the month Goldman moves to Paris for the winter to continue work on her autobiography; British friend Doris Zhook acts as her secretary.
In Paris for the winter, Goldman continues writing; Berkman, who lives nearby in St. Cloud, helps edit her manuscript.
Goldman mails the first installment of her autobiography to Knopf.
American journalist and editor H. L. Mencken visits Goldman.
Presented with an expulsion order dating from March 1901, Goldman is taken immediately to police headquarters. She demands and receives a stay of ten days; lawyer Henri Torres ultimately succeeds in overturning the expulsion order.
Mencken petitions the U.S. Department of State to revoke Goldman's deportation and grant her a visitor's visa, and requests that the Department of Justice return her personal papers seized in the 1917 raid on the Mother Earth office.
Goldman sends the publisher what she assumes is the last installment of her autobiography--concluding with her deportation from the United States aboard the Buford--but Knopf insists on additional chapters covering her years in Russia and Europe.
Berkman is arrested and expelled from France the same day; spends next three weeks in Antwerp and Brussels, applying for a new French visa. Both French attorney Torres and Pierre Renaudel, a French deputy, work for Berkman's readmission.
By the end of the month Berkman's expulsion is revoked, and he is promised a three-month renewable visa for France.
Goldman travels to Bad Eilsen, Germany, for treatment of her eyes by Dr. Graf M. Wiser; she is visited by Danish novelist Karin Michaëlis. Goldman then vacations in Berlin.
Returns to St. Tropez; pleased with the editor's revisions of her manuscript, she begins work on the two final chapters.
Knopf postpones publication of Goldman's autobiography until the fall of 1931.
Eunice M. Schuster, writing a Master's thesis on anarchism, asks Goldman for information and assistance; Goldman encourages comrades--W. S. Van Valkenburgh, Hippolyte Havel, Max Nettlau, and anarchist publisher Joseph Ishill--to assist Schuster; her thesis is published in 1932 as Native American Anarchism, one of the earliest studies of American anarchism.
Berkman, denied renewal of his visa once again, is given fifteen days to leave France; by mid-month he receives another three-month extension.
On Nov. 21, 450 people attend a fund-raising banquet for Berkman in New York City to celebrate his sixtieth birthday.
Stella Ballantine and her son David join Goldman in St. Tropez.
Goldman finishes her autobiography, Living My Life, having written 100,000 words since she began the last two chapters in July 1930.
Ben Reitman's The Second Oldest Profession, a study of pimps, is published.
Goldman, Stella Ballantine, and her son David vacation in Nice; Goldman catches up on her much delayed correspondence. Berkman, now living in Nice, contemplates opening a typing and translation bureau.
Fall of the monarchy in Spain. Many anarchists, including some of Goldman's closest associates, are enthusiastic about the prospects for anarchism there, while Goldman remains skeptical.
Goldman learns that, despite the dreadful economic situation, Knopf intends to publish Living My Life in two volumes at what she considers an exorbitant price.
Goldman is included in John Haynes Holmes's sermon in New York on "The Ten Greatest Living Women."
Together in St. Tropez, Goldman and Berkman celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of his release from prison.
The Forward, a Yiddish socialist daily in New York, begins serialization of Goldman's autobiography; Goldman is dissatisfied with both the translation and editor Abraham Cahan's introductory reminiscence of her.
Goldman continues to catch up on her correspondence, returning all the material--correspondence, clippings, etc.--she borrowed from friends to write her autobiography.
The Ballantines leave after nearly six months with Goldman.
National Congress of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) begins in Madrid.
Berkman is presented with another expulsion order, the third in fifteen months; he rushes to Paris to try to get an extension of his papers.
The Buford episode from Goldman's autobiography appears in the American Mercury.
Goldman contributes an essay to an anthology being compiled by Peter Neagoe, published as Americans Abroad (1932).
Modest Stein and German anarcho-syndicalists Augustin and Therese Souchy visit Goldman at Bon Esprit.
Goldman is preoccupied throughout the summer with the urgency of Berkman's need to secure new papers and with Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin's precarious financial situation in Berlin, and consumed by mounting disappointment over the prospects for Living My Life.
Among the visitors to St. Tropez are Harry Kelly, Anna Strunsky Walling and her three daughters, American sculptor Jo Davidson, and Peggy Guggenheim.
Writer and editor Frank Harris dies in Nice on Aug. 26; Goldman hurries there to be with Nellie Harris, Frank's widow, and to help arrange his funeral; spends the last week of September in Nice helping Nellie Harris sort out her affairs.
At the end of September, Berkman gets an extension of his papers to Dec. 21.
Unable to bear the thought of being alone at Bon Esprit, Goldman begins considering where she will spend the winter and what she will do after the publication of her autobiography. She hopes to arrange a lecture tour: Dutch anarchist Albert de Jong assures her that lectures could be arranged in the Netherlands, the German Civil Liberties League expresses interest in Berlin lectures, and other engagements elsewhere in Germany are possible.
Goldman travels to Nice to visit Berkman on Oct. 12, and with Nellie Harris to Paris on Oct. 15.
Living My Life is published; a laudatory review appears on the front page of the New York Times Book Review.
Inscribes copies of her autobiography slated for friends as she awaits book reviews from the United States.
Earlier prospects for lectures in Germany, Holland, and Norway dim.
Growing interest in dramatizing Living My Life prompts Goldman to grant lawyer Arthur Leonard Ross full charge of negotiations over dramatic, radio, and cinema rights to her life.
John Haynes Holmes lectures on Living My Life to an overflow audience at Temple Emanu-El in New York City on Dec. 31.
The Nation includes Living My Life among its list of most notable books of 1931.
The Rand School in New York City holds a symposium on Living My Life on Jan. 15.
Goldman lectures at Copenhagen University on "Dictatorship, a World Menace" to an audience of one thousand after lectures scheduled there earlier in the month are canceled for fear of Communist demonstrations.
Goldman's tour of Germany, organized by the Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands (FAUD), begins with a meeting in Hamburg followed by meetings in Bremen, Braunschweig, and Magdeburg. While the meetings of the Gilde freiheitlicher Bücherfreunde book club are open to the public, the FAUD meetings are open to members only, which accounts in part for the meager attendances.
February 22-March 10
In addition to lecturing, in Berlin Goldman is preoccupied with schemes to earn money--a CBS radio broadcast to America, for which Berkman works up themes; a German translation of her autobiography; and German translation projects for Berkman.
Goldman speaks to a well-attended meeting of the League for Human Rights on "Crime and Punishment in America," confining herself to political and labor cases; to the Gilde freiheitlicher Bücherfreunde on "The Drama as a Social and Educational Factor"; to the Anarcho-Syndikalistischer Frauenbund on "The Child and Its Enemy"; and to a FAUD meeting on "Is the Spirit of Destruction a Constructive Spirit?" She also speaks in Oberschoneweide and Potsdam.
The second leg of Goldman's tour begins with two successful meetings in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland)--a lecture to FAUD members on the American labor movement and a public meeting of the Gilde freiheitlicher Bücherfreunde.
The tour continues with two meetings in Dresden and Leipzig, and further engagements in Naumburg, Zella-Mehlis, Erfurt, and Sömmerda.
March 24-April 10
Back in Berlin, Goldman continues to solicit the interest of American publishing houses in translations of German and Russian works for Berkman.
Lectures to the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) on "Woman's Achievement in the United States"; and to the women of the FAUD.
