site notes

Detailed information about, the aims of the site, how it's organised, how you can help out and more.

Submitted by libcom on September 2, 2006


This website is built and maintained purely by volunteers and costs are paid for out of our own pockets. If you like what you find here and want to see the project continue to grow please consider donating.

Submitted by libcom on September 28, 2006

The money you donate will be used to keep the site in working order (paying bandwidth costs etc.). As our traffic continues to grow, our hosting costs continue to grow so please do consider making a donation to enable us to continue our work. You can do so in the following ways:

Become a supporter

If you can spare any cash to help us out please support us on patreon here:

While you shop
We are not encouraging you to do so - and readers should be aware that there have been attempts to organise boycotts of Amazon to push them to pay a living wage - but if you do shop online with Amazon anyway we can earn a small cut of what you pay for your shopping. This is at no extra cost for you. All you have to do is use this link to enter Amazon when you plan to buy.?

Bank Transfer
Direct debit/standing order/bank transfer - please email us for our details.

Cheque by post
You can post us a cheque, email us for our details.

Many thanks to everyone who has donated so far - you are helping this site become a better place!

Site history

A quick rundown of's website history.

Submitted by libcom on February 29, 2012

v.5 – March 2022 – A big upgrade of the Drupal infrastructure, the fixing of numerous serious and long-running problems with the site, a responsive design and a simplified, slimmed-down structure.
v.4.2 - July 2012 - A complete overhaul of the look of the site, and new features like social sharing of articles.
v.4.1 - March 2007 - A major upgrade of the Drupal infrastructure for the site and a new look.
v.4 - Summer 2006 - We went web2.0, the entire site is ported into Drupal giving greater control and interactivity.
v.3 - May 2005 - we renamed the site and added new sections (library) as well as updating old content.
v.2 - May 2004 - the re-design, dumping the dull grey and going for a more accessible, easy-read site adding the history section.
v.1 - September 2003 - our public launch, when we adopted a grey/white format and hit the world with our ideas and the project.
v.0 - October 2002 - is founded: a personal site hosting a couple of texts and some pictures.

content guidelines

Guidelines for content published on including what kind of content we want, where different types of articles should go and how to format and layout articles.

Submitted by libcom on September 2, 2006

If you do not yet have permissions to submit content just request it here.

Style guide

Guide to the style and tone of original writing we want on, particularly with regard to news and current of analysis.

Submitted by libcom on September 2, 2006

The style guide is designed to make our content easier to read and give our website more consistency in our articles across all the different sections. A lot of great material and information in alternative media sources today suffers from simply poor quality production and style, and we aim to try and address that. Compiled with help from Freedom Press, this style guide applies to the news and blog sections of the site, and to the library and history sections where appropriate (i.e. for new writing, as opposed to republishing old content).

This guide may seem large but please do not be put off! The most important thing is that we want content. If you have an article you think would be good on let us have it in whatever form you can. If necessary we can edit it so that it fits our guidelines and any random bits and pieces we may be able to put in our Library. This style guide is included so people know why and how we might be editing any submissions, and for any people who feel they can take these suggestions into account when writing new content.


Different sites have different ways of conveying information. On we decided that the most effective way for us to get our message across is with a uniform tone and general style of writing across the site. The tone we would like to maintain on all sections of the site should have the following characteristics:

  • Serious - avoiding rhetoric and overly emotive language
  • Clear - written using simple English, free from jargon
  • Concise – trying to keep below 2,000 words per article where possible. Longer articles can go in our Library.
  • Outward-looking - i.e. aimed at the intelligent layperson, not at people who are anarchists, activists or libertarian communists already. Not talking down to anyone, but explaining all historical references, specialised vocabulary, etc. and in general trying to address general issues of concern to all.


These are the kinds of articles and writing styles we would like for different parts of the site:


Primarily we are interested in three main things:

While these are our priorities we will publish almost any other news stories provided they fit the aims and ethos of the site with the general exception of the following topics:

  • The left - Leninist groups are a minor irrelevance in society who do not interest anyone. Unless there are exceptional circumstances, let’s not give them any attention they don’t warrant. Example: The Trotskyist Workers’ Alliance publish revisionist paper on North Korea
  • Events or adverts - If you would like to advertise an event or anything else please post a Discussion. Only things or events related to working class struggles or libertarian communism are permitted in this forum. Unrelated adverts or spam will be removed and the posters may be banned.

News reporting guidelines

Be concise
Top of the list because it can't be stressed enough. Anything which is not a direct fact useful to the piece should be removed. Try to stick to a low word count, ideally 250-500 for news articles, 600-1,000 for comment, 1,200-2,000 for in-depth pieces.

News is not comment
Try to limit personal opinion in news articles. Unlike the corporate media we don’t pretend to be objective, but we decided to avoid overly emotive and subjective language - for example “the filthy pigs injured 11 demonstrators” should be “11 demonstrators were injured by police”. News and comment are two separate things, generally please try to treat them separately.

Be contemporary
You could find a great news story a few weeks old, so to make it sound current there are a few tricks you can use. Couch your language in the present - 'Prince Harry has been wearing a nazi uniform' sounds more up to date than 'Prince Harry wore a nazi uniform two weeks ago'.

Answer six questions
Who, Why, What, Where, When, How. Who and what should be the first questions you answer - assume your audience has no prior knowledge of your subject.

Worth a thousand words...
A relevant picture is a great addition to any news story. Please post images along with any story you can, but please do ensure you have copyright permissions to use the image, and include a credit to the photographer or copyright holder.


Any clearly written article with tips on various aspects of collective organising and action, which isn't already covered in our organise section. Ideally fewer than 2,000 words.


