Lenin orders the massacre of sex workers, 1918

Kaganovich, 1934

Lenin's letter to G. F. Fyodorov ordering "mass terror, shoot and deport the hundreds of prostitutes who are making drunkards of the soldiers, former officers and the like." in Nizhni, where the Czech white forces were amassing. Kaganovich implemented the terror although while there is some evidence of a sex industry operating in Nizhni (see comments) actual executions during the terror are estimated to be in the low hundreds and predominately men.

August 9, 1918

Comrade Fyodorov,

It is obvious that a whiteguard insurrection is being prepared in Nizhni. You must strain every effort, appoint three men with dictatorial powers (yourself, Markin and one other), organise immediately mass terror, shoot and deport the hundreds of prostitutes who are making drunkards of the soldiers, former officers and the like.

Not a minute of delay.

I can’t understand how Romanov could leave at a time like this!

I do not know the bearer. His name is Alexei Nikolayevich Bobrov. He says he worked in Vyborgskaya Storona District in Petrograd (from 1916).... Previously worked in Nizhni in 1905.

Judging by his credentials, he can be trusted. Check up on this and set him to work.

Peters, Chairman of the Extraordinary Commission, says that they also have reliable people in Nizhni.

You must act with all energy. Mass searches. Execution for concealing arms. Mass deportation of Mensheviks and unreliables. Change the guards at warehouses, put in reliable people.

They say Raskolnikov and Danishevsky are on their way to see you from Kazan.

Read this letter to the friends and reply by telegraph or telephone.

Yours,
Lenin

Reproduced from https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/aug/09gff.htm

Published: First published, but not in full, in 1938 in Bolshevik No. 2. Sent to Nizhni-Novgorod. Printed in full from a photo-copy of the original.
Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, [1976], Moscow, Volume 35, page 349.
Translated: Andrew Rothstein
Transcription\Markup: R. Cymbala
Public Domain: Lenin Internet Archive. You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work, as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit “Marxists Internet Archive” as your source.

Posted By

Mike Harman
Feb 9 2018 22:59

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  • You must strain every effort, appoint three men will) dictatorial powers (yourself, Markin and one other), organise immediately mass terror, shoot and deport the hundreds of prostitutes who are making drunkards of the soldiers, former officers and the like.

    Lenin, 1918

Attached files

Comments

Steven.
Feb 20 2018 15:46
Pennoid wrote:
Steven in the book provided I can't find any source info; e.g. it's translation date, translator, publisher, and so on. Any idea where I can find that?

it's from Lenin's works, German Edition Book 35, Page 325, published by Dietz Verlag Berlin 1978 – they were the official publishers of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (i.e. the ruling Communist Party of East Germany). So not exactly an anarchist plot…

Pennoid
Feb 20 2018 21:04

Thanks.

Noa Rodman
Feb 27 2018 15:53

A relevant article: http://ruskline.ru/analitika/2009/10/19/kto_organizoval_nizhegorodskij_rasstrel_1918_goda/

google translation:

Who organized the Nizhny Novgorod shooting of 1918?
Stanislav Smirnov, 19.10.2009

As it was already reported, the prosecutor's office of the Nizhny Novgorod region rehabilitated on June 24, 2009, 39 Nizhny Novgorod citizens out of 41 [this number was also given by Ratkovskij, see my Feb. 10 posts], who were shot by provincial Cheka in response to Lenin's wounded by a single terrorist in Petrograd on August 30, 1918. The rehabilitation of two more did not take place due to the lack of personal data in the archive. The political decision to mass shoot was taken by the Nizhny Novgorod military committee, a narrow emergency body with unlimited powers created at the request of Lenin, in view of the threat to Nizhny Novgorod after the capture of General V.O. Kappel of Kazan on August 7.

The telegram of Lenin on August 9 to the provincial soviet committee Fyodorov went around, it seems, in all the monographs and articles on the theme of the Red Terror: "The Whiteguard uprising is clearly being prepared in Nizhny Novgorod, it is necessary to strain all forces, make up a "triumvirate" of dictators, and organise immediately mass terror ..."

The dictators gathered the next day. The composition of the military revolutionary committee included G. Fedorov, Y. Vorobyev, S. Akimov, B. Kraevsky, I. Kogan, I. Shelekhes (V.F. Arzhanova, Ph.D., "Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee in 1918. "// Notes of regional studies, 1977). Formally, Fedorov became the chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee, although, perhaps, he was only a nominal figure, and the leadership in the Revolutionary Military Council belonged to Lazar Kaganovich, who arrived in Nizhny on the instructions of Sverdlov in May 1918 (as the historian writes, to stir up the class struggle in the village) and in July he took the post of chairman of the Provincial Committee of the RCP (b).

All the rest of August in Nizhny Novgorod there were general searches and arrests on the basis of belonging to the bourgeoisie, the officers, the clergy, the opposition parties. The searches were accompanied by a shameless robbery: they selected not only everything that remotely resembled army ammunition, but also gold and silver things and coins. As the official report of the Nizhny Novgorod gub-cheka notes for September 1918, which is now kept in the regional archive, only in September, Cheka produced 900 arrests in 1469 searches. Some of the detainees were held in the provincial prison, but they could not contain all, and then the concentration camp in the Krestovozdvizhensky monastery was hastily equipped. Periodically, executions were carried out. So, on August 15, Nizhny Novgorod chekists shot five people, including the former head of the provincial gendarmerie I.P. Mazurin, who was in prison since February 1917. Immediately after the news of the terrorist attacks in Moscow and Petrograd, the shootings became avalanche-like.

From the minutes of the meeting of the Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee of August 31, 1918: "Present: G.Fedorov, S.Akimov, I.Vorobiev, I.Kogan, I.Shelekhes. Chairman - Fedorov, secretary - Shelekhes. Listeners: 1. Comrade Fedorov announced the news about the attempted assassination of Comrade Lenin and the murder of Comrade Uritsky. Seeing in these two acts an open campaign against the leaders of the proletariat, Comrade Fedorov proposes that this campaign be countered with mass terror against the bourgeoisie and its henchmen. To order the commission to fight ruthlessly shoot everyone who explicitly or secretly supports the counter-revolution. "

The next night, a large group of hostages - according to one data, 17, on the other 41 - was brought by boat to Mochalny Island - near the left bank of the Volga, opposite the present Chkalovsky Staircase. After the execution the bodies were buried in a common grave or they were thrown into the Volga. Everything was done in great haste. Without the slightest delay. The next morning the fresh issue of the Bolshevik mouthpiece of the newspaper Raboche-Peasantskiy Nizhny Novgorod leaflet published a list of victims of the Nizhny Novgorod shooting, accompanied by the words "yesterday they were shot" and hysterical threats against the bourgeoisie, promising to kill hundreds of people for the head of every communist. At the beginning of the list was Archimandrite Augusta (Pyatnitsky), an abbot of Nizhny Novgorod Kazan Church and prominent public figure and philanthropist, Archpriest N.V. Orlovsky, General M.Chernov - Chairman of the Commission for the Construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Explosives Plant, a large group of senior and junior army officers, police and gendarmerie officers, public figures. There were several randomly tucked citizens of low rank on the list.

This was only the beginning of the Great Terror of 1918. We have only fragmentary information and figures. In Pavlovsky district in September, 24 prominent residents (factory owners, public figures, head of the Old Believer community Andrei Alekseevich Antipov, one policeman and one gendarme) were shot. Rastyapinskaya Cheka reported the execution of 4, Ardatovskaya - also 4, among them the priest of the church with Dubovka about. Aleksey Levashov, Arzamasskaya - 38. In September-December, shootings were carried out in the villages of Linevo, Emangashi, Vasil'sursk, where the abbot of the Family Church of Fr. John Flerov was executed, now glorified in the face of the holy martyrs. Like the martyrs of Nizhny Novgorod, Fr. Stefan Nemkov (Deyanovo village, now Pilninsky district) and Fr. Mikhail Voskresensky (with the Bortsurmani of the same district) he is still awaiting official legal rehabilitation, which for some reason is not thought of in the commission for the canonization of the Nizhny Novgorod diocese.