In Denmark, Goldman lectures in German at the student union in Copenhagen under the auspices of the Society for the Defense of Personal Liberty on "Social Problems in a Contemporary Light"; in Odense; and in Aarhus to a large and enthusiastic audience on the effects of prohibition in the United States.
Goldman in Oslo, her first visit to Norway, where she has "three wonderful meetings." One lecture is canceled by the Communist-controlled student association, which objects to her criticism of the Soviet Union.
In Stockholm, Sweden, Goldman lectures on the Mooney-Billings case.
Arrives back in Berlin, where she learns that CBS has canceled her planned radio broadcast, fearing that it will be interpreted as an effort on her part to reenter the United States.
April 25-May 15
On the last leg of her German tour--through Bavaria, Baden-Wurttemberg, and Hessen--all meetings are sponsored by the FAUD. She lectures in Schweinfurt, Furth, Nuremberg, Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Göppingen, Ulm, Offenbach, Darmstadt, Mannheim, and Ludwigshafen. Among her lecture topics are "Birth Control," "The American Labor Movement," "Art and Revolution," and "Women's Role in the Russian Revolution."
Goldman returns to St. Tropez on May 17, exhausted from her lecture tour, which earned her little income; spends much of the rest of the summer trying unsuccessfully to interest American publishers in translations of three Malik Verlag books, and German and Swedish publishers in translating her autobiography. She is assisted financially by her brothers Morris and Herman, the latter contacting her for the first time in years.
Among Goldman's visitors in St. Tropez are Modest Stein, who contributes to Goldman and Berkman's economic survival; Henry Alsberg; Harry T. Moore, biographer of D. H. Lawrence; and artists Edmund and Alice Kinzinger.
Goldman starts making plans for the coming winter; she considers a visit to Spain to collect material for articles and possibly for a book, and writes Federica Montseny in Barcelona, asking her advice; Montseny encourages her to come. She also considers another lecture tour, for which initially German and Dutch comrades express enthusiasm. In November she determines to lecture in Holland in the new year, but the German comrades discourage a tour due to lack of funds--only the Berlin and Dresden branches of WILPF offer definite bookings.
Errico Malatesta dies.
Living My Life published by Duckworth in London; Goldman is appalled at the high price of two guineas. Because of low sales, within a month the price is reduced in hopes that good reviews will spur library sales.
Franklin D. Roosevelt elected president of the United States.
Goldman leaves St. Tropez, arriving the following day in Paris, which she finds the perfect antidote to the loneliness and drudgery of her last seven months.
Goldman travels from Paris to the Netherlands via Reims, Brussels, and Antwerp.
Goldman's lecture tour of the Netherlands takes her to The Hague, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, and Hengelo; she speaks on "Dictatorship, the Modern Religious Hysteria."
In London, Goldman begins her stay with a dizzying week of welcome meetings and dinners with political associates and old friends, including Paul Robeson and Emily Holmes Coleman; prepares her British lecture series.
Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany.
Goldman tries to interest London publishers in Berkman's proposed translations of German and Russian books.
Goldman's vacation in Bristol at the home of English friends Thomas and Nell Lavers includes informal meetings with local anarchists.
Delivers four well-received lectures in South Wales, including "Crime and Punishment" and "The Spirit of Destruction and Construction."
Lectures in London on "Constructive Revolution."
After fire destroys the Reichstag building in Berlin on Feb. 27, the Nazis move to consolidate their power; Communist deputies are arrested, opposition meetings broken up, speakers assaulted, and newspapers suppressed.
Goldman's attempts to organize a mass meeting in London to protest the Nazi takeover ultimately fail because she insists on denouncing dictatorship in the Soviet Union as well, a position that alienates many on the British Left.
At the end of the month Rudolf and Milly Rocker arrive in London, exiles from Hitler's Germany.
"An Anarchist Looks at Life" is Goldman's subject at Foyle's literary luncheon attended by six hundred; Paul Robeson sings and proposes a vote of thanks, seconded by Rebecca West.
Goldman acts as a delegate to the International Anti-War Congress, London; finds the congress dominated by Communists.
Gives three lectures in Bristol, including "Modern Trends in Education" and "Dictatorship--A Modern Religious Hysteria."
Before returning to St. Tropez for the summer, Goldman is reunited in Paris with Mollie Steimer, Senya Fleshin, and Alexander Schapiro, who have escaped from Berlin. Visitors at Bon Esprit include American liberal Mabel Carver Crouch, and Rudolf and Milly Rocker.
Goldman begins considering a tour of Canada in early 1934, after Rocker has completed his projected tour of Canada and the United States.
Goldman solicits fall lecture dates in both Canada and England.
Mabel Carver Crouch works furiously for Goldman's readmission to the United States, organizing a committee and soliciting the help of lawyers and others with contacts in the new administration in Washington, D.C.
Toronto anarchists pledge funds to pay for Goldman's passage to Canada.
In Paris, at a Yiddish meeting she addresses on Nov. 11, she learns from German refugees about the growing horrors in Nazi Germany.
Lecture tour of the Netherlands meets with mixed success: Goldman lectures in Hilversum and Amsterdam on Living My Life, but her lecture in Rotterdam on dictatorship is prohibited. Under surveillance throughout the trip, she is arrested at Appeldorn on Nov. 23 and expelled from the country the following day.
Roger Baldwin works with the U.S. immigration authorities, attempting to secure a visa for Goldman, while the committee organized by Mabel Carver Crouch issues a formal invitation to Goldman to visit the United States. Commissioner of Immigration Daniel W. MacCormack advises Baldwin that it is Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins who has the legal right to admit Goldman.
Goldman leaves France for Canada; she arrives in Toronto on Dec. 15, where she applies for a visa at the U.S. consulate for a proposed three-month lecture tour.
Goldman is offered, but declines, a large sum to appear in vaudeville theaters in the United States.
U.S. Department of Labor approves a three-month visa, effective Feb. 1, for Goldman to lecture on nonpolitical subjects, which may include Living My Life under the category of literature. Once word of her tour leaks out, many lecture agencies in the United States offer their services.
Goldman's brother Morris suffers a mild heart attack.
Goldman gives a well-attended series of lectures at Hygeia Hall in Toronto; her topics include "Germany's Tragedy and the Forces That Brought It About," "Hitler and His Cohorts," "The Collapse of German Culture," and "Dictatorship Right and Left--a Religious Hysteria." A talk to a Jewish meeting also raises money for anarchists forced to flee repression in Nazi Germany.
Goldman stops to visit relatives in Rochester, N.Y., before arriving Feb. 2 in New York City, where she is mobbed by reporters and photographers at Pennsylvania Station and the Hotel Astor. Overwhelmed by the demands on her time, she is nevertheless pleased and surprised by the warmth of the reception. The major exception is the hostility of the Communists toward her.
"Welcome home" dinner meeting at Town Hall, New York City, is oversubscribed: a thousand people apply for the 350 tickets.
Goldman speaks at a Yiddish meeting at the Cooper Union organized by the Jewish Anarchist Federation, the Arbeiter Ring, and several unions.
Goldman speaks on Kropotkin's life and work at John Haynes Holmes's Community Church services at Town Hall; the lecture draws a huge audience, and more than a thousand people are turned away.
Goldman's lectures on Living My Life under the auspices of the Pond lecture bureau draw disappointingly small crowds; she chafes under the Labor Department's restrictions on the subjects she may address, especially as questions from the audience are almost invariably about the current world situation, which she is forbidden to discuss; grows critical of Pond's management of her tour.