In addition to news and comment, we are keen to host any other content which is broadly in line with the aims of the site. In particular we are keen to host old texts, leaflets, articles, books, personal accounts, pamphlets, posters and other artefacts from individuals, groups and past struggles and campaigns.

General notes

In all the sections of the site, please try to take the following suggestions into account:

Use as many sources as possible - The more sources you have, the more reliable, well-rounded and believable your story. Please list your sources in footnotes or in a list at the bottom of your article.

Cross-reference - If you add links in parts of your article to other articles or sections on, please do! Further reading and links for more information at the end are very welcome.

Avoid clichés, rhetoric and slang - Clichés are lazy writing and should only be used if you really can't think of anything else. Lefty rhetoric or slang, such as “Bliar” instead of “Blair” say, should be avoided at all costs since they immediately alienate a large audience and make reading uncomfortable for people outside activist culture. They also make a writer seem unprofessional and childish.

Cut down on capitals - Anarchist, anarcho-syndicalist, communist etc. as well as government and state should all be done without capital letters. Communist with a capital “c” can and should be used if referring to members of USSR-supporting Communist Parties. Try not to use political labels unnecessarily as they break up the reading flow, and may confuse the issue.

Use shorter words - Never use 'achieve' when you can say 'do'. Make sure you don't use words which people might not understand - 'Precarity' for example - unless you absolutely have to, and make sure you explain what it means if you do. If you can, go through the text afterwards to check and explain any word or reference the average person wouldn’t know.

Kropotwho? - Don't use quotations from people not directly involved. This includes dead theoreticians and living philosophers.

CNwhat? - Do not assume in-depth historical or anarchist knowledge, particularly with respect to libertarian groups and historical events. Don’t mention groups, such as the CNT, without referring first to their full name, acronym and brief description – e.g. instead of “CNT”, first write “the National Confederation of Labour (CNT), a Spanish anarchist trade union”. It can then be referred to simply as “CNT” from then on. Don’t refer to historical events in shorthand, like “Kronstadt”, instead say “the grassroots rebellion of workers and sailors against the Bolshevik Russian Government in 1921”, and/or provide a link to a related page on libcom with more information.

Grammar and abbreviations

To keep a standard look and feel across our site, we try to maintain a consistent use of grammar and abbreviations

Capitals - In article and page titles, only the first word should be capitalised. E.g. “US forces invade China”, not “US Forces Invade China”.

Royalty/Religion - All titles should be capped (big first letter) - the Queen, Prince (Charles/William etc.), the Pope. The Archbishop of Canterbury is Dr. Williams. Clergy should be first the Rev. John Brown, then just Rev. Brown after that. E.g. The Rev John Brown denounced Protestantism today as 'a bit silly'. Rev. Brown, a leading figure...

Everybody else - Start off using their full name. After that if it's someone we like, use their first name. If not, use their second name, with the exception of well-known figures, whose most easily recognisable name should be used - e.g. Chomsky rather than Noam. Don't use any decorations or honours.

Full stops - “USA”, not “U.S.A.”. Use “etc.” “e.g.”, and “i.e.” Don't abbreviate: Place names to St, Rd etc. Don't use Mr, Mrs or Ms at all. Don't abbreviate non-name words - “headquarters” shouldn't become “HQ” because it means unnecessary capitals.

Federations - The UK libertarian federations can be abbreviated to SolFed (Solidarity Federation), AF (Anarchist Federation) and IWW (Industrial Workers of the World). Always explain who they are at the beginning of the piece for sake of new readers.

Money/Numbers - Million shortens to m (£1m), billion to bn. Trillion is written as is because it isn't used often. Per cent becomes %. One to nine are written as words, 10 and above as numbers. If counting in euro it should be Eu120. “Euro” should always be in lower case, and “euro” is both singular and plural. Weights and measures always use the shortened version, except metres and miles. For wars, please use capitalising and numbers as follows: World War I/II, or First/Second World War.

Apostrophes - Apostrophes indicate possession or abbreviation. “Its” is the possessive form of it, so like “his” and “her” there is no apostrophe. The only time you need an apostrophe in “its” is when it is an abbreviation for “it is” or “it has” – e.g. “it’s cold” or “it’s got big teeth”. Acronyms do not require apostrophes in the plural form – i.e. “CDs and DVDs”, not “CD’s and DVD’s”

Exclamation marks - No, no, no, no, no! Try to avoid wherever possible. They undermine a serious message.

Hyphens - We use hyphenated political labels. For example, anti-fascist, anarcho-syndicalist, anarchist-communist, etc.

Words and phrases

For terms related to political labels and terminology, particularly related to class, please take a quick look at our introductory guide and try to apply them as we define them there.

Activists – most “activists” aren’t the full-time professional activists that term implies: they’re just normal people, so try to refer to them as such. If they are professional or full-time drop-out activists then please specify. See also Demonstrators and Protestors.

Anarchists believe – Please do not use, because it isn't 'anarchists', it's the writer.

Anti-capitalist – Whatever anti-capitalist movement there was is now mostly dead, and the term has little resonance with anyone any more. Please avoid (see also Anti-anything else, below)

Anti-globalisation – The anti-globalisation movement was very badly named, and deeply flawed at the root of its politics, please try to avoid (see also Anti-anything else, below)

Anti-anything else – Lefties are often seen as “anti”-everything, so please do not fuel that impression by using “anti” excessively

Basically – Avoid. You are already putting it in layman's English, no need to labour the fact.

Bourgeoisie/Bourgeois – Sounds very old-fashioned, out-dated and complex. We prefer to talk of capital as the enemy of the working class, but if it must be used please use modern equivalents possible, or provide a definition if you really must.

Capital - Try to use this term to describe the entity of capitalism which the working class's interests are opposed to, rather than capitalist class, or bourgeoisie, which are a little muddy in terms of definition.