So, who was the organizer of the "Nizhny Novgorod shooting"? We will name by name.

Fedorov Grigory Fedorovich (1891 - 1936), Bolshevik, chairman of the Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee in August-September 1918, one of the organizers of the Red Terror in the province. Worker-metallurgist. Member of the RSDLP (b) since 1907. Since 1912 member of the Petersburg Committee of the Bolshevik Party. Member of the February 1917 coup, a member of the executive committee of the Petrograd Soviet and the Military Revolutionary Committee. From the end of 1917 - deputy. People's Commissar of Labor of the RSFSR. In July 1918 he was elected before. Nizhny Novgorod gubernia executive committee. Later on the party, prof. and Soviet work. Member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. In 1927 he was expelled from the CPSU (B.) For his support of Trotsky. Arrested in 1934, shot.

KAGANOVICH Lazar Moiseevich (1893 - 1991), a Bolshevik, a prominent figure in the CPSU. From June 1918 to September 1919 before. Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia Committee of the RCP (b). He was recalled to the Southern Front with Y. Z. Vorobyev, after the occupation of Voronezh by the Red Army before. Voronezh Military Revolutionary Committee. Later he was elected secretary and member of the Politburo of the CPSU Central Committee. In Nizhny Novgorod province there were also two brothers K. - Moses Moiseyevich in 1918-1922 was before. Arzamas VRK and in 1923-27 - before. The Nizhnybbsovnarkhoz; Julius Moiseyevich in 1937-1938. was one secretary of the regional committee of the CPSU (b).

AKIMOV Sergey Alexandrovich (1879 - 1947), the Bolshevik. From Orel Bay. In 1900 he entered the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway, from 1901 the accountant of the commodity station Nizhny Novgorod. Since 1903 member of the RSDLP (b). In 1905 he led the Kanavinskaya fighting squad, for organizing (together with SA Levit) an armed insurrection in Kanavin on December 12-14 was sentenced to 4 years of hard labor. In 1917 the railway commissar in Nizhny Novgorod. In August-September 1918 he was a member of the Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee. Later the household. work in Nizhny Novgorod, Siberia, the D. East. About the period 1937-1947 biographers do not report.

VOROBYEV (KAC) Yakov Zinovievich (1885 - 1919), the organizer of the Red Terror in the Nizhny Novgorod Province. From the family of a paramedic, by profession, a dentist. Since 1902, an anarchist, a participant in expropriations in various cities of the empire. Repeatedly arrested, cited. Since 1916 in N. Novgorod. For the roar. propaganda imprisoned, released in February 1917, elected secretary of the Kanavinsky and District Committees of the RSDLP (b). In October 1917 a member of the Revolutionary Military Council, the Kanavin Red Guards. Since March 1918 before. the Nizhny Novgorod guboe. In August-October 1918 a member of the emergency organ - VRK. He headed repression against the population of the province. The initiator of the creation of the first concentration camp in the Krestovozdvizhensky monastery. In September, he was appointed before. The Voronezh Cheka; in the way captured Cossacks and executed.

KOGAN Ilya Lazarevich (1885 - 1937), the Bolshevik. Member of the RSDLP from 1904. In the First World War, a serviceman of the 5th Army of the South-Western Front. Since 1917 in N. Novgorod. In 1918 the provincial military commissioner, a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee, one of the organizers of the Red Terror. Since 1935 the divisional commissar, military commissar of the air defense station in Leningrad. Arrested, shot.

KRAEVSKY Boris Izrailevich (1888 - 1938), the Bolshevik. Education is inferior. Member of the RSDLP since 1905. Twice referred to Narym. Until 1917 in exile. In 1918, the authorized representative of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) In Nizhny Novgorod, the head of the Red Guard, a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee, Nizhny Novgorod garrison, military commissar of Nizhny Novgorod Province. From October 1918 the district military commissar of the Western District. In 1937 the beginning. Gayskrikansky construction of the People's Commissariat of the USSR. Arrested, shot.

SHELEHES Ilya Savelievich (1891 - 1938), the Bolshevik. Member of the RSDLP from 1908. He graduated from the real school. In 1917 before. regimental roar. committee, a member of the Khamovniki Revcom. In 1918, the secretary of the Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee, deputy. chairman of the executive committee. In 1919, the chairman of the executive committee of the Kursk Soviets. From October 1919 to March 1920, the military commissar of the 13th Division of the Red Army Division. After the Civil War on the leadership work in Nikolaev, Yaroslavl, Bryansk, Kharkov. In 1925-26, authorized by the STO of the USSR for Central Asia. Since 1930 a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), since 1933 a member of the Central Committee of the CP (b) of the Ukrainian SSR, since 1934 the first deputy. before. SNK of Ukraine. Arrested in 1937, shot.

Noa Rodman
Mar 10 2018 20:51

Arzhanova's piece (Аржанова В.Ф. Нижегородский Военно-революционный комитет в 1918 году: К 60-летию Октября, pp. 11–15 in Записки краеведов. Очерки. Воспоминания 1977) contains several documents (published for the first time) of actual orders given by the Nizhny Novgorod military committee. I copy-paste just some passages from Google snippet view, and google-translate the relevant part:

Arzhanova writes:

[...]By order the Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution was entrusted with monitoring the internal defense of the city and the province, and was instructed to develop a plan for internal self-defense in the case of the Whiteguard uprising and attempts to it. Specially on the commission, an order was issued (which is attached) on the intensification of arrests and searches among the bourgeoisie and former officers. The commission developed and approved a mass raid plan at once of about 1/3 of the city, but it was not possible to implement it due to the lack of a sufficient number of armed forces. Further, measures were taken to streamline water transport.[...]

Order VRK of August 13, 1918 in the Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution.

In view of the precise information available to the executive committee on an upcoming act by counter-revolutionary gangs, the presidium orders you, with a view to immediately suppress any attempt at an uprising against the Soviet government, to carry out the general arrests of all counter-revolutionaries.

Chairman Gr. Fedorov. Secretary Karklin.

Order VRK of August 30, 1918 gubernskomu commissar for military affairs.

The Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee orders you immediately to bring to justice all those who hide from military service and all those who have not registered. All those evaded from military service and from registration to be handed over to the military field court.
Those who hide evaders are to be arrested for up to three months, with the replacement of the penalty up to 3 thousand rubles. All those who do not have documents, send for clarification to the commission to combat counter-revolution, speculation and sabotage.
Chairman Gr. Fedorov. Secretary I. Shelekhes.

Order No. 1

In confirmation of the order of the provincial executive committee of August 12 about the prohibition to appear in the streets after 10 pm, the Military Revolutionary Committee declares that the perpetrators of the violation of the order will be punished with arrest for up to three months,
..

--

Руководствуясь указаниями В. И. Ленина, 10 августа на экстренном заседании губкома РКП (б) и губисполкома в Нижнем был создан Военно-революционный комитет. Его состав менялся. Известны следующие члены комитета: Г. Федоров (председатель), Я. Воробьев, С. Акимов, Б. Краевский, И. Коган, И. Шеле- хес (секретарь).