She speaks three times in New York, and in Boston, Washington, D.C., and Philadelphia.
At the end of the month Goldman's attorney appeals to the secretary of labor to lift the restriction on her public utterances and allow her to address contemporary affairs.
Generally dismal response to Goldman's lectures outside New York continues in Newark, N.J., where she lectures to the Essex County Socialist party on "The Menace of Reaction" on March 1 and in Baltimore on "The Collapse of German Culture" on March 4 where she also attends the "War and the Student" conference at Johns Hopkins University. Only the meetings organized by Goldman's anarchist associates are successful--a luncheon and lecture organized by the Jewish anarchists in Philadelphia on March 2 and a lecture on "The Drama of Europe" at Webster Hall, New York City, on March 5 that draws an audience of twelve hundred. The money Goldman raises at the latter function she pledges to the Vanguard and Freedom groups to publish a pamphlet on the CNT in Spain.
Goldman grows increasingly frustrated with the efforts of the Pond Bureau, complaining that the theaters booked for her lectures are too large, that ticket prices are too high, and that advertising is misdirected. By contrast, publicist Ann Lord's advance work for Goldman's lectures, directed especially to Goldman's anarchist associates and the Yiddish Left, improves the overall audience turnout.
Goldman pins her hopes for a successful tour on obtaining an extension of her visa, which Roger Baldwin pursues in Washington, D.C.
Goldman's lecture in New Haven on Living My Life and "Today's International Problems" attracts only a small audience.
On a whirlwind visit to her former home town, Rochester, N.Y., on March 17, Goldman addresses members of the City Club, one of her most successful meetings since the opening week of the tour.
The first part of Goldman's tour of the Midwest meets with mixed success: disappointing turnouts in Toledo on March 19 and Cleveland on March 20, though eight hundred attend her March 18 lecture in Detroit.
March 21-April 2
Goldman's five lectures in Chicago, organized by her political associates, are the most successful of her tour; sixteen hundred attend the lecture under the auspices of the Free Society Forum on March 22, twelve hundred at the University of Chicago on March 23, and a thousand at Northwestern University on March 26. Fifteen hundred attend a banquet in her honor at the Medinah Hotel on March 28. The warmth of the reception boosts her morale and convinces her that her ideas still have an audience.
In Chicago she meets new comrades who become valued friends, especially Jeanne and Jay Levey, and Frank Heiner, a blind sociology graduate student at the University of Chicago, who impresses Goldman as a promising anarchist leader.
Goldman also lectures twice in Wisconsin, on March 24 in Milwaukee, an afternoon meeting that draws only a small audience, and at the University of Wisconsin at Madison on March 27.
Goldman visits St. Louis, where the receipts for her April 5 lecture on "The Collapse of German Culture" fail to cover the rental expenses for the large hall.
Her brother Morris and his wife Babsie visit Goldman in St. Louis.
Goldman's lectures on the last leg of her tour continue to meet with mixed success despite the advance work of Ann Lord.
In Pittsburgh on April 11 she draws eight hundred people; in Rochester, seven hundred, where she lectures under the auspices of the Rochester branch of the National Council of Jewish Women on April 15; the turnouts in Buffalo on April 16 and Albany on April 18, by contrast, are disappointing, though the Yiddish meetings in those cities are comparatively successful.
Goldman's last days in New York are occupied by visits with friends, families, and political associates.
On April 25 she speaks at Dana College in Newark, N.J.
Farewell gatherings include one at Webster Hall on April 26 and a luncheon sponsored by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme on April 29.
Goldman leaves New York for Canada on April 30. Though her lecture tour brings her little financial reward, in the course of it she raises over $1000 for the political prisoners in and refugees from Russia and Germany.
Fatigued from her tour of the Unites States but with the continuing assistance of Ann Lord, Goldman spends the first three weeks of the month in Montreal organizing and delivering lectures. Despite her disappointment over the failure of her tour, Goldman feels more acutely than ever the pain of her exile from the United States.
FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover writes to the attorney general asserting that Goldman violated the agreement on which she entered the country, thus jeopardizing her chances of return.
Following on the heels of Rudolf Rocker's U.S. and Canadian lecture tour, Goldman continues her efforts to find an American publisher for his manuscript "Nationalism and Culture"; Berkman begins translating it, after he finishes drafting ideas for the articles that the American Mercury, Harper's, the Nation, and Redbook have commissioned Goldman to write.
Through correspondence with her new protégé Frank Heiner about anarchism and its prospects, their relationship grows more intimate.
Goldman's lectures in Montreal draw audiences of three to four hundred: she speaks on Hitler and Nazism, "The Collapse of German Culture," and Living My Life, as well as lecturing in Yiddish on May 21.
Back in Toronto, Goldman finds an apartment; after a disappointing lecture on the New Deal on May 28 she determines to curtail her public speaking and concentrate on writing.
Goldman has difficulty settling down to write especially without Berkman's editorial assistance; Redbook rejects the article she submits about her impressions of the United States.
Goldman finds Toronto dull and feels starved for intellectual companionship; she urges her American friends and comrades to visit over the summer.
Goldman's affection for Heiner grows as does her anticipation of his visit; she expects him to become an important force in the American anarchist movement.
Goldman celebrates her sixty-fifth birthday in Toronto with a party attended by forty friends.
Erich Mühsam, German anarchist poet, dies in a Nazi concentration camp.
The American Mercury accepts Goldman's article, "Communism: Bolshevist and Anarchist, A Comparison," which it publishes--to Goldman's disgust--in a truncated form as "There is No Communism in Russia" in April 1935, violating the spirit of the original article. Harper's rejects her article "The Individual, Society, and the State"; unwilling to revise it, she submits instead the article about her U.S. visit that Redbook rejected. She finishes writing "The Tragedy of the Political Exiles," which the Nation accepts.
Goldman hosts a gathering of young people with the aim of starting an anarchist group in Toronto and meets with them weekly throughout the summer.
Among her visitors are Jeanne and Jay Levey from Chicago and her brother Herman and his son Allan.
Berkman's health and mental state decline while translating Rocker's manuscript.
San Francisco general strike, the first general strike in U.S. history, begins in support of twelve thousand striking International Longshoremen's Association members.
Nestor Makhno, Ukrainian anarchist leader, dies in exile in Paris.
Goldman's sister Lena and family visit.
The weekly gatherings of young people at her apartment continue; Goldman finds it hard to disabuse them of their attachment to the state or dictatorship and is pessimistic about making any new converts.
Goldman hatches a scheme to get Berkman a Lithuanian passport so he can at least travel to Canada.
Anarchist conference at Stelton, N.J., organized to discuss the creation of an English-language anarchist weekly; Goldman contributes in writing her ideas on anarchists building alliances with other groups.
Frank Heiner arrives and stays with Goldman until the beginning of September; they become lovers.
Goldman presides over a poorly attended meeting at Hygeia Hall organized by the Libertarian Groups of Toronto to commemorate the seventh anniversary of the executions of Sacco and Vanzetti; Heiner also speaks at the meeting.
Goldman misses Heiner after he returns to the United States, and hopes that Roger Baldwin will be successful in his efforts in Washington to gain a U.S. visa for her.
Works hard writing the lectures for the following month.
Submits "Was My Life Worth Living?" to Harper's, later accepted for publication.