Class – Due to confusion about class on the left and in the general population we try to maintain a uniform usage across the site:

  • Working class: The working class consists of all the people in society who can not get by without selling our time and energy to a boss - by working. I.e. if we do not make large amounts of money from property holdings or owning a business we have to be wage labourers, or in some places in the world rely on state welfare or crime.
  • Capitalist class: The capitalist class consists of those individuals who do not have to work (though they generally do) since they draw enough income from property such as land, housing or businesses/stocks and shares. However when talking of the entity whose interests are opposed to the working class we prefer to talk of capital.
  • Middle class: The middle class does not exist as a distinct economic class, so if you use the term please be as specific as possible with what you mean, i.e. if you are referring to the "cultural middle class", “professionals”, “intellectuals”, “home owners” or “more privileged workers” etc.

Deliberate misspellings such as cos, innit etc. – Just use regular language. Doing otherwise can read as patronising, and it can make things more difficult for non- native English speakers.

Demonstrators – See activists

Fascism/fascist – Only use when referring to actual ideological fascism. Its usage referring to non-fascist phenomena like liberal democratic governments makes the author sound silly.

Middle class – see class

Obviously – Avoid. It's only obvious to you, not to casual readers.

Proletariat - see bourgeoisie

Propaganda - The word "propaganda" is associated with distortion of fact for political gain, usually by dictatorial regimes. When talking of material designed to persuade people of a political idea, please use a different term, such as "outreach material"

Protestors – see activists

Smash – You can’t really smash an abstract concept, so please don’t encourage people to try.

Swearwords – Avoid in news or information articles as it can make the writer look immature, and put readers off.

Unsurprisingly – There is no such thing if you want to write for a mass audience. Avoid.

Working class – See class

This style guide is designed as an addition to large guides like the Guardian’'s, rather than as a comprehensive replacement. The Guardian guide contains large numbers of standardised ways of referring to people, places, companies and concepts and is worth checking out if you ever have anything you’re unsure about.

libcom group, with help from Freedom Press
We encourage other groups, websites and publications to use or adapt this guide if they so desire.

Stavros Eagle

6 years ago

In reply to by

Proletarian and bourgeois are dated terms? This is a concession to bourgeois ideology comrades. ;)

Really though.

Serge Forward

6 years ago

In reply to by

Aye, this is one proletarian who is not amused... nor are my peasant, petit bourgeois and kulak pals. :x


6 years ago

In reply to by

Stavros Eagle

Proletarian and bourgeois are dated terms? This is a concession to bourgeois ideology comrades. ;)

Really though.

when you are talking with your workmates, do you talk about the proletariat and the bourgeoisie?

Serge Forward

6 years ago

In reply to by

For me it depends. More politicised or leftish workmates, yes sometimes. Non-politicised who would be unlikely to ever visit a site like Libcom, no.

Stavros Eagle

6 years ago

In reply to by

would you definitely reject content if it contained those terms?

Chilli Sauce

6 years ago

In reply to by

S.E., I'm not an admin, but I'd imagine the guidelines are a lot less stringent for blogs as opposed to news articles.

That said, I think the above are pretty good rules of thumb for any writing. If you're going to going full 'the inextricably irreconcilable battle between the proletariat and bourgeoisie', I'd probably make sure your introduction makes it clear it's aimed at existing radicals rather than the general public.

As an example, here's an intro from one of my blogs:

Despite being a generally annoying term, the “gig economy” does signify some major shifts in class composition and the strategies of capital. But what should it mean for us as radicals?

Hope that's helpful and not too patronizing!


6 years ago

In reply to by

Stavros Eagle

would you definitely reject content if it contained those terms?

no, definitely not. I mean we've got Marx's Capital on here. It's just a general request if people are writing stuff directly for the site


5 years 3 months ago

In reply to by

I think it's important to talk of proletarian and not worker for the same reason Marx didn't. For Marx the proletariat is not just a worker. The proletarian is he who is (private) propertyless, not he who works. Patronizing fellow workers by claiming they're too dumb to accept certain terms is I think a bad thing. Moreover, if you ever have a proletarian reject the label it has more to do with trying to force it down their throat or your mode of communication is just bad, though this is just from personal experience organizing and being in tenant organizations.

Tags: tagging your articles guide

A short guide to tagging and categorising articles posted to

Submitted by libcom on September 26, 2006

Tags help our users browse content, so please do tag articles that you post.
The most important thing is to tag the name of the author of the article or text in the Author field. For texts with multiple authors, just click Add another item to add other author names.
With author names and all other tags, please start typing the name, and see if the person, word or group shows up as an autocomplete option. This is extremely important, because if tags are not matched, then we can end up with duplicate tags which mean articles cannot be browsed properly, and this is very time-consuming to fix.
Use the most consistent part of a name to look for options. For example, with CLR James, try searching "James", because there could be multiple different ways of writing his name, like "CLR James", "C.L.R. James", "Cyril James" etc. Similarly, for a text by Peter Kropotkin, search for "Kropotkin", as his name could be written "Peter Kropotkin", "Petr Kropotkin", "Pyotr Kropotkin" etc.
For organisation names, use the full name of the organisation, in the primary language of the organisation, in Roman characters. Then, if the organisation is well-known by an acronym, the acronym is then included in brackets.
E.g.: Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT), Nihon Rōdō Sodomei etc.