Вся власть в городе и губернии с 10 августа по 20 сентября 1918 года была сосредоточена в руках ревкома. В Центральном государственном архиве Октябрьской революции хранится «Переписка с исполкомом Нижгубсовета рабоче-крестьянских и солдатских депутатов, комитетом РКП (б) и др. учреждениями о создании Военно-революционного комитета, снабжении продовольствием населения, присылке партийных работников для работы на местах» в которой обнаружены неопубликованные документы: доклад о деятельности Нижегородского Военно-революционного комитета, два приказа ревкома в Комиссию по борьбе с контрреволюцией и губернскому комиссару по военным делам, приказы (к сожалению, не датированные) и обращение
..
Нижегородского Военно-революционного комитета в напряженнейший период жизни нашей страны. Документы публикуются впервые **. 1. Доклад председателю Всероссийского Центрального исполнительного комитета Я. М. Свердлову о деятельности Нижегородского Военно-революционного комитета с 10 августа по 20 сентября 1918 года. События на фронте, а также угрожающее положение внутри поставили перед Нижегородским исполнительным
...
События на фронте, а также угрожающее положение внутри поставили перед Нижегородским исполнительным комитетом Совдепа вопрос о необходимости усиления и большей концентрации работы в целях быстрого проведения необходимых мероприятий. ВРК был создан из пяти человек с чрезвычайными полномочиями, и вся власть в губернии с 10 августа перешла к вновь созданному ВРК. В связи с приближением фронта основной задачей ВРК было
..
Сейчас работы по внешней обороне подходят к концу, но с приездом главнокомандующего фронтом план работы расширен, и работы продолжаются. На обязанность Чрезвычайной комиссии по борьбе с контрреволюцией было возложено наблюдение за внутренней обороной города и губернии, было поручено разработать план внутренней самообороны на случай белогвардейского восстания и попыток к нему. Специально по комиссии был отдан приказ (который прилагается) об усилении арестов и обысков среди буржуазии и бывшего офицерства. Комиссией был разработан и утвержден план массовой облавы сразу около 1/3 города , но осуществить не представилось возможным из-за отсутствия достаточного количества вооруженных сил. Дальше были приняты меры к упорядочению водного транспорта. Ввиду близости фронта и большой нужды всевозможных воинских частей, а также других органов (продовольствия, Совнархоза) средства передвижения по воде забирались без всякого контроля. Был издан приказ (прилагается) и .
..

Для окончательного упорядочения работы водного транспорта образована специальная «Тройка», ведению которой подлежит весь водный транспорт. Особенно сильно сказалась необходимость большей концентрации в целях регулирования автомобильного и гужевого транспорта. Благодаря изданному приказу No 2 гужевой транспорт сравнительно легко удалось учесть и правильно распределить, но гораздо сложнее обстоит дело с автомобильным
..
Принимался ряд мер, обеспечивающих работу губернии, как прифронтовой, все изданные приказы в количестве 9 прилагаются. Ревкомом был окончательно разработан и утвержден план внутренней самообороны. Таковой уже почти проведен в жизнь. Освобождение Казани, а затем и Симбирска создали условия, в которых существование особого органа с чрезвычайными полномочиями считалось излишним, на заседании исполкома 19 сентября было

..
Председатель Военно-революционного комитета Гр. Федоров.
Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ ВРК от 13 августа 1918 г. в Комиссию по борьбе с контрреволюцией.

Ввиду имеющихся в исполкоме точных сведений о готовящемся выступлении контрреволюционных банд президиум приказывает Вам в целях немедленного подавления всяких попыток восстания против Советской власти произвести повальные аресты всех контрреволюционеров.

Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь Карклин*.

Приказ ВРК от 30 августа 1918 г. Губернскому комиссару по военным делам.

Нижегородский военно-революционный комитет приказывает Вам немедленно привлечь к ответственности всех укрывающихся и укрывающих от воинской повинности и всех не- зарегистрировавшихся. Всех уклонившихся от воинской повинности и от регистрации предать военно-полевому суДУ.
Укрывающих уклонившихся подвергнуть аресту до трех месяцев с заменой ытрафа до 3 тыс. рублей. Всех, не имеющих документов, направлять для выяснения в комиссию по борьбе с контрреволюцией, спекуляцией и саботажем.
Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ No 1

В подтверждение приказа губернского исполнительного комитета от 12 августа о воспрещении появляться на улицах после 10 часов вечера Военно-революционный комитет объявляет, что виновные в нарушении приказа будут караться арестом до трех месяцев,

...

Приказ No 2
Владельцам лошадей, телег, саней или занимающихся извозом и имеющих их в пределах Нижнего Новгорода, Канавина, Молитовки, Гордеевки, Сормова приказывается представить (сведения. — В. А.) в губсовнархоз в отдел транспорта к 1 сентября н/стиля с/г. Непредставление сведений или представление их ложными повлечет за собой конфискацию лошадей и подвижного инвентаря. Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Noa Rodman
Mar 11 2018 07:15

Fedorov Grigory Fedorovich (19.11 (1.12) .1891, St. Petersburg - 05.10.1936, Moscow) was an important revolutionary (I think he deserves an entry in the libcom library). Here are also some closer details about his role in August 1918 in Nizhy.

Sources:
basic info: http://www.opentextnn.ru/history/rushist/sovigu/predsovnn/?id=4409
more written out: https://murzim.ru/nauka/istorija/istorija-sssr/30655-fedorov-grigoriy-fedorovich-1891-1936.html

Fedorov in 1918:

Member of the RSDLP (b) since 1907. And from 29.4 (12.5) - 26.7 (8.8) .1917 - Member of the Central Committee of the RSDLP (b).

The son of the laborer of the Nevsky Shipyard, Fedorov, in 1907, like his father, enters as a laborer on the municipal water pump. This was the time of the Stolypin reaction. The Bolsheviks had to work in a situation of deep underground. Struggling for the preservation of illegal organizations, the party simultaneously used all legal possibilities. Work in trade unions, workers' cooperatives, insurance companies, clubs and cultural societies served as the main means of communication with the masses. Grigory Fedorov began to visit the cultural and educational society "Science" and in 1907 joined the Bolshevik organization that was operating illegally here. Soon he becomes a member of the board of the society, conducts propaganda work on Peski and the Petrograd side. A year later, when he was already working as a fitter at the telephone exchange, he was elected to the metalworkers' trade union commissioner. GF Fedorov successfully combines party and trade union work.

In 1910, GF Fedorov participates in the creation of the newspaper Zvezda.

Grigory Fyodorov was dismissed from his job for participation in the May 1, 1911 strike, and was soon arrested for belonging to the Bolshevik party.

Four months in the House of Preliminary Detention and "release" under the open supervision of the police with a written undertaking not to leave the place.

1911-1912 - working in the port in Helsingfors.

1912 - working at the factory "Promet" in St. Petersburg. Member of the illegal district committee of the RSDLP, a member of the Petersburg City Committee of the RSDLP.

In 1914, Fedorov was again arrested and expelled from the capital.

In 1915 - in Moscow. Here he is again arrested and this time charged with anti-war propaganda. Released to be sent to the forefront, Fedorov, with forged documents, moves to the Urals. The threat of a new arrest soon forces him to flee. Arriving in Petrograd, he goes to an illegal position.

1917 - Active participant of the February Revolution, deputy of the Petrograd Soviet.

Member of the first legal Petersburg Party Committee.

Since March 1917, deputy of the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, since September 1917 - head of the working section of the Council, a member of the Commission of the Labor Department of the Executive Committee and a member of the Presidium of the Council.

Delegate to the I and III Petrograd citywide party conferences. Delegate of the VII (April) All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP (b) from the Petrograd organization. From April 1917 he was a member of the Central Committee of the Party. Participant of the VI Party Congress.

In June 1917, at the First City Conference of Factory Committees, he was elected to the presidium of the Central Council of the factory committees of Petrograd. He became its chairman.

In October 1917 he was a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee.

In October 1917 he took part in the creation of people's commissariats, joined the collegium of the People's Commissariat of Labor, and two months later was appointed assistant to the People's Commissar.

