workers councils

Beyond the Party: The evolution of the concept of “the Party” since Marx – Junius Collective (Pour une Intervention Communiste)

An essay by Pour une Intervention Communiste on the origins and development of the concept of “the Party” in the Marxist tradition, with critical analyses of the contradictions of Marx’s and Engels’ vacillations on this issue, and their partial responsibility for the subsequent career of the Party concept in its permutations at the hands of Liebknecht, Bebel, Kautsky, Lenin, Trotsky and Bordiga (social democratic continuity, the dictatorship of the Party), and its radical yet insufficient reformulations by Luxemburg, the KAPD and others (“return to Marx”, “historic Party”, the “Marx Party”—or even the “Debord party”) as a revolutionary minority whose goal is to promote proletarian autonomy.

Rady robotnicze - Anton Pannekoek


Holenderski astronom, marksista i główny teoretyk niemiecko-holenderskiej lewicy komunistycznej Anton Pannekoek o radach robotniczych. Tekst pochodzi z 1936 r., i opublikowany był w amerykańskim czasopiśmie International Council Correspondence.

Galeria: Rady Delegatów Robotniczych w Polsce


Rady Delegatów Robotniczych zaczęły powstawać w Polsce w 1918 r. Niektóre zostały szybko zneutralizowane przez nurty reformistyczne, inne utworzyły swoją własną milicję, Czerwoną Gwardię i otwarcie kwestionowały tworzące się państwo polskie. W ich strukturach działały przeróżne radykalne nurty polityczne, walczące o wpływy między sobą. Wśród nich była Socjaldemokracja Królestwa Polskiego i Litwy (SDKPiL), Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (PPS), PPS-Lewica, Komunistyczna Partia Robotnicza Polski (KPRP), czy Bund. Poniższa galeria to zbiór ulotek, odezw i zdjęć z tego okresu.

Interactive map of the 1905 revolution


A map of the 1905-07 revolution – a precursor to the 1917 revolutions, which gave the world the workers’ councils, a staple of many revolutionary upheavals ever since. Work in progress.

Interactive map of workers’ councils (1917-1927)


The 1917 revolution in Russia, and the comeback of workers’ councils, signalled the start of a revolutionary wave that spread across the world over the next ten years. The map below is an attempt at charting the spread of the council movement in the 1917-1927 period. Work in progress!

Council communism or councilism? - The period of transition

Jan Appel

Book review of Philippe Bourrinet “The Dutch and German Communist Left (1900-68); ‘Neither Lenin nor Trotsky nor Stalin!”, ‘All workers must think for themselves!’”, Leiden/Boston (Brill) ISBN 978-90-04-26977-4.

On the design of a constitution of the RSFSR - Yakov Sverdlov

Soviet Union structure Yakov Sverdlov

Translation of Sverdlov's speech, on the election of a Constitution Drafting Commission. Source: from the report on the meeting of the (All-Russian) Central Executive Committee, 1 April 1918.

The Eye of the Needle: Towards Participatory Democracy in South Africa

Rick Turner

This book, by the South African philosopher and trade unionist Rick Turner (assassinated in Durban in 1978) was first published in 1972. It is an argument, written in opposition to the Stalinism of the South African Communist Party, for a participatory democracy in post-apartheid South Africa. The attached file contains the preface. The full text of the book is available at South African History Online.