1840s

Senegal in 1848

An article about the impact of the 1848 Revolution in France on its colonial possession of Senegal and the limits of freedom reform by decree, and the right to vote.

The Communist League: Martin Hundt

History of the origins of the Communist League and its actions and influence during the 1848 revolutions in the German states and Europe.

June Days: Paris 1848

Account of the events in June 1848 when the workers of Paris rose up against the conservative republican government and its plans to abolish government supported workshops.

Orange Tree Conspiracy: 1848

The page recounts how some London Chartists tried to organise an armed rebellion – known as the Orange Tree conspiracy – following the rejection of the third national petition for the Charter.

Trafalgar Square Riots of 1848

This page reports how disgruntled workers took over a planned peaceful protest and set off a week of rioting in central London. It names more than 100 of those arrested.

Ashton-under-Lyne rising of 1848

This account of the events of 14 August 1848, when an armed Chartist “National Guard” shot dead a police officer in the town of Ashton-under-Lyne is adapted from Herbert Davies’ chapter in Victorian Ashton (Tameside Libraries and Arts Committee, 1974).

The general strike of 1842

As many as half a million workers may have been caught up in a strike wave which linked demands for the Charter and an end to pay cuts. This page tells the story and names the leaders.

Letter out of custody at fortress Magdeburg, 1847 - Edgar Bauer

Critique’s quarrel with church and state (excerpt) - Edgar Bauer

Sketch of Edgar Bauer

The young Edgar Bauer (1820-1886) was credited by Gustav Landauer and Max Nettlau with founding the anarchist tradition in Germany. The following is a selection from his 'Der Streit der Kritik mit Kirche und Staat' (1843), pp. 260-269. After the failed 1848 revolutions Bauer renounced radicalism and embraced conservatism.

The reaction in Germany - Mikhail Bakunin

'Die Reaktion in Deutschland. Ein Fragment von einem Franzosen’ first appeared in Arnold Ruge (ed.), Deutsche Jahrbücher fur Wissenschaft and Kunst, nos. 247-51 (Leipzig, October 17th-21st, 1842) under the pseudonym "Jules Elysard". Die Reaktion was written in response to Ruge's call set forth in the Preface to the first edition of Deutsche Jahrbücher for all Hegelians to enter into political struggle.