--
From August 5 to September 26, 1918 - acting. Chairman, since August 15 - Chairman of the Nizhny Novgorod Province Executive Committee. The predecessor is I. Romanov. The successor is A.I. Taganov.

From August 10 to September 19, 1918 - Chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee in Nizhny Novgorod.

In July 1918 the Central Committee of the RCP (B.) decided to recall I.R. Romanov from Nizhny Novgorod and send there to strengthen the party and Soviet work GF Fedorov.

July 20, 1918, first attended the meeting of the Nizhny Novgorod Gubernia Party Committee.

July 31, 1918 at a meeting of the Provincial Committee of the RCP (B.) "It is unanimously decided to delegate Comrade Fedorov to the Presidium of the Gubernia Executive Committee as chairman of that committee, in exchange for Comrade Romanov."

Since August 5, Fedorov presides at the meeting of the Provincial Executive Committee as "acting chairman". He changes the heads of the Committees there.

August 9, 1918, Lenin talks with the chairman of the Cheka, J.Peters, about the situation in Nizhny Novgorod in connection with information about the counter-revolutionary conspiracy. After that, he talks with the authorized representative of the People's Commissariat of Food, AN Bobrov, sent to Nizhny Novgorod. Using what he can convey to the lower directive, Lenin writes "To the Nizhny Novgorod Soviets," referring to Fedorov, recently sent there to help: "Comrade Fedorov! In Nizhny Novgorod, obviously, a White Guard uprising is being prepared. We must exert all our forces, make up a three dictators (you, Markina, etc.), immediately mass terror, shoot and take out hundreds of prostitutes, solder soldiers, former officers, etc. " (VI Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 50, pp. 142-143.)

August 10 in the wake of the capture of Kazan by the Czechoslovaks and in connection with the letter of VI Lenin, an emergency meeting of the Gubernia Executive Committee was convened, in which VRK the following comrades are appointed: GF Fedorov, SA Akimov, Ya.Z.Vorobiev, LMKaganovich and ILKogan.

August 15, 1918 at a meeting of the Gubernia Executive Committee on the report of the Chairman of the Party's Gubernia Party L.M. Kaganovich "The majority of votes with two abstentions, Fedorov is elected by the Gubernia Executive Committee to the post of president. "

August 31, 1918 at a meeting of the Revolutionary Military Council Fyodorov announced the news received of the attempt on Lenin and the murder of Uritsky. "Seeing in these two acts an open campaign against the leaders of the proletariat, Comrade Fedorov proposes to respond to this campaign with mass terror against the bourgeoisie and its henchmen. To order the commission to fight ruthlessly shoot all those who openly or secretly support the counter-revolution. " It was decided to "Offer the gub. committee of the party to publish a leaflet and organize a series of rallies on the question of the attempt on Comrade Lenin. " (Unknown pages of the Nizhny Novgorod history (1918-1984), ed. L.P. Gordeeva 1994, pp.82-83.).

September 19 was the last day of the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee, the question of dissolving the Revolutionary Military Council was discussed. The chairman of the Military Revolutionary Committee, Fedorov, said that they had been negotiating with the center on this matter, "which considers it possible to dissolve the VRK."

--

In September 1918 he was recalled from the Central Committee of the RCP (B.).

From December 1918 - 1919 - Chairman of the Saratov Gubernia Executive Committee.

In 1919-1920 he was chief of the Political Department of the 13th and 14th armies of the Southern Front.

In March 1921, he took part in the suppression of the Kronstadt mutiny among the other delegates of the Tenth Congress of the RCP (B.).

Since 1921 - in trade union, state work.

Member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee.

In 1927 he was in the Trotskyite opposition.

In 1927, the 15th Congress of the CPSU (B.) Was expelled from the party as an active activist of the Trotskyite opposition; in 1928 he was reinstated in the party, worked as deputy chairman of Metallosindikat, then headed the All-Union Cartographic Trust. In 1934, again excluded.

Arrested on December 16, 1934 among the "former Zinovievites" GE. Zinoviev, L.B. Kamenev, G.I. Safarov, P.A. Zalutsky, G.E. Evdokimov, I.V. Wardin. In January 1935 the military collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR was sentenced to 10 years as one of the leaders of the so-called "Moscow Center".

Arrested on September 4, 1936. Sentenced: VKVS USSR October 5, 1936, obv .: k.r. terrorist activity. He was shot on October 5, 1936. The burial place is Moscow, Don cemetery. Rehabilitated March 28, 1959 VKVS USSR.

Battlescarred
Mar 11 2018 15:28

" (I think he deserves an entry in the libcom library)"
I thought libcom stood for libertarian communist not Bolshevik-Leninist.

Noa Rodman
Mar 11 2018 16:25

I wouldn't want to provoke you, besides I'm not into biographies. But it turns out that Fyodorov/Fedorov was quite an important figure, most active right in Petrograd, for example:

In June 1917, at the First City Conference of Factory Committees, was elected to the presidium of the Central Council of the factory committees of Petrograd. He became its chairman.

R Totale
Mar 11 2018 16:51
Noa Rodman wrote:
I wouldn't want to provoke you, besides I'm not into biographies. But it turns out that Fyodorov/Fedorov was quite an important figure, most active right in Petrograd, for example...

Yes, but was he a libertarian communist or not? Or were you proposing that libcom should have a "famous butchers of the working class" section?

Battlescarred
Mar 11 2018 17:34

So someone involved in the attack on the Kronstadters should have their name in lights on libcom? Don't make me laugh.

Noa Rodman
Mar 11 2018 19:02

Bolshevik Central Committee, elected in April 1917 at the 7th All-Russian Conference of the RSDLP(b), Fedorov on the bottom left:

But let me try to wrap up, repeat some main points from my last posts, which perhaps can serve as conclusion to this thread.

Fedorov, the addresse of Lenin's 9 August letter, did not interpret it as a command to shoot/deport prostitutes. Fedorov on 13 August ordered: "to carry out the general arrests of all counter-revolutionaries." That is, an intensification of arrests and searches "among the bourgeoisie and former officers" (I quote Arzhanova). A more ambitious plan for a mass raid on about 1/3 of the city was impossible to implement, due to the lack of a sufficient number of armed forces. There is no evidence that there was an organised (large) massacre of bourgeoisie and former officers in the early part of August (i.e. before the attempt on Lenin's life), except on August 15, when Nizhny Novgorod chekists shot five people, including the former head of the provincial gendarmerie I.P. Mazurin. On 12 August there was a 10 PM curfew proclaimed.

Mike Harman
Mar 11 2018 19:22

There's a couple of telegrams from Lenin in 1918 where he castigates his correspondents for not being repressive enough:

https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/aug/14aym.htm

Lenin wrote:
Minkin
Gubernia Executive Committee
Penza

August 14, 1918

I have received two complaints against you: the first, that you are showing softness in crushing the kulaks. If this is true, you are committing a great crime against the revolution. The second complaint is that you are cutting down agitation, reducing the circulation of leaflets, complaining of lack of money. We shall not grudge hundreds of thousands for agitation. Demand money urgently from the Central Executive Committee, there will be no lack of money. We shall not accept such excuses.

Lenin
Chairman, Council of People’s Commissars

That was sent three days after this one to the same people in Penza:

Lenin wrote:
Russian
Federated
Soviet Republic
..................
Chairman of the Council
Of People’s Commissars
From Moscow, the Kremlin.
11-VIII-08

To Penza

To Comrades Kuraev, Bosh, Minkin and other Penza communists.

Comrades! The uprising by the five kulak volosts must be mercilessly suppressed. The interest of the entire revolution demands this, for we are now facing everywhere the “final decisive battle” with the kulaks. We need to set an example.