Lectures to a Jewish women's organization in Toronto on "The New Approach to the Child."
Goldman delivers a series of eight lectures at Forester's Hall, Toronto, on literary and political topics, including George Bernard Shaw, munitions manufacturers, Russian literature since the revolution, and German literature and the Nazi book-burnings. Attendance is very disappointing, and Goldman worries about financial survival if refused permission to reenter the United States; considers the possibility of dramatizing Living My Life for theater or film.
She is concerned about her brother Morris who suffers repeated heart attacks.
Of five other meetings during the month, only a lecture to a mostly unemployed workers' organization on "The American Labor Movement and the General Strike" on Oct. 2 gives her much satisfaction; even a free anarchist meeting on Oct. 31 fails to draw a good crowd.
Roger Baldwin discusses Goldman's application for a new U.S. visa--and Rudolf Rocker's application for an extension of his stay--with the authorities in Washington, who advise him that at present they would deny Goldman's request; only Rocker's application is approved.
The uprising in the mining districts of Asturias, Spain, is followed by severe repression; thousands of miners are executed, thousands more tortured, and thirty to forty thousand are imprisoned.
Goldman decides to stay in Canada until the spring in the hope of reentering the United States and seeing Heiner again.
Goldman is more sanguine about her work in Toronto: she sees promise in the small group of comrades--especially Dorothy Rogers and Ahrne Thornberg [as Ahrne Thorne, later the editor of the Freie Arbeiter Stimme]--and is gratified by the circular against war and fascism they publish at the end of the month.
After farewell parties in Toronto, Goldman travels to Montreal, where she discovers little preparatory work has been done for her lectures.
Jeanne Levey informs Goldman that she is discreetly raising a fund to support her and, if necessary, pay her passage back to Europe.
November 12-December 11
Goldman's lectures at the Windsor Hotel and the YMCA in Montreal include topics such as George Bernard Shaw, the individual in society, and a comparison of Bolshevik and anarchist communism. Again the lectures are not well attended; furthermore, a Quebec law prohibits Goldman from selling or distributing literature at her meetings unless it is first submitted to the police, a condition she refuses to accept.
After a promising start, neither the Yiddish meetings nor the English meetings Goldman addresses are well attended, so she determines to organize a series for the new year on a subscription basis instead.
Harper's publishes Goldman's "Was My Life Worth Living?".
Roger Baldwin advises Goldman that in the current atmosphere of hostility toward alien radicals she is unlikely to be granted a U.S. visa.
Goldman's brother Herman dies.
In Canada, Goldman is absorbed writing lectures with the hope that a new lecture series and published articles will provide a meager livelihood, as well as spread anarchist ideas. She considers writing a book of portraits of famous people she has known, an idea first suggested by Frank Heiner. She suggests that the sustaining fund Jeanne Levey is helping to raise might be designated to support its writing.
After a disappointing turnout for her Jan. 17 lecture on moral censorship of current films Goldman cancels further lectures; by contrast, talks to Jewish audiences--the Temple Emanu-El adult school on Jan. 7, the second meeting arranged by Rabbi Harry Stern, and the women's branch of the Arbeiter Ring on Jan. 12--are well received and buoy her spirits.
January 9-March 13
Goldman's ten-week lecture series on drama and literature at the Central YMCA in Montreal includes lectures on Russian and Soviet drama, German literary works destroyed by the Nazis, and American drama, especially Eugene O'Neill. Only fifty people subscribe for the series, and few others attend.
Goldman's four lectures in Yiddish this month continue to be her most successful in Montreal, drawing an audience of two hundred when she speaks on "the element of sex in unmarried people" on Feb. 1 and raising some money for the first time in Montreal when she speaks again to the women's branch of the Arbeiter Ring on Feb. 17.
Goldman decides to return to France in the spring after receiving further discouraging reports from friends who have met with Labor Department officials in Washington, D.C., about chances for readmission.
As other possibilities close, Goldman looks increasingly to her proposed book venture as a means of support; she also pursues the idea of a sustaining fund as she inquires about receiving an advance from a publisher.
Two further lectures to Jewish groups--on "Crime and Punishment" on March 4 and birth control on March 15--and the last in her drama series conclude Goldman's lectures in Montreal; she returns to Toronto on March 17.
Goldman speaks at two Yiddish meetings in Toronto at the end of the month, one a lecture, the other a seventieth birthday celebration for Chaim Zhitlovsky, the exiled Russian revolutionary.
By the end of the month a formal committee to raise a "Sustaining Fund for Emma Goldman" is organized in New York by her niece Stella Ballantine and Roger Baldwin, and three hundred fund-raising letters solicit $3,000 in contributions to support Goldman while she is writing a book; Jeanne Levey helps with the appeal from Chicago.
Goldman grows increasingly concerned about Berkman's financial condition and raises emergency funds for him and Emmy Eckstein.
March 19-April 9
Goldman delivers a series of four lectures at Toronto's Hygeia Hall organized by a group of young anarchists; she speaks on "The Element of Sex in Life," "Youth in Revolt," "The Tragedy of the Modern Woman," and "Crime and Punishment."
In her last month in Canada Goldman speaks in Hamilton, Ontario, under the auspices of the National Council of Jewish Women on April 11, and twice in Toronto, on "Youth in Revolt" to a branch of the Arbeiter Ring on April 14, and on birth control at Hygeia Hall on April 16, after meeting with the head of a Toronto birth control clinic.
Harper's rejects Goldman's suggestion that she write a monthly column about the European situation.
The effort to aid Berkman is formalized with the creation in New York of the Alexander Berkman Provisional Committee which plans fund-raising events to celebrate the anniversary of his release from prison and his upcoming sixty-fifth birthday.
Goldman attends a farewell dinner in her honor in Toronto that raises $95 toward her sustaining fund.
Goldman returns to Montreal where her niece Stella Ballantine visits her on April 26.
Telegrams of tribute greet Goldman at a farewell event hosted by Rabbi Stern of Montreal.
Goldman sails from Canada to Le Havre, France; she reaches Paris on May 15.
Goldman arrives back in St. Tropez in time to celebrate the anniversary of Berkman's release from prison in 1906; she finds him in better health than she expected.
Relations between Goldman, Berkman, and his companion Emmy Eckstein are surprisingly harmonious given that the three are living in close proximity at Goldman's cottage in St. Tropez.
The serenity is disrupted by the news of Rudolf Rocker's dissatisfaction with Berkman's translation and editing of Rocker's book and his decision to abandon the project.
Goldman receives reports of the progress of the fund-raising appeal that ultimately brings over $1,000.
Begins mobilizing anarchist writers and editors of the movement's press--for example, Rocker, Nettlau, and Albert de Jong--to publish articles to mark Berkman's sixty-fifth birthday in November.
As the weeks pass, Goldman grows restless without an outlet for political activity and wonders whether returning to France was wise, especially as she is even further away from Frank Heiner. She weighs her options for the fall and winter, and considers returning to Canada or lecturing in England.
Relations between Goldman and Eckstein deteriorate to the point that they can no longer live in the same place; at the end of the month Goldman goes to Nice with Berkman and visits Nellie Harris; on Goldman's return Eckstein leaves St. Tropez.
Among Goldman's visitors this month in St. Tropez are Ben Reitman's son Brutus and Dutch friends Dien and Tom Meelis from Toronto.