For general tags, please try to include the following tags, again ensuring to search to match with existing tags. Multiple tags should be separated with commas:

  • The name of the current nationstate/s the story is about.
  • The city the story in, if it's a big city or US state
  • If it's about a big company, the name of the company, e.g. Ford, Amazon, etc
  • If it's a strike add the tags strikes, if wildcat add wildcat strikes, if general general strikes
  • If it's an interview, add interviews, if a review add reviews
  • If the article is related to race or racism add racism , women or feminism add women.
  • Any other good keywords you can think of, like: riots, environment, demonstrations, but only ones which have already been used, and so appear as options when you start typing.
  • If in doubt, leave it blank - an admin can always fill in the tag information later. And it is much easier to fill in new tags rather than spend time deleting incorrect ones.
  • Article editing guide

    Information and guidance on how and why you should edit articles on

    Submitted by Steven. on December 15, 2009

    You may have noticed that, depending on your permissions on the site, most articles on have an "edit" button above them.

    This is so that our users can help us improve the site, and fix any errors.

    To edit in article, just click edit, then make the required changes, in the revisions information box enter the information about what you have changed, for example "fixed typos" and click "save". Your edits will then go into a moderation queue, to be approved by administrators.

    Here is some quick guidance on the type of edits which we hope people will make, and which can improve the site and its utility to our users.

    - fixing typos
    - fixing errors in the text, for example if some text is missing, or if it is a scanned text with some mistakes in it and you have a copy of the original text so that you can correct them. If there is an error in the text, such as a date or place is wrong then it may or may not be appropriate to just fix it directly. Example, if it is an old historical text and the original author made a mistake then it would be more appropriate to add a footnote explaining that the error is in the original. However, for news articles these can just be corrected. Ask in the comment section below the article if you are not sure.
    - adding images. If the text does not have an image attached to it, please feel free to add an appropriate one. Or attach and add images throughout the text if you have the time.
    - adding hyperlinks to other content on This is something we would really appreciate. If a reference in one article is made to an individual, event, country, organisation or whatever else that we have content elsewhere on, please turn the relevant words into a hyperlink to the relevant page. If there is a tag for the keyword then that would be the best page to direct people to. For example:

    Maria fought in the Durruti Column (named after Buenaventura Durruti) in the Spanish civil war...

    Ideally this would be edited to:

    Maria fought in the Durruti Column (named after Buenaventura Durruti ) in the Spanish civil war...

    - editing articles to match our style guide. If any articles or badly formatted, or don't match our style guide please feel free to fix them up and make them look nice.
    - entering new style footnotes. Any footnotes written with text like [1] please feel free to replace them with the new style nicely formatted footnotes like this1 .
    - entering PDF documents as text. We have quite a few PDF documents in our library, many of them are here. However, we much prefer to have documents in text format on our site. This means we can add links between articles, and also articles are easier to search for on libcom and from Google. So if you have the time to copy the text from PDF documents and paste them up in the body field of their existing article pages it would be very much appreciated. You can leave the original PDF attached to the article.

    Many thanks for any help you give us - and any questions please feel free to e-mail us or ask in feedback and content forum.

    • 1 Footnote text here


    10 years 5 months ago

    In reply to by

    Eyewitness from the anarchist movement in Russia - public meetings in Ireland

    The Irish segments of a European speaking tour with an Anarchist from Moscow who will talk about the anarchist movement in Russia, its successes and failures. Antti Rautiainen lived in Moscow for 13 years, participating in anarchist activities. His residence permit was revoked in March of this year, allegedly because he "called for a violent overthrow of constitutional order, or otherwise endangered the safety of Russian Federation or its citizens". He is member of Autonomous Action and the Anarchist Black Cross of Moscow.

    The anarchist movement in Moscow has faced huge challenges in this period, we strongly encourage you to come along and hear Antti's first hand account of these experiences.

    In Cork on Sat July 7th, 5pm at Solidarity Books, Douglas St.

    In Dublin on Sun, July 8th, 4pm at Seomra Spraoi, 10 Bevedere court D1

    In Belfast on Tue, July 10th, 7pm at Na Croisbhealai Workers Co-op cafe

    and Derry on Wed, July 11th, 7pm Castlebar Waterloo street

    Online article tools

    Links to helpful online tools for assisting with putting together articles and content for

    Submitted by Steven. on November 8, 2012
    • LibreOffice Draw: Enables you to edit PDF files.
    • FWO Formatter: A tool for getting rid of excess of line breaks in your text.
    • HTML table generator: This handy page generates the HTML code for tables, so you don't have to.
    • Rotate PDF: Enables you to rotate PDF documents and save them in the same format.
    • Merge PDF: Enables you to merge multiple PDF documents into one.
    • Split PDF: Enables you to split PDF documents into multiple, smaller ones.
    • Compress PDF: Enables you to compress large PDF files into high-quality, much smaller file sizes so they can be uploaded.
    • 2epub: Enables you to turn text, doc and other files into e-book formats like mobi and epub.
    • Cute PDF editor: Advanced PDF editor allowing you to do many of the things in the above websites, with additional features like inserting additional pages, cropping and resizing pages.
    • Online HTML Editor: Enables you to simultaneously edit text and HTML. For example, if you see an article that you like, and want to post it on libcom, you can right-click on the webpage of the article and select view page source, copy the sections of the code that contain the article+its references, and paste it in the right-hand box of the HTML editor. Then edit it in the left-hand box, and as you edit it the HTML in the right-hand box will change. After you've finished editing it, copy the HTML code in the right-hand box and paste it in the libcom article 'Body' box. Underneath the 'Body' box, change the Input format to HTML no line breaks.

    If there are any other tools which could help libcom contributors please post them below and we can incorporate them into this list!

    klas batalo

    10 years ago

    In reply to by

    thanks! gonna be very useful!