1. You need to hang (hang without fail, so that the people see) no fewer than 100 of the
notorious kulaks, the rich and the bloodsuckers.
2. Publish their names.
3. Take all their grain from them.
4. Appoint the hostages — in accordance with yesterday’s telegram.

This needs to be done in such a way that the people for hundreds of versts around will see, tremble, know and shout: they are throttling and will throttle the bloodsucking kulaks.

Telegraph us concerning receipt and implementation.
Yours, Lenin.
PS. Find tougher people.

https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/aug/11c.htm

(Note, the 'hanging order' was found when the archives were opened in 1991, so that translation is not from Progress Publishers).

Noa Rodman
Mar 11 2018 20:39

Mike, if now are you're trying to argue that, while Lenin's message in your view still did call for a "massacre of sex workers", the addressee didn't act upon that order, then you concede that the order was not implemented, as you make appear in the introduction (also your mention of Trotsky is gratuitous).

I have little hope that you will change your provocative title, or even mention that Lenin's message is at least open to a different interpretation, but I think you could at least modify the claim that there was an implementation of a massacre of prostitutes (as your intro strongly suggests).

Mike Harman
Mar 11 2018 22:26

Well we know that Kaganovich was tasked with executing the orders, and your own quotes say that locally they planned a mass terror:

Noa's sources wrote:
Comrade Fedorov proposes to respond to this campaign with mass terror against the bourgeoisie and its henchmen. To order the commission to fight ruthlessly shoot all those who openly or secretly support the counter-revolution.

I think it's reasonable to change the intro to say 'Kaganovich implemented the terror.' so I've done that.

Red Marriott
Mar 12 2018 00:21
Fedorov wrote:
"Seeing in these two acts an open campaign against the leaders of the proletariat, Comrade Fedorov proposes to respond to this campaign with mass terror against the bourgeoisie and its henchmen. To order the commission to fight ruthlessly shoot all those who openly or secretly support the counter-revolution. "

Once again we can be reminded that those who were labelled "counter-revolutionary" by the Boleshevik leadership in this period included all those critical of the new state rule, certainly not only white guards and bourgeoisie. The 1921 Kronstadt rebels - who Fedorov helped slaughter - were smeared in the same way. Those persecuted by the Cheka included workers, anarchists, dissident Bolsheviks like Miasnikov and even, as early as 1918, satirical clowns who dared to make fun of Lenin & Trotsky; https://libcom.org/history/bim-bom-bang-bang-chekists-clowns

Noa Rodman
Mar 12 2018 11:04
Quote:
those who were labelled "counter-revolutionary" by the Boleshevik leadership in this period included all those critical of the new state rule, certainly not only white guards and bourgeoisie.

I focus on the 9 August episode. Where did Lenin get the idea about a Whiteguard conspiracy in Nizhny? Apparently he talked with 2 persons:

Quote:
August 9, 1918, Lenin talks with the chairman of the Cheka, J.Peters, about the situation in Nizhny Novgorod in connection with information about a counter-revolutionary conspiracy. After that, he talks with the authorized representative of the People's Commissariat of Food, AN Bobrov, sent to Nizhny Novgorod.

Days earlier there was apparently a similar conspiracy in the capture of Kazan:

Quote:
... Czechoslovaks used this moment to attack the ill-prepared Red Guards from another direction. Using this opportunity, an underground officer organization began a rebellion within the city. By evening the city was encircled by Whites from three sides, and there was fighting inside the city.

Even some allies of the Reds were unreliable:

Quote:
but suddenly a Serbian battalion of Reds, defending the Kazan Kremlin, changed sides

Despite Lenin's 9 August message, we see that the Bolshevik "mass terror" in Nizhny stayed relatively limited. It was only after the assassination attempt on Lenin at the end of August that Fedorov on his own took recourse to shooting. There were 41 executed, which included "a large group of senior and junior army officers, police and gendarmerie officers, public figures", although there were "several randomly tucked citizens of low rank on the list."

Red Marriott
Mar 12 2018 14:12

You've posted about events from Aug-Sep 1918.

Quote:
Lenin writes "To the Nizhny Novgorod Soviets," referring to Fedorov, recently sent there to help: "Comrade Fedorov! In Nizhny Novgorod, obviously, a White Guard uprising is being prepared. We must exert all our forces, make up a three dictators (you, Markina, etc.), immediately mass terror, shoot and take out hundreds of prostitutes, solder soldiers, former officers, etc. " (VI Lenin, Collected Works, Vol. 50, pp. 142-143.)

Maybe the prostitutes were all counter-revolutionary white guards?! Or maybe they were just among the "41 executed" by Federov you mention which included

Quote:
several randomly tucked [picked?] citizens of low rank on the list.

Why would low rank citizens be randomly picked for killing? We can assume it was to instill terror in the general population in an area where the bolsheviks were weak and facing resistance, not only from bourgeois/white forces, but also workers & peasants. As you say;

Quote:
It was only after the assassination attempt on Lenin at the end of August that Fedorov on his own took recourse to shooting.

But the assassination was carried out by Fanny Kaplan, a veteran SR militant who'd spent years in Tsarist jails and felt betrayed by the bolshevik assumption of sole political power - nothing to do with a White plot. So we can see that the subsequent Cheka terror was a response to the whole spectrum of resistance to Bolshevik rule, not only that from the right.

Noa Rodman
Mar 12 2018 15:52

I do not think this episode of 9 August 1918 (nor even that of late August, after the assassination attempt on Lenin) in Nizhny Novgorod serves as an example of Bolsheviks crushing resistance of workers and peasants.

The majority of the 41 executed (after the attempt on Lenin) were apparently priests, officers and prominent people. The next day the list of their names were published in a Bolshevik paper, obviously to instill terror. I'd say instill terror only in the bourgeoisie and their henchmen (priests, former officers, etc.).

The earlier curfew (and enlistment into the army) did effect the general population of the area, perhaps you can call it also a sort of terror.

Serge Forward
Mar 12 2018 21:24

Fuck me, you still banging on about Lenin???? He was a cunt, Noa. End of.

Mike Harman
Mar 13 2018 09:12

Noa. Given that the assassination attempt was by an SR, don't you think the terror was supposed to instil terror in SR sympathisers? There are several telegrams from this time specifically talking about the SRs. Remember they were sharing power with the Bolsheviks until expulsion in July.

Noa Rodman
Mar 13 2018 13:24

We (and I mean you, or if there are no sources in English, Battlescarred) would have to look at the political representation in the Nizhny Novogorod soviet at the time to make the argument that this was the case in this instance.

Btw, the Russian wiki page on Fanny Kaplan mentions particularly the execution of 41 in Nizhny Novgorod (listing their professions, one strange one on it: forest ranger).

Just for the record, I post the rest of Fyodorov's orders in August (most are boring, about transportation) and a translation of the final document (all from Arzhanova 1977):

From the Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee to all workers and peasants, to all Red Army men, to the entire population of Nizhny Novgorod and the province

Our eternal enemy - the bourgeoisie - has launched an open offensive against the proletariat. The offensive is conducted in the most heinous way, which was only used in the wars: the murder of certain leaders of the revolutionary proletariat from around the corner by means of hired executioners. From the hands of the assassins hired by the bourgeoisie, one of the oldest fighters for work, the commissar of the internal affairs of the Northern Commune, fell in Petersburg. Uritsky. A few hours later, in Moscow, an unprecedented attack on our pride, our glory, and favorite leader Comrade Lenin took place in Moscow. Comrade Lenin was seriously wounded at the time when he left the rally at the factory. The bourgeoisie is attacking us in a completely organized way, hoping to create the impression that our leaders are being killed by the workers themselves, near the walls of the factories. The impudence of the bourgeoisie is revealed, the murder of our comrades-leaders is the work of the hands of the bourgeoisie itself. Henceforth, we are responding to the challenge of the bourgeoisie by active action. The Nizhny Novgorod Military Revolutionary Committee, at its emergency meeting on August 31, decided to respond to the terror of the bourgeoisie with terror, for every one killed, or for attempting to kill, to respond by shooting hostages to the bourgeoisie. The Committee announces to the public that these measures will be applied without delay. The order of the Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution was given - cartridges for the bourgeoisie should not be spared. From this day, this decision comes into force and will not be abolished until the proletariat completely wins.

