1830s

Grand National Holiday, and Congress of the Productive Classes: William Benbow

Carciature of William Benbow in 1848 issue of Punch

Published in 1832 this pamphlet is possibly the earliest published advocacy for a general strike as a means for dismantling inequality and the oppression of the ruling class. Self published by William Benbow an unconventional preacher and 19th century radical, the "Sacred Month" was adopted by the Chartists in 1839 though Benbow was arrested before it started.

The Chartist Grand National Holiday: The General Strike of 1839

An article by Past Tense on the first attempted general strike called by the Chartist movement for August 1839. It also compares the ideas of the strikes main proponent, William Benbow with other theorists on Mass and General Strikes.

Dewi Bowln: Merthyr Rising

A collection of images by Dewi Bowlen about the Merthyr rising.

1831: the Merthyr Rising and Dic Penderyn

An account of an brief uprising in South Wales in 1831 and the fate of Richard Lewis, known as Dic Penderyn. The uprising was the largest outbreak of working class resistance in Britain during industrialisation and was the first time the Red Flag was used as a symbol of rebellion.

1831: Merthyr Tydfil uprising

Merthyr Tydfil riots

In 1831, Merthyr Tydfil, iron workers struck against redundancies, rising prices and bailiffs, leading to several thousand workers involved in riots that led to bloody suppression by troops and mass arrests.

1839-1846: The Anti-Renter movement

Anti-renter meeting poster

Howard Zinn's short history of the Anti-Renter movement against the patroonship system, created in the 1660s when the Dutch ruled New York.

On the History of the Communist League, 1836-1852 - Engels