    10 years ago

    In reply to by

    Wojtek, thought you might like the merge PDF one! If you fancied merging some of the PDFs of your library submissions that would be really cool, if you had time…


    10 years ago

    In reply to by

    On a related note, does anyone know a good online OCR tool? That would be something we could add in here


    9 years 5 months ago

    In reply to by

    The "more like this" is showing as Array. :(


    6 years ago

    In reply to by

    Reminder to myself to add these: and


    4 years 2 months ago

    In reply to by

    Cool. Not seen this before

    jef costello

    4 years 2 months ago

    In reply to by

    The LibeOffice suite is pretty good and all of its programs can export files as pdfs.

    We might need some epub tools now, I use calibre, but that's just for reading books on a kindle or a phone.


    cutepdf I get an out of date Java warning, not sure if it still works.

    FWOformatter and 2epub don't seem to be working any more either.

    Comments: posting guidelines

    10 simple rules for posting comments and discussions on

    Submitted by Jacques Roux on October 29, 2006

    1. Be clear
    2. Play the ball, not the person
    3. Cyber-bullying
    4. No trolling, no sock-puppeting
    5. Don't post up large 'copy and pastes'
    6. Spamming/direct linking
    7. No adverts
    8. Have a look at these tools which may come in handy for the forum
    9. Moderation policy
    10. Overview & legal bit

    Be clear
    Post comments and discussions in the appropriate place. Give relevant, precise titles, don't capitalise every letter ("LOOK @ TH1S!!" - is not acceptable). Give meaningful post content which gives people something to discuss - relevant? coherent? formatted?

    Play the ball, not the person
    The internet is not as far removed from real life as you'd like it to be. People are real, have real feelings and thoughts. Do not abuse people because of their ideas and beliefs for no reason. Be aware that not everyone has read as much Bakunin as you. Be nice to new posters and people developing their ideas. Any kind of oppressive, sexist, racist, transphobic, unreasonable personal abuse, discrimination etc. is not allowed and threads will be removed and offenders banned. Please respect people's privacy and refrain from posting up personal details without their permission. Untrue smears against other site users or related individuals or organisations are not permitted.

    Cyber-bullying/harassment is not tolerated on It may also include threats, sexual remarks, pejorative labels, ganging up by making them the subject of ridicule in forums, and posting false statements as fact aimed at humiliation or defamation. Cyber-bullies may disclose victims' personal data (e.g. real name, address, or workplace/schools, photos) or may pose as the identity of a victim for the purpose of publishing material in their name that defames or ridicules them. Some cyber-bullies may also send threatening and harassing messages to the victims, while other post rumours or gossip and instigate others to dislike and gang up on the target. Please report any cyber-bullying to the admins via the contact form.

    No trolling, no sock-puppeting
    From Wikipedia: "a troll is someone who posts inflammatory, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community with the primary intent of provoking other users into a desired emotional response or of otherwise disrupting normal on-topic discussion." Trolling is not allowed, and may lead to posts being deleted, users warned and persistent offenders banned. Sock-puppetting is setting up multiple accounts to agree with yourself, to create a false impression that more people are expressing a certain view, to try and evade an account ban, or to make posts the perpetrator doesn’t want associated with their ‘real’ pseudonym. Sock-puppetting is not allowed, and may lead to all associated accounts being banned. Multiple accounts are allowed in some circumstances, e.g. a shared account to upload library articles from a group or publication, or to maintain a collaborative blog. If in doubt, ask in the feedback forum.

    Copy and pastes
    Do not post up large chunks of cut and paste text in Discussions, but make things easier for others by summarising the article and including a link to the unabridged version. If your text is not available elsewhere online you need to find somewhere to host it, perhaps you could post it to if it is relevant, otherwise use one of these sites to paste the article in then use the link to it - (free registration), (free registration) or (no registration required). Post a comment on your summary in order to arouse interest in discussion around the article. What is a long piece of text? Think - would anyone be prepared to sit and read it in the context of a discussion on our website?

    Spamming/direct linking
    Flooding the boards with links to your site is considered spamming. If you want to link to a relevant article provide a short summary or quote to describe what's contained in the link. This will help readers know if it's relevant and moderators to distinguish it from spam. Do not directly link to 'hostile' websites (leave gaps in the URL if you wish to refer to them or prefix the URL with Anyone found posting up malicious links on other sites and/or trying to stir up 'board wars' will be banned.

    Any form of commercial or personal advertisements will be removed and the poster dealt with. Relevant adverts should be posted as a Discussion. This is for discussion, not a free advertising resource and offenders will be warned and then banned. Signature files/avatars are disabled and putting in links to your own website with every post isn't permitted either: we want to hear your opinions, not see the same link with every post!

    Useful forum tools
    All tools are free and nothing to do with, where free registration is required look for the [R].
    - - upload any kind of files publicly and link to them from the forum [R].
    - - upload, resize and link to images.
    - - upload long text files (articles, pamphlets) here for referencing on the forums [R].
    - - turn long web addresses into short ones, or just use the URL button above the comment box.

    Moderation policy
    Ordinarily we have a policy of one discussion thread per topic. Duplicate threads may be locked, with a link given to the main discussion. If your thread or post goes against any of these guidelines it is likely to end up in the bin, unpublished (hidden from non-admins) or deleted. Infringement may lead to a temporary ban (typically 72 hrs), or in serious cases and/or serial infringement a permanent ban. Abuse of the report function, e.g. mass reporting posts which don't breach the site guidelines will result in a ban. You have been warned. Old threads may be deleted without warning. PLEASE MAKE COPIES OF THREADS IMPORTANT TO YOU.

    If your post is moderated or you are banned, an explanation should be edited into the post or posted on the thread. You should first check these posting guidelines if you have any questions. Failing that, you can start a discussion, or if banned, use the contact form to contact the admins. Querying moderation decisions on-thread derails discussions and such posts are likely to be removed. Repeatedly doing so will attract further moderation up to and including a ban. Please only query moderation decisions, using a fresh Discussion, if they do not appear to conform to this policy, not just because you don't agree with them. Reposting anything that has already been edited or removed by admins will usually result in an immediate ban.