Chairman Gr. Fedorov. Secretary I. Shelekhes.

--

Приказ No 2

Владельцам лошадей, телег, саней или занимающихся извозом и имеющих их в пределах Нижнего Новгорода, Канавина, Молитовки, Гордеевки, Сормова приказывается представить (сведения. — В. А.) в губсовнархоз в отдел транспорта к 1 сентября н/стиля с/г. Непредставление сведений или представление их ложными повлечет за собой конфискацию лошадей и подвижного инвентаря.

Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ No 3

Объявляется всем гражданам Нижнего Новгорода, что въезд и выезд по всем железнодорожным и шоссейным, а также пароходное движение в пределах Нижнего Новгорода без установленных особых пропусков ВРК воспрещается. Нарушение приказа будет преследоваться со всей строгостью революционных законов. Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ No 4

О движении дачных, почтовых и грузовых пароходов Объявляется всем гражданам и учреждениям, что с 25 августа 1918 г. устанавливается следующий порядок движения пароходов: 1. Движение товарно-пассажирских пароходов будет происходить один раз в сутки от Нижнего до Козьмодемьянска. 2. Движение дачных пароходов устанавливается только с 1 сентября 1918 г., один раз в сутки. 3.

...
Приказ No5

Предлагается представить в отдел секретариата Губсовнархоза все имеющиеся пишущие машинки, ротаторы, шапирографы.

Председатель Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ No 6 Предлагается сдать в трехдневный срок в Совет народного хозяйства, в отдел автосекции, все имеющиеся автомобили и мотоциклы, а также запасные части к ним. Распределение таковых организациям будет проводиться по нарядам.

Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ No 7 Нижегородвкого Военно-революционного Комитета 1. Нижегородский ВРК настоящим объявляет всем лицам и учреждениям, что доступ в Кремль с 5 сентября с/г закрывается. 2. Все учреждения и организации, расположенные в пределах Кремля, должны освободить занимаемые ими помещения с 5 сентября с. г. 3. Проезд трамвая в пределах Кремля, движение Кремлевского элеватора, пешее

..
Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

Приказ No 8

ВРК объявляет всем гражданам Нижнего- Новгорода, что с 20 сентября отменяется действие приказа No 1 и (объявляется) о свободном движении по улице после 10 часов вечера. Всем караульным постам предписывается не чинить препятствий к свободному движению граждан, в то же время усилить наблюдение за всякими нарушителями порядка, подавляя их в самом начале.

Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

От Нижегородского ВРК ко всем рабочим и крестьянам, всем красноармейцам, всему населению Н. Новгорода и губернии

Наш извечный враг — буржуазия — перешла в открытое наступление на пролетариат. Наступление ведется самым гнусным способом, какие только применялись в войсках: убийством отдельных вождей революционного пролетариата из-за угла посредством наемных палачей. От руки нанятых буржуазией убийц пал в Петербурге один из старейших борцов за рабочее дело, комиссар внутренних дел Северной коммуны тов. Урицкий. Через несколько часов после этого совершилось в Москве неслыханное по наглости покушение на нашу гордость, на нашу славу, на любимейшего вождя товарища Ленина. Тов. Ленин был тяжело ранен в тот момент, когда выходил с митинга на заводе. Буржуазия наступает на нас вполне организованно, рассчитывая создать впечатление, что вожди наши убиваются якобы самими рабочими, у стен заводов. Наглость буржуазии раскрыта, убийство наших товарищей — вождей — дело рук самой буржуазии. Отныне мы отвечаем на вызов буржуазии активными действиями. Нижегородский ВРК на своем экстренном заседании 31 августа решил на террор буржуазии ответить террором, за каждого убитого, или за покушение на убийство, отвечать расстрелом заложников буржуазии. Комитет объявляет для всеобщего сведения, что меры эти будут применены без промедления. Отдан приказ Комиссии по борьбе с контрреволюцией — патронов на буржуазию не жалеть. С нынешнего дня это решение входит в силу и не будет отменено до полной победы пролетариата.

Председатель Гр. Федоров. Секретарь И. Шелехес.

--
Нижегородский Военно-революционный комитет в 1918 году сыграл свою историческую роль. Более месяца он руководил всей жизнью в городе и губернии. Проведенные им экстренные меры по обороне и укреплению тыла парализовали действия реакционных сил, готовивших в Н. Новгороде
...

Red Marriott
Mar 13 2018 13:28
Noa wrote:
I'd say instill terror only in the bourgeoisie and their henchmen

You yourself quoted the fact that some victims of "low rank" were chosen "randomly" - ie, completely innocent workers, peasants and/or rank'n'file soldiers were publicly murdered just to show who was in control and how ruthless their Cheka would be to any resistance. To instill terror in an unruly local population. If the Bolsheviks were so fond of 'Soviet power' and Lenin claimed that Bolshevik rule was a “proletarian dictatorship” & “the rule of the working class”, why did they send in the heavies from central Party government and not involve or consult the local Soviet, supposed local organ of proletarian power? Unsurprising then that Miasnikov & others were at that time criticising Party repression of workers - and being jailed and exiled by the Cheka for merely speaking of it; https://libcom.org/library/bolshevik-opposition-lenin-paul-avrich.
https://libcom.org/library/lenins-terror-bolshevik-party-maximov
And yes, why was the terror deliberately intensified, as you say, in response to the SR assassination attempt on Lenin if it was only against White/bourgeois threats?

R Totale
Mar 13 2018 13:29

Noa, what are you actually hoping to achieve here?

Serge Forward
Mar 13 2018 13:55

That we all admit we were very very wrong and accept that the Holy Church of Bolshevik Sanctity and Lenin the Redeemer remains unblemished???

Mike Harman
Mar 13 2018 14:23
Fyodorov wrote:
Our eternal enemy - the bourgeoisie - has launched an open offensive against the proletariat. The offensive is conducted in the most heinous way, which was only used in the wars: the murder of certain leaders of the revolutionary proletariat from around the corner by means of hired executioners. From the hands of the assassins hired by the bourgeoisie, one of the oldest fighters for work, the commissar of the internal affairs of the Northern Commune, fell in Petersburg. Uritsky. A few hours later, in Moscow, an unprecedented attack on our pride, our glory, and favorite leader Comrade Lenin took place in Moscow. Comrade Lenin was seriously wounded at the time when he left the rally at the factory. The bourgeoisie is attacking us in a completely organized way, hoping to create the impression that our leaders are being killed by the workers themselves, near the walls of the factories.

It's quite clear here that Fyodorov is blaming the SR assassination attempt on Lenin on 'assassins hired by the bourgeoisie', there is no mention of Fanny Kaplan or the SRs, who did shoot him right next to a factory.

Found the telegrams about Penza, which is about 450km from Nizhny, and was at least very close to an SR insurrection if not in the middle of it:
https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/aug/19c.htm
https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/aug/22c.htm
https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/aug/12c.htm

Lenin wrote:
Minkin
Gubernia Executive Committee
Penza

August 14, 1918

I have received two complaints against you: the first, that you are showing softness in crushing the kulaks. If this is true, you are committing a great crime against the revolution. The second complaint is that you are cutting down agitation, reducing the circulation of leaflets, complaining of lack of money. We shall not grudge hundreds of thousands for agitation. Demand money urgently from the Central Executive Committee, there will be no lack of money. We shall not accept such excuses.

