First published in 1972 this book argues that African underdevelopment is consequent to colonialism. Anarchist writers have been critical of the support given to the Tanzanian state in the preface.
The decisiveness of the short period of colonialism and its negative consequences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power. Power is the ultimate determinant in human society, being basic to the relations within any group and between groups. It implies the ability to defend one's interests and if necessary to impose one's will by any means available.