    Overview & legal bit
    Please remember we run this website out of our own time and money. Please respect the site and comments section and people putting effort into them. This is not a haven of free speech for some wackos with weird ideas, we have clear aims and ideas about what we are trying to encourage with this project and will strive to maintain those ideas. Posts represent the views of the respective posters, we do not take any responsibility for the contents of posts and cannot be held responsible for any information in a post or any actions and events resulting from information within posts. All opinions stated on the forums or in comments are those of the individual authors and are not the responsibility of

    And finally...
    Watch this.

    Last revised March 2022.

    help out!

    Like what we do? Want to help out? Here are some easy ways to lend a hand with

    Submitted by libcom on September 2, 2006

    If you like what we do and think that is a worthwhile project, we’d love you to help us out. The site is maintained and funded entirely by volunteers. As such we appreciate any assistance anyone can give.

    We could do with some help in the following areas, and if you think you can do anything within these areas or any others (even its just suggestions), please get in touch via our contact form.


    Spreading the word about the site is always appreciated. Liking or tweeting our content, or sharing it on other social media websites like Twitter, Facebook and Reddit is great, as is linking to or to particular section/articles from your own website, blog etc.

    We also encourage people to add links to our content on relevant pages on online discussion forums, newspaper comment sections and editable websites. For instance, hosts many historical texts that can be used as evidence citations for assertions made on various Wikipedia pages or listed in the external links sections. We do not encourage spamming, but only relevant placement where it might enrich content or discussions.


    This is always useful, as we need money to pay our host, and also pay for advertising like leaflets etc. With our upgrade our hosting costs have increased 20-fold, so donations are especially appreciated. You can donate to us here.


    We aren't super geeks. We are always looking for people to help us with technical tasks, or even just advise us on stuff we don't understand. So if you have technological wizardry, please let us know how you can help or ask us for more info.

    Mirroring content

    Websites can go offline unannounced anytime, so if you can have articles from our site up on yours (with a reference link to us too) then that can help assure that the information will always be available. Also if you would be able to mirror our entire site please contact us.


    Please feel free to register on the site, and post any comments to Articles or Discussions which interest you, even if it's just to thank the author for posting up a text which you have enjoyed. Discussions can also be used to talk about issues which affect you, or about prominent news stories of the day. relies upon a community of posters to maintain its social nature: without active users it could not function.

    We especially welcome people with workplace disputes with their employers who might like advice on how to proceed with overcoming them, or to share how they overcame their specific issue. However, take care to protect your real life identity.


    If you spot any errors on our site, like typos or wrong dates, or if you see an article which could be formatted better or have additional hyperlinks to related texts please edit it. See our guidelines on editing articles. We would also like people to add relevant images to any articles that lack them. Edits then go in to a moderation queue. If you don't feel confident editing directly, post a comment to let us know about the error.

    Submit content

    The more quality information the site holds, the better a resource it is. You can help with the content of the site in two ways – either whenever you have a spare moment or by becoming a regular contributor. We are happy for any and all contributions. However, for interested parties we do have a style guide with information about the main kind of content, focus and tone we are aiming for.

    We particularly desire articles written from a libertarian class struggle perspective of between 400 and 2,000 words about news, current events and history. Have a browse through our site for important ideas which are missing or pages which could be improved on. Please also feel free to write and submit your own news to our site, post up interesting stories you have found elsewhere, or scan texts which you have access to. For any interesting articles you have which don’t look like they fit anywhere, there’s always our library.

    If you want to and have the time, you can become one of our contributors. Contributors have access to additional site functions, and can take responsibility for several different area0:

    News – write, find, edit and submit news regularly to keep it up-to-date and provide a quality resource for libertarian news and analysis. Adopt-A-source - if you help out with, or particularly like one publication or website you can take responsibility for posting all relevant news from it to our site.

    Topics – adopt a feature - if there is a particular topic you are interested in, such as the environment, say, you can regularly contribute content on that topic.

    Library – become a libcom librarian! Find obscure or interesting articles, books and documents and make them available to all. We have a wish list of sites we want to archive here, take a quick look and if you have 10 minutes here or there, post an article across.

    History - we have a list of topics we need history articles about here. So please have a look and you can either post existing articles to the history section, or maybe take some time to write one yourself.

    Anything else – if you want to help out with any other sections on a regular basis email us and we can sort something out.

    We are always looking to expand our pool of libcom bloggers. If you would like to blog on and at least semi-regular basis please request a blog here. You can also set up a libcom blog to duplicate your existing blog.

    Different formats
    Ideally we would like all of our articles as formatted text, as well as in printable and on-screen PDF formats and mobi and epub format for e-readers.

    So help OCRing PDF documents in the library into text, as well as help turning text documents into PDF, mobi and epub formats is very much appreciated. You can download OCR software online (often you get free trials, for example with Trapeze).

    You can just click to edit articles to upload the new formats. If you want to do this on a regular basis let us know so we can increase your permissions to speed up the process.

    Scanning new materials

    If you have a scanner, any help scanning new documents for the library would be great (if you don't have one, you can just use your smartphone, and an app). Or if you have old leaflets/pamphlets/books you no longer need you can donate them to us so we can scan them and put them online. So please get in touch.

    Art and design

    If you have artistic or design skills, and would like to help out with our site, we would love to hear from you. Please send us an e-mail.


    10 years 1 month ago

    In reply to by

    warm greeting to all staff and editorial of libcom

    Soory to botehr you, can you please put pdf and print buttong on each article or post so that we can print it a later we read it in our home?

    :-) lot of thanks and more power.