In the middle of the month Berkman returns to Eckstein in Nice; once apart, Goldman and Berkman are able to discuss their differences and their disappointment with each other's attitude after a long separation.
Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin from Paris and Modest Stein from New York visit Bon Esprit this month.
At the end of the month Goldman begins organizing her papers, manuscripts, lecture notes, and letters before she leaves Bon Esprit for the winter.
Emmy Eckstein reports that Berkman is weak and tires quickly, though he edits Goldman's "Two Communisms: Bolshevist and Anarchist."
Berkman helps Goldman to organize her papers and writes letters to publishers on her behalf asking for review copies of books to use in her upcoming lecture tour of England.
Italian troops invade Ethiopia, prompting League of Nations sanctions against Italy.
October 19-November 14
Goldman stays in Paris, visiting friends and political associates, including Jacob Abrams, who encourages her to lecture in Mexico. While there she learns that Berkman's weakness may be attributable to prostate trouble.
After traveling to London, where she plans to make her home for the winter, Goldman begins a series of lectures on Nov. 21 with "Traders in Death" to an audience of about one hundred at the National Trade Union Club. She follows this with "Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin" at a packed meeting at Workers' Circle House, where she is heckled by Communists, and "Fallacies of Political Action" at Broadway Congregational Hall, Hammersmith.
In Leeds on Dec. 1 Goldman gives such a highly successful lecture on German literature to the Workers' Circle that the members ask for other dates.
In Plymouth Goldman speaks to the Tamaritans on Dec. 7 on "The Soviet Theatre." The success of her lectures on political topics surprises her: Six hundred people--the largest meeting she has ever had in England--attend her lecture on "Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin" on Dec. 9, though two subsequent lectures draw smaller crowds.
Goldman begins a lecture tour, hopeful that she can establish a lecture base in London for six to eight months a year and spend the summers in St. Tropez. The death of King George V on Jan. 20, however, plunges the country into mourning, resulting in poor attendance at her lectures.
Deaths of Louise Bryant, journalist and companion of the late John Reed, and Dr. William Robinson, early birth control advocate in the United States.
Lectures to the Leicester Secular Society on "Traders in Death (The International Munitions Clique)."
Lectures to the Southend Labour League of Youth on "Youth in Revolt."
Goldman gives three lectures in London. The first, at the Workers Circle House on "The Two Communisms (Bolshevist and Anarchist--A Parallel)," is disrupted by Communists. She also lectures on "Russian Literature" at the National Trade Union Club, and on "Mussolini, Hitler and Stalin (How Far Do Their Common Methods Lead To Similar Results?)" in Hammersmith.
Goldman considers publishing a new book of essays drawn from her recent lectures, not only as a source of income but also to appease contributors to the Emma Goldman Publication Fund established to enable her to write another book.
Jeanne Levey organizes the publication of twelve thousand copies of "The Place of the Individual in the Society" in pamphlet form to raise additional funds.
Berkman has a prostate operation in Nice, unbeknownst to Goldman. Later in the month, Emmy Eckstein enters the hospital for gastrointestinal observation. Berkman has a second prostate operation the following month. Goldman learns of their condition while completing her scheduled lectures.
Goldman's three lectures in Plymouth draw enthusiastic audiences, though at the last she is heckled by local Communists.
Goldman lectures again to the Workers Circle in London.
Goldman's friendship with Eslanda and Paul Robeson deepens, as does her friendship with her new admirer and benefactor, Shloime Sutton. Garden City Publishing Company prints a cheaper edition of _Living My Life_ after purchasing the rights from Knopf.
Germany remilitarizes the Rhineland in direct contravention of the Treaty of Versailles.
Goldman lectures again to the Leicester Secular Society.
Speaks on "The Russian Theatre" to a thousand members of the Coventry Repertory Circle, one of the most successful meetings she has ever had in England.
Goldman's lecture in Hammersmith, London, on "Anarchism (What It Really Stands For)" is sparsely attended.
Goldman delivers three lectures to miners in South Wales--at Mountain Ash, Ystradgynlais, and Aberdare--sponsored by the National Council of Labour Colleges. Her lectures on "Mussolini and Hitler" and on "The Two Communisms" are surprisingly well received, as it is the first time that the Labour Colleges had provided a hearing for anarchism and a critique of Soviet Russia.
Goldman lectures on Living My Life at Conway Hall, London.
Goldman leaves London, arriving in Nice on April 6. Berkman is still hospitalized; in spite of Emmy Eckstein's worsening health, the two women visit him daily.
Goldman writes to drama organizations in Britain and places advertisements in drama publications, soliciting lecture dates for the fall: she offers to speak on Eugene O'Neill, Clifford Odets, and other contemporary playwrights, as well as on "Soviet Literature, Its Struggle and Its Promise."
Berkman is released from the hospital and returns to his domestic life with Emmy Eckstein and Goldman in Nice.
Goldman returns to St. Tropez for the summer, unable to bear the building tension between her and Emmy Eckstein; she determines to sell Bon Esprit and advertises it for rent with an option to purchase.
Berkman--whose recovery is slow--discovers that, for the first time, his residency papers have been renewed for a whole year.
Goldman celebrates her sixty-seventh birthday with visiting American anarchist and benefactor Michael Cohn and his family. Too ill to celebrate with her, Berkman telephones in the afternoon.
In the early hours, unable to endure the physical pain, Berkman shoots himself; the bullet lodges in his spinal column, paralysing him. Goldman rushes to Nice to be at his side. He sinks into a coma in the afternoon and dies at 10 P.M.
Berkman is buried in Nice.
Grief-stricken, Goldman tries to fulfill Berkman's charge that she take care of Emmy, who is impaired by her continuing illness.
Memorial meetings for Berkman are held in New York City, organized by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme; at Mohegan Colony, N.Y.; and in Paris.
Spanish Civil War begins.
Mollie Steimer and Senya Fleshin arrive in St. Tropez to comfort Goldman during her worst period of grief and psychological depression. Her spirits are lifted by Augustin Souchy's invitation to Barcelona to work for the foreign-language press office of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo-Federación Anarquista Ibérica (CNT-FAI).
Convicted of high treason in the first of the Moscow show trials, the old Bolsheviks Kamenev and Zinoviev are executed.
James Colton, the man Goldman married in 1925 to establish British citizenship, dies of cancer.
Goldman leaves St. Tropez for Spain.
September 16-December 10
Based in Barcelona, the anarchist stronghold in Catalonia, Goldman helps to write the English-language edition of the CNT-FAI's information bulletin, visits collectivized farms and factories, and travels to the Aragon front, Valencia, and Madrid.
She spends the first weeks working closely with Russian-born anarchist Martin Gudell of the CNT-FAI's Foreign Propaganda Department and broadcasts two English-language radio addresses; Goldman hopes to conduct publicity from Barcelona, as she does not want to leave Spain.
Visits the Aragon front for two days where she is honored to meet Buenaventura Durruti, a leading FAI activist and militia commander.
Goldman addresses a mass meeting of sixteen thousand people organized by the FAI youth in Barcelona.
In Valencia, with German exiles Anita and Hanns-Erich Kaminski, Goldman tours collectivized villages and farms.
Increasingly aware of how her inability to speak Spanish hinders her work in Spain, Goldman plans to shift to publicity work and fund raising in Great Britain or the United States, where she could make a greater contribution.
The threat of Nationalist forces to Madrid prompts the government to relocate to Valencia on November 7.