Lenin
Chairman, Council of People’s Commissars

footnotes wrote:
The Left Socialist-Revolutionaries’ revolt in Chembar, an uyezd town in Penza Gubernia, mentioned in the telegram, broke out on the night of August 18. On August 20, the revolt was put down by a detachment of Lettish riflemen and Red Army men, who had arrived from Penza.

On Nizhny itself, found this from Bookchin citing Brovkin:

Bookchin wrote:
On 2 July workers in Yaroslavl, Tula, and Nizhny Novgorod worked with their Petrograd fellows in organizing a general strike, about 80,000 workers heeded the strike call.

Just a month before this order then.

DevastateTheAvenues
Mar 13 2018 14:37
Noa Rodman wrote:
(I quote Arzhanova). A more ambitious plan for a mass raid on about 1/3 of the city was impossible to implement, due to the lack of a sufficient number of armed forces.

A defense of impotence is hardly a defense at all.

@Pennoid:
I haven't forgotten your post, I am just ill-equipped to answer it. You have given me plenty to think about.

Noa Rodman
Mar 13 2018 15:50
Red Marriott wrote:
You yourself quoted the fact that some victims of "low rank" were chosen "randomly" - ie, completely innocent workers, peasants and/or rank'n'file soldiers

I post an article from the same Stanislav Smirnov, which has more specific names and data, so you can judge for yourself:

Archpriest Nikolai Orlovsky was rehabilitated. 09.10.2009
https://rusk.ru/st.php?idar=105871

(google-translated:)

The Nizhniy Novgorod prosecutor's office formally rehabilitated 39 Nizhny Novgorod citizens - victims of "mass executions of the largest representatives of the bourgeoisie, former officers and clergy". The execution was carried out by the Nizhny Novgorod Cheka on the night of August 31 to September 1, 1918, in retaliation for attempts on Lenin and Uritsky. The decision to shoot was taken by the local military revolutionary committee consisting of G. Fedorov (chairman), B. Kraevsky (secretary), L. Kaganovich, I. Vorobyov, I. Kogan, S. Akimov. The shooting took place on the Mochalnaya Island of the Volga, opposite the present Chkalov ladder.

The speaker of the Nizhny Novgorod Bolsheviks, the newspaper Raboche-peasant Nizhny Novgorod leaflet, published a list of the "hostages of the bourgeoisie" shot in the September 1 issue. Thanks to this information about the massacre at Mochalny reached our present day. Otherwise, disappear to the tragic list in the secret archives of gubChK.

Among the shot by the Latvian-Chekists, by order of the Chairman of the Cheka, Y.Z. Vorobyov (Katz), there were many prominent and respected Nizhny Novgorod citizens. The first in the list is the name of Archimandrite Augustine, rector of the Ouran Monastery. Then follow the rector of the Kazan Church, Nikolai Orlovsky, Major-General, the head of the Nizhny Novgorod Explosives Plant MM Chernov, the editor of the newspaper Kozma Minin and several other right-wing publications, G. N. Vasiliev, the colonels of the Russian Imperial Army, Nikolai Kondratiev, Pavel Boglachev, Albert Guernick (Chevalier of the Order of St. George IV degree), Alexei Krause, lieutenant colonel and commander of the Sedleck regiment Alexei Desyatov, staff captains BM Zhadovsky, KK Lyusinov, SP Gvozdikovsky, IP Kazarinov, lieutenant N.Shatsfayer, junior officers I.A. . Belov, A.V. Kuznetsov, N.P.Grebenshchikov, I.N.Grebenshchikov, N. I.Lyalkin, police officers: NLZillo, assistant of Nizhny Novgorod police chief FAA.Rozhdestvensky, district police officers A.S. . Kolesov, N.P. Kremenetsky, A.I. Kharitin, sergeants and guardians K.I.Vilkov, M.K. Troitsky, A.S.Kuklev, V.V.Vlasiev, A.Yazykov, C. I. Spassky, employees of the plant of explosives in Rastyapin: assistant to the head, Col. MI Mordvinov, early. equipment workshop call. adviser G. P. Mejzrikov, pom. Chief of the militia ensign ST Gorodetsky, industrialists MI Pribryukhov, GA Vagin, VM Terebin (head of the metalware factory from Pavlova), public figure, peasant, forest ranger, policeman - AM Dyachkov, VMToporkov, IP Safronov, NPObozov.

The public and the press have raised the issue of rehabilitation since 2006. Earlier, several persons from the list were rehabilitated, apparently after individual appeals or as a result of selective work of the prosecutors. This is Archimandrite Augustine, officers Kuznetsov, Grebenshchikov, Lyusinov, Desyatov, Kazarinov.

But on the whole, the list of "41" remained, as it were, under the spell, probably due to the prevalence of false notions about the Civil War and "counterrevolutionary masses" prevailing until recently (and to a large extent today).

In 2006, two public organizations of Nizhny Novgorod appealed to the regional prosecutor's office with a petition for the rehabilitation of "41". The appeal was followed by a refusal similar to the long-standing refusals to rehabilitate the royal family. The essence of the refusal was to point out the absence of charges and sentences in the archives and investigation cases of the victims of the Red Terror. An indication of the publication of the list in the newspaper with the reduction, in fact, of the reasons for the shooting-label-labels like "the ardent enemy of Soviet power" or "the capitalist", pointing to the class attribute as the only one, along with revenge for attempting "the leaders of the proletariat," the motive for the execution - The prosecutor's office was ignored.

But at some point the situation changed. It can be assumed that the decisive role was played by the precedents - the decision of the Presidium of the RF Armed Forces on 1.10.2008 on the rehabilitation of Tsar Nicholas II and his family and the decision of the Prosecutor General's Office of 8.6.2009 on the rehabilitation of the VK. Mikhail Aleksandrovich, v.k. Elizabeth Feodorovna and four other Romanovs.

Anyway, on June 24 this year. The prosecutor's office of Nizhny Novgorod region issued a resolution on the rehabilitation of 39 prominent hostages, Nizhny Novgorod, victims of terror on the Mochalniy Island. The basis for such a decision was the discovery in the regional archive of the report of the provincial Cheka for September 1918, which contained a list of "41", almost word-for-word repeating the newspaper list.

Noa Rodman
Mar 13 2018 15:52
Quote:
Among the shot by the Latvian-Chekists, by order of the Chairman of the Cheka, Y.Z. Vorobyov (Katz), [...]

This Vorobyov had been an anarchist btw.

Noa Rodman
Mar 13 2018 22:22

A bit more about the situation here: https://altyn73.livejournal.com/430574.html

Detachment of Lieutenant Colonel V.O. Kappel launched an offensive against Sviyazhsk, where the headquarters of the Red Eastern Front had fled from Kazan. From there it was a stone's throw to Nizhny Novgorod.
Discontent was ripening in the city. The population, mostly philistine bourgeois, was following with hope the news from the front. Fermentation swept also over factories, primarily Sormovsky. Lenin sent a telegram to Nizhny Novgorod on August 8 with the demand to "form the three dictators" and "to bring mass terror". On August 10, at 9 pm, an extraordinary organ, the Military Revolutionary Committee, was formed at a meeting in the former governor's house, renamed the Palace of Freedom. It included G.F. Fedorov, L.M. Kaganovich, I.S. Shelekhes (all emissaries of the center), Ya.Z. Vorobyov, I.L. Kogan, S.A. Akimov. At the following meetings, the views of Lenin and Sverdlov were announced on the "softness" of the Nizhni-Novgordians. Gubchek was ordered to "take decisive action." We set out to call a detachment of 400 bayonets from Ivanovo-Voznesensk, the arrests of officers. Since August 13, the population was banned from appearing in the streets after 22 hours. The most active at the meetings of the military commissar are Kogan, Kaganovich, Vorobyov.

