Biennio Rosso

Garino, Maurizio, 1892-1977

A short biography of Maurizio Garino, one of the leading anarchist animators of the Italian factory council movement.

1918-1922: The Arditi del Popolo

Arditi del Popolo

A history of the people's militias who fought Italy's fascists covering the birth, growth and decline of the world's first anti-fascist group, the Arditi del Popolo.

1918-1921: The Italian factory occupations and Biennio Rosso

Workers' assembly in an occupied Fiat plant, Turin 1920

A brief history of the Italian Biennio Rosso (two red years) and the mass factory occupations of 1920 where half a million workers ran their workplaces for themselves.

Seize power or seize the factory? - Amadeo Bordiga

Amadeo Bordiga's commentary on the Italian factory occupation movement in 1920 as well as his view for how the movement should move forward. We do not agree with it but reproduce it for reference.

Towards the establishment of workers' councils in Italy - Amadeo Bordiga

Demonstration in Rome during the Biennio Rosso.

Bordiga's contribution to communist theories of the role of the workers party in pushing forward workers councils as a method of class organisation.