The CNT joins the Largo Caballero government, accepting four ministries. While recognizing the paramount need to fight the fascists, Goldman is troubled by the CNT-FAI's direction, especially its decision to join the government and effectively align itself with pro-Soviet forces. In her correspondence with close friends, Goldman is highly critical of the collaborative direction of the CNT, while publicly she remains supportive.
Durruti is shot by an unknown gunman during the defense of Madrid; his funeral in Barcelona on Nov. 22 draws hundreds of thousands of mourners.
Goldman is named official representative in London of the CNT-FAI and of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
Leaves Barcelona for Paris with the Kaminskis, arriving on Dec. 14.
Goldman arrives in London and finds the propaganda bureau of the Generalitat in a shambles. Vernon Richards's twice-monthly Spain and the World appears to be Goldman's most reliable vehicle for communicating about the conditions and aspirations of the Spanish anarchists.
Begins organizing publicity campaign about the Spanish revolution, including planning mass meetings in London and the provinces, but is hampered by poor communication with and lack of urgency among key anarchist leaders in Barcelona.
Aside from the London anarchists, Goldman finds allies among leading members of the Independent Labour Party (ILP), including Fenner Brockway and especially writer Ethel Mannin, who becomes a close friend. The first fruit of this alliance is Goldman's joining forces with a broad English coalition sympathetic to the Republican cause to mount an exhibition in February of photographs, cartoons, posters, and pamphlets from Spain.
The death on Jan. 1 of Commissioner of Immigration Daniel W. MacCormack threatens to weaken the confidence built up in the Department of Labor and delay any chance of her return to the United States.
Goldman speaks on "The Spanish Revolution and the CNT-FAI" at a large meeting chaired by Ethel Mannin in London.
Lectures on Spain in Plymouth.
Malaga falls to Franco's forces.
In Glasgow, Goldman meets with local anarchists at the home of Frank Leech, secretary of the Anti-Parliamentary Communist Federation. On Feb. 14 she speaks in Glasgow to an audience of six hundred on "The Part of the CNT-FAI in the Spanish Revolution" in the afternoon; and in Paisley on "The CNT-FAI and Collectivisation" in the evening.
Goldman and Ethel Mannin speak on "The Relation of the Church in Spain with Fascism," at Friends House, London, under joint auspices of the CNT-FAI London Committee and the ILP.
With Ethel Mannin, Goldman speaks on Spain in Bristol.
Disappointed by the financial failure of the Spanish exhibition that opened Feb. 20, Goldman begins organizing a benefit performance in London for the refugee women and children in Spain.
Gudell notifies Goldman of the establishment of a new committee composed of members from the CNT and the FAI to handle all foreign propaganda matters, in order to alleviate inefficiency caused by the personal and political rivalry between Souchy and Rudiger over propaganda.
Goldman lectures on Spain at a meeting in East London.
In her correspondence with the Spanish comrades Goldman criticizes the CNT for collaborating with the Communists and accepting Soviet support; publicly she remains an unwavering supporter.
In Bristol Goldman speaks in the afternoon to a conference of ILP delegates and in the evening on "The Relation of the Church in Spain with Fascism" at a meeting arranged by the local ILP.
The benefit concert for the Spanish refugees, which Goldman has worked frantically to produce, takes place at Victoria Palace. With Paul Robeson's performance, it is an artistic success but raises less money than Goldman had hoped.
Manchester Guardian publishes Goldman's letter criticizing its report that Catalonia had contributed little to the defense of Madrid.
Sixty thousand people take part in a May Day demonstration and march that includes anarchists for the first time in thirty years. Under the auspices of the London Committee of the CNT-FAI, Goldman speaks at the conclusion of the march in Hyde Park.
The "May events" in Barcelona pit rank-and-file anarchists and members of Partido Obrero de Unificacion Marxista (POUM) against Catalan government troops in armed clashes after assault guards attempt to take over the CNT-controlled telephone exchange; anarchist workers interpret this action as the beginning of an attempt by Moscow-aligned forces to suppress the anarchists and destroy the social revolution in Spain; CNT-FAI leaders, by contrast, are less alarmed by the actions and, rather than fight, call for a cease-fire. The Republican government dispatches troops from Valencia, but by May 7 when they arrive, resistance has virtually collapsed.
The Largo Caballero government is replaced by a government led by Juan Negrin that excludes the CNT and reflects an increase in Communist influence.
Goldman speaks on the Spanish revolution in Norwich at a well-attended meeting sponsored by the Norwich Freedom Group, the ILP, and the Labour League of Youth.
Goldman and Fenner Brockway speak on "Conditions in Spain" in London.
Goldman writes the introduction to a new commemorative edition of Berkman's ABC of Anarchism to be published by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme.
Views "Fury Over Spain," a film by American Louis Frank; considers organizing a public showing of the film to raise funds for Mujeres Libres.
In Paris, Goldman is troubled by the violent opposition among her closest anarchist comrades to the CNT-FAI's unwillingness to confront the Communists' assault on its opponents on the Left and its undermining of the revolution. Obtains Spanish and French visas that will enable her to travel to Spain after all.
On Aug. 21 she travels to Nice and later in the month to St. Tropez for her final stay at Bon Esprit, which is sold shortly after her departure for Spain the following month, temporarily freeing Goldman from financial worries and allowing her to continue her work for Spain.
Goldman leaves Marseille for Valencia.
September 16-November 5
Goldman in Spain, primarily Barcelona: finds the agricultural and industrial collectives in Catalonia in better condition even than a year before, though overall conditions in Barcelona are very discouraging compared to Madrid and Valencia, especially for refugee women and children.
Alarmed by the number of political prisoners being held by the Republican government, especially anarchists and POUM members.
Receives promises of support for a more intensive campaign on behalf of the CNT-FAI in England, including funds for an office and for the publication of Spain and the World.
Visits Madrid and the front.
With Souchy, Goldman leaves Valencia for Barcelona, which comes under bombardment by Franco's forces a few days later.
Pedro Herrera confirms Goldman's new role as the London representative of the SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity), which was formed during the summer to provide relief to Spanish refugees and to promote international solidarity for the Spanish anarchists.
Goldman's chances of receiving a U.S. visa are slim, the commissioner of immigration informs Roger Baldwin, due to pending legislation and the potential for adverse publicity.
Republican government begins move from Valencia to Barcelona.
Goldman meets and consults with many anarchists in Paris.
Returns to London; begins searching for premises for an SIA office and reading room.
Goldman continues her campaign against the imprisonment of anti-Stalinist leftists and anarchists in Spain, writing an article on the subject for Spain and the World and trying to enlist the assistance of sympathetic Members of Parliament.
In Paris for the International Working 8en's Association (IWMA) Congress at Vazquez's request: French comrades, knowing that publicly she is sympathetic to the CNT-FAI's policies, try to prevent Goldman from addressing the Congress because she is not an official delegate. The Spanish and Swedish delegates prevail in their attempt to have her speak, and she defends the CNT-FAI's actions and the difficult decisions it has made against criticism from comrades outside Spain.
Moves into new offices for the CNT-FAI, SIA, and Spain and the World in central London, but finds little enthusiasm for the SIA venture, as numerous antifascist organizations and Spanish aid committees already exist.
Having read Goldman's article in December's Spain and the World, Vázquez and Herrera warn her that frequent publicity about political persecution by the Negrín government and the Communists only undermines enthusiasm among the international proletariat for the cause of anti-fascism; Goldman replies by noting widespread distrust of the Communists and concern that CNT-FAI tactics have dampened the workers' general enthusiasm for the revolution.