Vorobyov pictured:

(The Makhno site says about him: One of the organizers of the "Belotserkovsky group of anarchist-communists" (Белоцерковской группы анархистов-коммунистов), a militant. He was arrested three times in 1904-1906, served about a year in prison and 2 years of exile. In 1908 he moved in the RSDLP, worked in the Bolshevik organizations of Odessa and Nizhny Novgorod, was arrested in 1911 ...)

Gubchek received a carte blanche. There began raids, searches, arrests. The prisons were filled with former police officers, officers, officials, traders and industrialists. The press began publishing Gubchek's reports on executions. The newspaper "Workers 'Peasants' Nizhny Novgorod Sheet" reported on August 16 about the shooting of six "counterrevolutionaries", including Ivan Petrovich Mazurin, former head of the gendarmerie and Vasiliy Mikhailnikov, commander of the 10th Grenadier Regiment, both rehabilitated in 2011. However most of the executions were carried out behind the scenes. In August 1918, the staff of the NGChK consisted of: Vorobyov, Deputy Stromberg, Khakharev as secretary, Volodymyr Busse, commander of the flying detachment, members of the board, officers, inspectors, searchers, investigators, commandants - Barr, Boitman, Bredis, Karr, Krippen, Lelapsh , Marcus, Matushon, Movchan, Reinberg, Taurin, the brothers Shepte.

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Attempts on Uritsky and Lenin, which happened on August 30, [...]
The Nizhny Novgorod Cheka responded to these bloodthirsty calls with a mass execution of at least 17 people, performed on the night of August 31st, September 1, on the Mochalniy Island of the Volga. Together with the victims of extrajudicial executions of the end of August, they compiled a list of 41 hostages - the victims of the Red Terror, which was printed in the newspaper Raboche-peasant Nizhny Novgorod leaf dated September 1. "For every communist killed or for attempted murder," the Bolshevik shout announced, "we will respond with the execution of the hostages of the bourgeoisie." In the following days, a wave of massacres swept across the province. Arrests and executions were conducted mainly on a class basis.

Victims of the shooting in Nizhny Novgorod 09/01/1918
Augustine - Archimandrite, Orlovsky NV - Protopriest, Chernov M.M. - Major-General, Mordvinov M.I. - Colonel, Kondratiev NL - Colonel, Boglachev P.V. - Colonel, Guernik AK - Colonel, Kraus AA - Colonel, Desyatov AV - Lieutenant-Colonel, Zhadovsky BM - Captain-Captain, Konstantin Lusinov - Staff Captain, Gvozdikovsky SP - Staff Captain, Kremenetsky NP - police officer, Kazarin (s) I.K. - Staff Captain, Shatsfayer NA - Lieutenant, Belov IA - officer, Kuznetsov A.V. - of., Grebenshchikov NP. - of., Grebenshchikov IN - of., Gorodetsky TS - ensign, Lyalkin N.I. - Ensign, Myazdrykov G.P. - military official, Vilkov K.I. - Police officer, Kolesov A.S. - Bailiff, Haritin AI - Officer, Gillo N.L. - Chief of Police, Rozhdestvensky FA - pom. police chief, Spassky K.I. - beginning. the arrest house in Balakhna, Troitsky, MK. - police sergeant, Kuklev AS - sergeant, Vlasyev VI - police guard, Yazykov AA - guard, Toporkov (Toporikov) - with Czechoslov. front, Safronov IP - A policeman, Terebin V.М. - capitalist, Vagin G.A. - capitalist, Pribryukhov M.I. - the capitalist, Dyachkov AM - capitalist, Obozov NP - Forester, Kuznetsov N.V., Vasiliev G.N. - A journalist. All rehabilitated in 2009.

The peak of terror unleashed by the Communists took place in September 1918. In the Nizhny Novgorod province there were no white governments, no white terror. Nevertheless, its inhabitants have more than ever known the delights of the so-called workers 'and peasants' power. Mass raids, arrests that began in August, continued at an increasing pace. Prisoners of the internal prison of Gubchek or common places of confinement were officers, policemen, officials, clergymen, the bourgeoisie, in a word, the most educated, able-bodied and socially-active stratum.

Dissatisfaction, handed over by word of mouth rumor, censure of power for citizens accustomed to freedom of speech in the tsarist and, especially, revolutionary time, resulted in deprivation of liberty and, often, execution. In the report of Gubchek, after summarizing the number of executions in Nizhny Novgorod for September, it is reported that "in the sphere of the bourgeois-philistine population, these mass shootings caused an almost open murmur, but the rapid arrest of a huge number of such grumbling people just as quickly compelled all others to remain silent and accept the fait accompli fact ".
Over a month, 900 people were arrested in 1469 searches, although, as we know, mass arrests began in the first decade of August. There was a real panic, in fear for life, people left the city, throwing homes and property. It is obvious that the terror was directed not only and not so much against those who really fought the Bolshevik regime, but against the peaceful population - dissenters, murmuring and often those who had the misfortune of being an officer, priest or merchant.
Prisons were overcrowded and a concentration camp was hastily equipped for the flow of prisoners. In the same Gubchek report for October, it was reported: "In the concentration camp by October, up to 600 prisoners were concentrated." The prisoners were both Nizhny Novgorod residents and residents of the districts, arrested by local emergency forces. A significant part of them were hostages. In the list of prisoners of the Semenovskaya Uyezd prison, subject to transfer to the disposal of Gubchek, are: Babushkin AI. - monarchist, Galanin P.V. - for agitation, Zuev N.V. - Cadet (and a member of the State Duma - Author), Kiselev II, Lyubimov SM - for his speech in the press, Maslennikov IN, Nosov FA, Pirozhnikov AV and SV, two of Prudovsky, N.K. and P.N. Smirnov NP, Shlyapnikov II - hostage to the bourgeoisie, Sacek M.S. - police officer, Uspensky VI - The former chief of the prison, Polivanov VV, Devel N.V. and Gutiar S.D. - zemstvo chiefs, Albul AA, Rabynin A.Ya., Usevich KI, Uspensky NV, - "for propaganda as former officers".

Anyone from the list could become a candidate for execution. A notice of the execution of a resident of the village of Bor, Lieutenant Constantine Usevich, was published in the newspaper Raboche-peasant Nizhny Novgorod leaf dated 21.09.1918. Today this edition serves as the main source of information about the bacchanalia of the red terror raging in the province. Here is an incomplete chronicle of executions: September 1 - shooting of the 41st at Mochalny, and on page 4 - about the execution of the Pavlovsky Cheka of the priest Znamensky; September 4 - a report on the shooting of the Rastyapinsky Cheka on the night of September 3, the bailiff Dobrotvorsky IA, gendarme Romanychev SG, and the bourgeois Zemskov MV and Kolova KI; September 7 - shooting Sergachskoy UCHC hostages of the bourgeoisie archpriest Nikolsky NN, noblewoman Olga Priklonskaya, student Rudnevsky NN, ensign IG Rybakov, merchant Fertman LM; September 8 - shooting Pavlovsky UCHK schoolboy Samoilov AI, the priest Sigrian MF. and "bourgeois" Vorontsov NM, Lyubimova EP, Pidkladkina PI, Sankina M.I. and N. Shatchinina.

Battlescarred
Mar 13 2018 22:21

"Had been " an anarchist but became a Bolshevik in 1908. What the fuck are you trying to prove here, Noa?. I thought you were an intelligent person, but you're just making a fool of yourself here.

Noa Rodman
Mar 13 2018 22:25

It is just by the way, not that it matters.