    9 years 10 months ago

    In reply to by

    Bump: updated


    8 years 1 month ago

    In reply to by

    I Would LOVE to help out :)


    6 years 5 months ago

    In reply to by

    I try to help with publicity as I have been telling many people about this wonderful site. I myself found out about it from my friend/roommate who used to be a poster here.
    May thanks to the admin.


    6 years 5 months ago

    In reply to by



    6 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by

    still trying to figure out how to submit content. I can't figure out how to transfer a scanned to the new content page.


    6 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by


    still trying to figure out how to submit content. I can't figure out how to transfer a scanned to the new content page.

    if you click submit content, above, then library you will get the form for a new article. If it is a scan like a PDF, you can upload it by scrolling down to the File Attachments section, click that, browse to the relevant file on your computer and click upload


    6 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by

    Thanks for the reply. I tried that, so there's something on my end then
    Shall work it out

    jef costello

    6 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by


    Thanks for the reply. I tried that, so there's something on my end then
    Shall work it out

    Is it larger than 16mb? Scans that haven't been converted into text via an ocr reader are often huge.


    8 months 4 weeks ago

    In reply to by

    I regularly repost Libcom stuff. Great resource.

    legal notes

    Legal and copyright notes on

    Submitted by libcom on September 26, 2006

    All published content residing on is for informational purposes only. takes no responsibility for how anyone may use the information found on this website.

    Privacy respects our users' privacy and will not release any information on users under regular circumstances. We track visits with log files. uses this information only to determine which pages are the most popular and least popular, and to detect any problems with the site. will not pass on any information collected from our users to a third party.

    Copyright is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License. If you find material published on for which you or your organisation owns the copyright and is not licensed to publish this material, please contact us with the URL in question and we will remove the content in question.

    Comments posted represent the views of the respective posters. does not take any responsibility for the contents of Discussion posts and comments and cannot be held responsible for the content of any post. Nor are we responsible for any actions or events discussed or advertised on the forums.

    Articles is primarily an online archive. Texts, articles, leaflets and so on are reproduced for information only, are not the responsibility of and we do not necessarily support or condone the views expressed in these texts.

    Third party links contains links to many third party sites. Access to any other internet site linked to this web site is at the user's own risk and we not responsible for the accuracy or reliability of any information, data, opinions, advice or statements made on these sites. provides these links merely as a convenience and the inclusion of such links does not imply an endorsement.

    site user guide

    A guide to finding what you want on libcom, and navigating the site.

    Submitted by Jacques Roux on September 28, 2006

    There are many of ways to find what you are looking for on

    Generally speaking the majority of site content can be found in the main sections which are listed in the dark grey bar at the top of the page. These are explained in detail in our guide to our sections.

    Information about the site can be found in notes, linked from the footer.

    Information about you (if you have registered) is under 'My account'.

    Other useful tools are our categories, which include regions, sectors and tags. You can read more about these in our categories guide.

    Perhaps most usefully, you can use the search box at the top-right of the page, or why not install our Firefox search plug-in so you can search direct from your browser. You can also search from here.

    How to use the libcom library

    The libcom library contains over 10,000 articles. If it's your first time on the site, or you're looking for something specific, it can be difficult to know where to start. Luckily, there's a range of ways you can filter the library content to suit your needs, from casual browsing to researching a particular topic.

    Submitted by Joseph Kay on November 14, 2010

    Casual browsing

    Every article is tagged with relevant keywords. Clicking on these will take you to a chronological list of all the content with that keyword, with the most recent at the top. So if you're reading a biographical article and click on the 'biographies' tag, you'll be taken to a list of all the biographical content on libcom.

    Beneath each article there is also a list of five related articles under the heading 'More like this'. This is based on all the tags on the article, comparing them with other articles. It's a great first port of call if you're looking for something similar to what you've just read. And of course any article you click through to will also have its own 'more like this' recommendations.

    The library index

    The starting page for navigating the library is the library index. This page shows a chronological list of the latest library content, with the most recently added at the top. At the top right of the site is a search bar, which can be used to search the library (once your results come up, you can filter by 'library' using the controls in the right hand column). But also, you'll notice five other tabs, which contain powerful ways to search the library content.

    Authors, people and groups
    The authors tab, as the name suggests, allows you to search through the library by author. This includes individual authors and groups. Articles are also labelled with authors if they are about the person or group, as well as if they were written by them. This is very helpful if you know what you're looking for, or even for casual browsing keeping an eye out for interesting-sounding groups or names you recognise. The first thing you'll see is a short list of featured authors, but if you click on 'index' you can navigate an A-Z list of all the authors in the libcom library.

    The sectors tab allows you to navigate content by industrial sector. If you're looking for content on a particular industry, this is a great place to start.

    The tags tab contains a list of featured tags, and clicking on 'index' opens up an A-Z index of all the tags on the site. If you're looking for something specific, this is a good way to narrow down your results.

    The map tab does what it says on the tin: all library content is overlaid onto an interactive Google map. The box above allows you to filter the content by tag, so for example entering 'strikes' would show all the library content about strikes on the map.

    Finally, the bookmarked tab shows popular content that other users have bookmarked. You can bookmark library articles yourself by clicking the 'bookmark this' link at the bottom of each article. You can find your bookmarked articles via the 'my account' link on the menu at the top of every page.

    We hope you find this guide useful. Any comments, questions or feedback can be posted in the feedback forum. The libcom library is an ever-expanding resource and we're keen to make it as useful and accessible as possible.

    Using e-book readers or kindles with

    A guide for making the most of for users who own e-book readers/kindles/tablet computers etc.

    Submitted by Steven. on February 11, 2012

    E-readers or kindles can be a great way of reading, especially long texts, off-line.