Goldman acknowledges that Paul Robeson and his wife are distancing themselves from her as a result of their close association with the Communists.
U.S. labor leader Rose Pesotta meets with Goldman in London; promises to help organize a committee to obtain a U.S. visa for Goldman.
Goldman and Ethel Mannin speak on "The Betrayal of the Spanish People" at a CNT-FAI program in London; the audience turns against the Communists when they attempt to break up the meeting.
Goldman plans a spring benefit for the SIA; feels more confident about its prospects when more individuals agree to serve as sponsors, including art critic Sir Herbert Read, Laurence Housman, Havelock Ellis, John Cowper Powys, George Orwell, and Rebecca West, among others.
Exhibition of drawings by children in Barcelona schools and lace work by women refugees opens at the SIA office but draws only a handful of visitors despite extensive publicity.
First issue of the S.I.A. bulletin is published.
Goldman speaks at a small meeting arranged by the ILP in Eastbourne at which Communists in the audience attack her.
Goldman determines to go to Canada in the fall regardless of the chances of getting a U.S. visa, convinced that she could do more good for Spain there than in England.
Goldman writes the preface for a collection of writings by Camillo Berneri, the exiled Italian anarchist intellectual kidnapped and murdered in Barcelona during the 1937 "May events," which the Italian comrades are publishing in his memory.
In Scotland, Goldman lectures on Spain three times in Glasgow and once in Edinburgh; her topics include "The Betrayal of the Spanish People" and "The Constructive Achievements of the CNT-FAI," but the meetings are not well attended.
Franco's forces, with overwhelming air superiority, launch a major assault on the Aragon front; the Republican forces, torn by internal disputes, collapse; and by Apr. 15 the Nationalists reach the coast, splitting Republican territory in two.
German troops occupy Austria; the following day the Anschluss is proclaimed.
Goldman speaks at a well-attended fund-raising meeting in Leicester for the SIA; also shows the Louis Frank film, "Fury over Spain."
Large meeting and showing of the Louis Frank film in Peckham, East London.
Herrera calls on Goldman to do all in her power to prevent the repatriation of the refugee Basque children (most of their parents are supporters of Loyalist Spain) from England to Nationalist Spain.
Goldman suffers from shortness of breath, fainting spells, and general fatigue.
In Liverpool, Goldman speaks on Spain at two meetings: on the first day to a thousand people at an ILP-sponsored event; on the second to a small gathering of the Workmen's Circle. Both meetings are disrupted by Communists.
"Fascism Is Destroying European Civilisation" is the theme of a protest meeting in London sponsored by the CNT-FAI; Goldman makes an appeal for money for arms--illegal under the terms of the Non-Intervention Pact.
As a delegate, Goldman attends an all-day National Conference on Spain in London, which she is convinced is contrived by the Communist party.
Literary and musical evening in London for the SIA draws a small audience and is a financial flop; Mannin finds Goldman's militant speech inappropriate to the occasion, organized to promote humanitarian ends.
At the beginning of the month, Goldman is reading Orwell's Homage to Catalonia and writing "Trotsky Protests Too Much," a reply to two articles on the Kronstadt rebellion that appeared in the New York Trotskyist journal New International.
Herrera announces his intention to leave his position as secretary of the General Council of the SIA; his replacement will be Lucia Sanchez Saornil.
Large demonstration ends at Hyde Park where the CNT-FAI platform speakers--Goldman, British anarchist Ralph Barr, and veteran activist Matt Kavanagh--attract an enthusiastic crowd.
W. S. Van Valkenburgh, American anarchist editor and devoted friend and correspondent of Goldman's, dies of a heart attack.
Goldman asks anarchist friends in the United States and Canada to begin again to raise funds for a trip to Canada; encourages Carlo Tresca and Margaret De Silver to help her get a U.S. visa through their contacts in Washington, D.C.
Advises Vázquez that the CNT-FAI bureau should continue its operation while she is in Canada and urges him to support Spain and the World.
Herrera, in his new capacity at the anarchist Tierra y Libertad publishing company, expresses interest in publishing Spanish translations of Living My Life and Berkman's Prison Memoirs.
The International Institute of Social History (IISH) contacts Goldman about depositing her and Berkman's correspondence at their archive in Amsterdam.
Goldman attends a Writers against Fascism meeting organized by the Association of Writers for Intellectual Liberty; Goldman describes it as "almost entirely C.P."
Thomas H. Keell, British anarchist and one-time editor of Freedom, dies.
Goldman is one of several speakers at a Hyde Park demonstration to celebrate the second anniversary of the Spanish revolution; it draws a small crowd, largely because the Communists and their allies hold a rally in Trafalgar Square at the same time.
At the anarchist Whiteway Colony in Gloucestershire, Goldman examines the late Thomas H. Keell's papers on behalf of IISH, which hopes to acquire part of his collection.
Goldman offers IISH her unpublished sketches and large collection of newspaper clippings as well as Berkman's diary. She agrees to help IISH obtain other collections of personal papers from her circle of anarchist friends.
Goldman receives several hundred dollars from anarchists in New York and Chicago to pay for her travel expenses.
She is disturbed by reports of her niece Stella Ballantine's depression and awaits news about her condition.
Leaves London for Paris, having secured a British visa for Spain at the last moment.
The war scare over events in Czechoslovakia transfixes Goldman as it does all other Europeans.
She learns that her niece has been hospitalized after suffering a nervous breakdown; though the long-term prognosis is good, Ballantine's recovery is very slow.
Leaves Paris for Toulouse, and from there flies to Spain the following morning.
September 15-October 29
In Spain, many leading anarchists express to Goldman their strong opposition to the policies of the CNT's National Committee and its conciliation of the Negrin government. They are especially critical of Vázquez, who now acknowledges the destructive actions of the Communists but still wants them treated gently. Goldman complains to him, for example, that all the money raised in other countries for antifascist women goes to Communist organizations and none to the anarchist organization Mujeres Libres. The FAI by contrast is anxious to begin a campaign abroad exposing the activities of the Communists in Spain.
Goldman is shocked by the number of anarchists and other leftists held in prison, among them Jeannette Kiffel, a Polish anarchist and acquaintance of Goldman's, who has been held incommunicado three months but is released after Vázquez and Goldman appeal to Segundo Blanco, CNT minister of education in the Negrín government.
Goldman visits the metal, transport, and milk syndicates; schools modeled on libertarian principles; and the SIA colonies for refugee children. Notes that many collectives have been destroyed.
Goldman witnesses the continuing bombardment of Barcelona from the air and the chronic shortage of food and electricity.
Attends the CNT-FAI plenum (Oct. 16-30) and the trial of POUM militants charged with espionage and desertion (Oct. 11-22), charges on which they are found innocent; they are found guilty, however, of rebellious acts during the May events of 1937.
Accompanied by Gudell and Herrera, Goldman visits the 28th division headed by Gregorio Jover and the 26th division headed by Ricardo Sanz at the battlefront.
Munich agreement signed by Great Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, ceding the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia to Germany.
Goldman arrives in Paris from Barcelona for the SIA congress, which meets at the same time as the IWMA; Goldman joins delegates from Sweden, Spain, and France.
Ethel Mannin successfully assumes Goldman's role as SIA representative in London; raises significantly more financial support for the SIA than Goldman had.
Goldman advises Gudell that the next propaganda campaign undertaken by the CNT-FAI should be aimed at the release of the political prisoners in Spain.
Kristallnacht in Germany: This episode, coming on the heels of the Munich crisis, causes outrage in the Western democracies and diverts attention from developments in Spain.
Goldman spends much of the month in London completing a report on her visit to Spain for publication in the anarchist press.
CNT decides to close its offices in London and North America for economic reasons. Saornil pledges to continue relations with Goldman and Ethel Mannin and hopes that, despite the closure of the CNT-FAI London bureau, the propaganda for the SIA will continue.
Goldman sends five hundred pounds of clothing to Spanish refugees through the SIA in Perpignan.
Goldman learns that Emmy Eckstein's health is in serious jeopardy and that she must undergo surgery again.
Goldman and John McNair of the ILP speak at a poorly attended meeting in London on the crisis in Spain.
Goldman travels to Amsterdam to organize Berkman's and her papers at the International Institute of Social History.
Franco's forces launch an offensive in Catalonia.
Working every day since late December at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam, Goldman finds it impossible to arrange Berkman's papers without also organizing her own; she finally finishes the work on Jan. 14.
Learns that Emmy Eckstein's entire large intestine must be removed.
Tom Mooney, wrongly convicted of murder in the San Francisco Preparedness Day bombing in July 1916, is granted an unconditional pardon and released by Governor Culbert Olson.
Goldman arrives back in London.
Barcelona falls to Franco's forces.
Goldman is frantic with worry until she receives firm news of the whereabouts of anarchists who have escaped from Catalonia after the collapse of the resistance in Spain. Most find sanctuary in France but face harsh conditions in internment camps; others reach Paris without permits.
Vázquez's account for the suddenness of the collapse in Catalonia names exhaustion among the armies after the counterattack by Franco's forces on the Ebro front, shortages of military personnel, war-weariness and declining morale among the civilian population exacerbated by food shortages, and the hurried and open removal of the government from Barcelona that led to panic among the population.
IISH informs Goldman that her archive has been sent to England in case the Nazis invade the Netherlands.
Goldman's letter protesting Zenzl Mühsam's second disappearance in the Soviet Union appears in the Manchester Guardian.
Vázquez and Herrera's circular letter announces that the CNT-FAI will cease activities abroad and thanks the international community for its efforts on behalf of the Spanish anarchists.
Great Britain and France extend diplomatic recognition to Franco's government.
The Negrín government is overthrown in an overnight coup in Madrid; CNT members in the south-central zone are involved in the coup and occupy posts in the new National Council of Defense.
Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Goldman travels to Paris to meet refugee Spanish anarchists who are demoralized and fraught with misery and internal recriminations and suspicion.
Franco declares the Spanish civil war at an end.
Goldman returns to London: on the trip she meets a group of fifty refugees from Madrid and Valencia and in her final days in London organizes a committee to support them.
Goldman sails for Canada, arriving in Toronto on April 21, where she establishes residence.
Beginning April 27, Goldman lectures in English and Yiddish in Toronto and Windsor on "Who Betrayed Spain?" to raise money for Spanish refugees.
Emmy Eckstein, Berkman's longtime companion, dies.
Goldman's seventieth birthday is marked in Toronto with a celebration that elicits cables from friends, comrades, and labor organizations around the world.
Marks the fiftieth anniversary of Goldman's entry into anarchist ranks; she organizes a celebration for September to mark the occasion and to create a long-term Spanish Relief Fund.
Nazi-Soviet Pact is signed.
Hitler invades Poland; two days later Great Britain and France declare war on Germany, and World War II begins.
Goldman delivers a lecture in Toronto on the Nazi-Soviet Pact to an audience of eight hundred.
Goldman addresses two long-promised though poorly attended meetings in Windsor.
Dinner to honor Goldman and to launch the Emma Goldman Spanish Refugee Rescue Fund features labor leader Rose Pesotta as guest speaker and attracts the attendance and financial support of many of Goldman's closest friends and family.
On Oct. 4, under the provisions of Canada's War Measures Act, three Italian immigrant anarchists, Arthur Bortolotti, Ruggero Benvenuti, Ernest Gava, and a Cuban, Marco Joachim, are arrested for possession of antifascist "subversive literature," including anarchist classics; Bortolotti is also found in possession of a handgun and faces deportation to Mussolini's Italy if convicted. Goldman works tirelessly over the succeeding months for Bortolotti's defense, organizing a committee, hiring counsel, and raising funds from sympathizers in Canada and the United States.
Goldman postpones her proposed lecture tour to western Canada in order to give her full attention to the defense of the Italian comrades.
Goldman contacts Viking Press with a proposal to write a book about her experiences in Spain.
Ben Reitman suffers a mild stroke.
The sentence of Warren Billings, convicted in the 1916 San Francisco Preparedness Day bombing, is reduced to time served and he is released from Folsom Prison.
Fortieth anniversary of the New York anarchist newspaper, the Freie Arbeiter Stimme.
On Nov. 2, Arthur Bortolotti's trial begins.
Goldman spends the first two weeks in Winnipeg and speaks five times, reaching fourteen hundred people in two weeks: once in Yiddish to a women's organization on Living My Life; to a large audience on the Nazi-Soviet Pact; a lecture on Hitler and Stalin; a talk to the IWW; and a lecture on "The Jew in Literature in England until the End of the Nineteenth Century" to the Jewish Woman's Cultural Club.
Goldman attempts to raise $5,000 bail for Bortolotti's release, with the help of Dorothy Rogers.
Goldman's mail is intercepted by Canadian censors, their suspicion raised by the many letters containing money pouring into her address for the defense of Bortolotti, whose case attracts further attention in the United States through articles in the Nation and the New Republic solicited by Goldman.
Bortolotti is released on bail, charged now with immigration violations rather than a breach of the War Measures Act.
By mid-January, Goldman returns to raising funds for the Spanish anarchists and continues to raise funds and awareness about Bortolotti's case.
Goldman's niece Stella Ballantine recovers from a nervous breakdown after almost two years.
Goldman suffers a stroke that leaves her paralyzed on the right side and unable to speak; she is rushed to the hospital where she remains for six weeks.
Goldman returns home to her Toronto apartment on April 1 after regaining consciousness but not the ability to speak.
Stella Ballantine and Goldman's brother Morris and his wife Babsie travel to Toronto to join Dorothy Rogers and Arthur Bortolotti at Goldman's bedside after she suffers a second hemorrhage on May 6.
Goldman dies at the age of seventy; tributes and messages of condolence stream in from around the world; her body is taken to the Labor Lyceum in Toronto to allow friends and comrades to pay their last respects; Rev. Salem Bland delivers a eulogy.
Goldman is buried in Waldheim Cemetery, Chicago, close to the Haymarket martyrs, her casket covered by an SIA-FAI flag and bouquets of flowers sent by friends and organizations across the nation.
A memorial meeting is held at New York's Town Hall, presided over by Leonard Abbott; films of Goldman in Spain, Canada, and of her funeral are shown; and speakers include Norman Thomas, Rudolf Rocker, Roger Baldwin, Harry Kelly, Carlo Tresca, Eliot White, Rose Pesotta of the ILGWU, Martin Gudell, Dorothy Rogers, and Harry Weinberger.
Taken from the Emma Goldman Papers from Berkeley University, no longer online