    Some of our articles are already in e-book formats suitable for e-readers. Check out our PDFs, epub and mobi file archives.

    It is easy to put articles and texts from onto your e-book reader, by following these 3 simple steps.

    1a. Simply copy the text in your internet browser (such as Internet Explorer or Google Chrome) from the article title to the end, and paste it into a blank document in a word processor program, such as Microsoft Word.

    1b. For PDF files go straight to step 2.

    2. Save the document to your computer.

    3. Upload the document to a free e-book reader conversion website, like (or put it into a free conversion program like Calibre) and choose the kind of e-book file you want to turn it into (such as .epub or .mobi for kindles).


    10 years 9 months ago

    In reply to by

    Calibre is a good progam for convert multiple texts.


    10 years 9 months ago

    In reply to by

    Can you legitimately download that free anywhere? If so we should link to it


    10 years 9 months ago

    In reply to by


    10 years 8 months ago

    In reply to by

    might be worth adding links to pdf and mobi tag achives in the guide above?


    10 years 1 month ago

    In reply to by

    So I recently came across "Push To Kindle", which sends web pages to your kindle with a couple of clicks. It comes as a browser extension for Firefox/Safari/Chrome, an Android app, or a "bookmarklet". I've been using it for a few weeks to grab articles off libcom, and it's pretty sick. Anyway you can get it here:



    10 years 1 month ago

    In reply to by

    That looks great: I'll give it a go

    Agent of the I…

    9 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by

    Just got a Nook HD+ which was on sale for 150 bucks. How do I get my files (mostly pdfs) on it without having to upload it all one by one via Should I put it all in a cloud service like Windows Skydrive?


    9 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by

    Do you have them already on your computer? If so you should just be able to drag and drop them all

    Agent of the I…

    9 years 4 months ago

    In reply to by

    You mean by hooking it to the computer with a usb wire? I haven't tried that yet. Hope stores in the nook memory. I tried skydrive cloud, they were not allowed to transfer to the internal storage. Instead to access them, i have to have be connected to the server all of the time. Which sucks.

    Agent of the I…

    9 years 3 months ago

    In reply to by

    I got it. Doing it through the computer worked.

    Juan Conatz

    9 years 1 month ago

    In reply to by

    Ok, so here's a problem I've been coming across. How do I make footnotes work? I've been taking some longer texts off libcom, copy and pasting them into an Open Office text document, and then converting them to mobi, but the footnotes open up the browser on the Kindle, instead of going to the footnote within the text. Please tell me there's a way to do this that doesn't involve reformatting the entire damn article from scratch...


    9 years 1 month ago

    In reply to by

    Juan Conatz

    Ok, so here's a problem I've been coming across. How do I make footnotes work? I've been taking some longer texts off libcom, copy and pasting them into an Open Office text document, and then converting them to mobi, but the footnotes open up the browser on the Kindle, instead of going to the footnote within the text. Please tell me there's a way to do this that doesn't involve reformatting the entire damn article from scratch...

    Copy and paste the text into a Sigil document (epub file). Switch to code view by double clicking on the tab of the document. CTRL+F -- find and replace, removing the link given on any footnote up to but not including the #. All the footnotes should then work. If they don't, make sure the footnotes have id tags and not name tags.

    Other archives hosted on

    A breakdown of the other websites and online archives which has incorporated over the years.

    Submitted by libcom on December 6, 2009

    Recently, with the deletion of GeoCities and the surprise closure of numerous radical websites, we have absorbed a number of additional online archives, to keep content online and stop it being lost forever.

    Below is a list of the main websites and archives which we have incorporated, with new URLs. If you spot broken links to any of these archives, please inform the websites of the updated addresses:

    Biblioteca Virtual Revolucionária
    Class Against Class (articles from the newer site are also elsewhere in the library)
    Collective Action Notes
    Endpage (Merged completely with
    John Gray For Communism (merged completely)
    Kurasje (contains some documents, others are elsewhere in the libcom library)
    McDonalds Workers Resistance
    No War but the Class War
    Practical History
    Processed World
    Red and Black Notes
    The Red Menace
    Undercurrent (merged completely)
    Wage Slave X

    Our site continues to expand daily, and we appreciate any assistance in posting additional content. We are also happy for any people who run similar websites to duplicate all of their content here, or set up their website using the libcom library, as Aufheben and others have done.

    In accomplishing this task we are extremely grateful to our users who copied content over.


    12 years 11 months ago

    In reply to by

    as mentioned here, here is our wish list of future archives to backup here:


    11 years 11 months ago

    In reply to by

    Bump, as this has now been updated


    10 years 10 months ago

    In reply to by

    Bump, updated in other languages

    Links to the non-English-language content on

    Submitted by libcom on March 1, 2012

    Please feel free to add non-English-language content to the library. If we do not have any content in the language already just contact us or let us know in our feedback forum and we will set up the language. Also, if you are able to translate any of our texts, or translate foreign language texts into English please get in touch.

    Image credit:


    Submitted by Steven. on February 11, 2012

    Access denied! (sorry about that)

    It looks like you've tried to access a page that's only accessible to logged in users or admins.

    Submitted by libcom on May 13, 2007

    If you have already registered you can login now or register (it takes seconds!) and find out what you're missing out on.

    If you got this message for a page that you can normally see, something's probably gone wrong. If that happens, please post in the feedback forum or contact us via e-mail.

    Whoops, something broke

    A proletarian working hard in a factory, with a red and black star tattoo

    Sorry! Looks like this page doesn't live here any more. Try a search.

    Submitted by libcom on October 14, 2006 has been running for several years on a lot of different software, so it's likely the page you want exists, but doesn't live here any more. If you're really trying hard to find a page and it isn't here, contact us.

    If you've been brought to this page from a link on another website, please ask them to update their links.